The role of physical activity in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors: an opinion paper from Italian Society of Cardiology-Emilia Romagna-Marche and SIC-Sport

Regular physical activity is a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to its positive effects in reducing several cardiovascular risk factors. Current guidelines on CVD suggest for healthy adults to perform at least 150 min/week of moderate intensity or 75 min/week of vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity. The current review explores the effects of physical activity on some risk factors, specifically: diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and hyperuricemia. Physical activity induces an improvement in insulin sensitivity and in glucose control independently of weight loss, which may further contribute to ameliorate both diabetes-associated defects. The benefits of adherence to physical activity have recently proven to extend beyond surrogate markers of metabolic syndrome and diabetes by reducing hard endpoints such as mortality. In recent years, obesity has greatly increased in all countries. Weight losses in these patients have been associated with improvements in many cardiometabolic risk factors. Strategies against obesity included caloric restriction, however greater results have been obtained with association of diet and physical activity. Similarly, the beneficial effect of training on blood pressure via its action on sympathetic activity and on other factors such as improvement of endothelial function and reduction of oxidative stress can have played a role in preventing hypertension development in activ...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine - Category: Cardiology Tags: Reviews Source Type: research

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This article reviews the literature on CAN in obesity, pre-DM and MetS, to help determine a rationale for screening, early intervention treatment and formulate future resear ch questions in this highly prevalent condition.
Source: Diabetes Therapy - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
In this study, we determine whether transient reintroduction of embryonic stem cell cycle miR-294 promotes cardiomyocyte cell cycle reentry enhancing cardiac repair after myocardial injury. A doxycycline-inducible AAV9-miR-294 vector was delivered to mice for activating miR-294 in myocytes for 14 days continuously after myocardial infarction. miR-294-treated mice significantly improved left ventricular functions together with decreased infarct size and apoptosis 8 weeks after MI. Myocyte cell cycle reentry increased in miR-294 hearts parallel to increased small myocyte number in the heart. Isolated adult myocytes from miR-...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusion Taken together, evidence from animal and human studies demonstrates that the brain detects levels of circulating nutrients and hormones and consequently organizes an outward response that contributes to the regulation of whole-body glucose homeostasis. However, there are major knowledge gaps about the exact nature of this response and its relative importance compared to peripheral processes. As we have seen, animal studies have provided an anatomical map of CNS glucose regulation and have identified important neurons and neural circuits involved. Additionally, the CNS sensing of key nutrients and hormones has b...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Tobias Dünnwald1†, Hannes Gatterer2†, Martin Faulhaber3, Marjan Arvandi4 and Wolfgang Schobersberger1,5* 1Institute for Sports Medicine, Alpine Medicine &Health Tourism, UMIT – University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, Hall in Tirol, Austria 2Institute of Mountain Emergency Medicine, EURAC Research, Bolzano, Italy 3Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria 4Institute of Public Health, Medical Decision Making and HTA, Department for Public Health, Medical Decision Making and Health Technology Assessment, UMIT – University f...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Vincenzo Tigano1, Giuseppe Lucio Cascini2, Cristina Sanchez-Castañeda3, Patrice Péran4 and Umberto Sabatini5* 1Department of Juridical, Historical, Economic and Social Sciences, University of Magna Graecia, Catanzaro, Italy 2Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Magna Graecia, Catanzaro, Italy 3Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain 4ToNIC, Toulouse NeuroImaging Center, Université de Toulouse, Inserm, UPS, Toulouse, France 5Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Magna Graecia, Catanzaro, Ita...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Authors: Vujnic M, Peric S, Calic Z, Benovic N, Nisic T, Pesovic J, Savic-Pavicevic D, Rakocevic-Stojanovic V Abstract Objectives: metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. Aim of this study was to investigate frequency and features of MetS in a large cohort of patients with DM2. Materials &methods: this cross-sectional study included 47 DM2 patients. Patients were matched with 94 healthy controls (HCs) for gender and age. MetS was diagnosed according to the new worldwide consensus criteria from 2009. Results: mean age of DM2 patients was 52 &plusm...
Source: Acta Myologica - Category: Neurology Tags: Acta Myol Source Type: research
This article discusses the pathogenesis of hypertension in diabetes, including i) how sodium is regulated in diabetes; ii) the influence of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; iii) the role of the autonomic nervous system; iv) mechanisms responsible for diabetic kidney disease and how endothelial dysfunction leads to hypertension; and v) how obesity leads to hypertension and diabetes.
Source: Canadian Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
First, I'd like to thank you Nakajima et al. for discussing the very pertinent relation of skipping breakfast and atrial fibrillation [1]. Breakfast, which contains 20% of the daily energy intake is the very first meal of the day. We all are aware that unhealthy diet is very integral part of cardiometabolic perturbations leading to metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Not only the nutritional quality but eating pattern also has a strong connection with CVD. Prolonged hypoglycemia leads to overactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) causing sympathetic activation validates its t...
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the current knowledge on the relationship of physical activity, exercise, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) based on epidemiological, clinical, and interventional studies.Recent FindingsThe prevalence of CAN increases with age and duration of diabetes. Further risk factors for CAN comprise poor glycemic control, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and the presence of diabetic complications. CAN has been also linked to reduced CRF. We recently showed that CRF parameters (e.g., maximal oxidative capacity or oxidative c...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Authors: Tasic I, Lovic D Abstract Hypertension has  a central role in cardiometabolic disease and is usually associated with  metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Hyperinsulinemia may increase cardiovascular (CV) risk through its promotion of hypertension, which is possibly a result of chronic enhancement of sympathetic nervous system activity, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leading to increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption, modulating cation transport, or inducing vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy. The body mass index value is as...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research
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