High mobility group box-1 mediates hippocampal inflammation and contributes to cognitive deficits in high-fat high-fructose diet-induced obese rats.

High mobility group box-1 mediates hippocampal inflammation and contributes to cognitive deficits in high-fat high-fructose diet-induced obese rats. Brain Behav Immun. 2019 Aug 17;: Authors: Yu M, Huang H, Dong S, Sha H, Wei W, Liu C Abstract High-fat high-sugar diet-induced obesity can lead to hippocampal inflammation and cognitive deficits, but the detailed underlying mechanism is still not clear. We aim to investigate the role of HMGB1 in hippocampal inflammatory responses and cognitive impairment in high-fat high-fructose diet (HFHFD)-induced obesity. Rats were fed with a normal control diet or an HFHFD diet for 14 weeks. In the last 6 weeks on the diets, the rats were treated with control, or an HMGB1 inhibitor glycyrrhizin, or an anti-HMGB1 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (Nakandakari et al.). Obesity was induced in the HFHFD-fed rats, which had higher body weight, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) weight and caloric efficiency, and lower brain / body weight ratio, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity than the ones on normal diets. In the HFHFD-induced obese rats, the HMGB1 levels in plasma and hippocampus were increased, and the nucleus-to-cytoplasm translocation of HMGB1 was promoted. The hippocampal inflammatory responses were enhanced in the HFHFD-induced obesity, including the activation of TLR4 and NF-κB, the production of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6, as well as the activation of microglia and astrocytes. In addition, th...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Behav Immun Source Type: research

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Albiflorin (AF) is a small molecule (MW 481) isolated from Paeoniae radix, a plant used as a remedy for various conditions with pathogenesis shared by metabolic diseases. Reported here is our characterization of its therapeutic profiles in three mouse models with distinctive pathological features of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Our results firstly showed that AF alleviated high fat (HF) induced obesity and associated glucose intolerance, suggesting its therapeutic efficacy for MetS. In the type 2 diabetes (T2D) model induced by a combination of HF and low doses of streptozotocin, AF lowered hyperglycaemia and improved insuli...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionOur results obtained on cell culture models confirm that natural grape compounds protect vascular endothelial cells against inflammatory damage in accordance with the ethnopharmacological use of grape preparations in cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, grape compounds and GSPE, by exerting a beneficial effect on the BBB, may also be considered in the treatment of obesity after validation in clinical trials.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
We examined human lung tissue from COPD patients and normal control subjects, and found a substantial increase in p16-expressing alveolar cells in COPD patients. Using a transgenic mouse deficient for p16, we demonstrated that lungs of mice lacking p16 were structurally and functionally resistant to CS-induced emphysema due to activation of IGF1/Akt regenerative and protective signaling. Fat Tissue Surrounds Skeletal Muscle to Accelerate Atrophy in Aging and Obesity https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/09/fat-tissue-surrounds-skeletal-muscle-to-accelerate-atrophy-in-aging-and-obesity/ Researchers her...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Researchers here show that the fat tissue surrounding skeletal muscle that is observed in older and obese individuals contributes to declining muscle mass and strength. The most compelling evidence arises from transplantation of fat tissue between mice, showing that it produces harmful effects. The researchers further suggest that cellular senescence is an important factor in this process, which dovetails nicely with what is known of the way in which excess visceral fat tissue accelerates aging. The presence of larger than usual amounts of visceral fat increases the number of lingering senescent cells in the body, and sene...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
In this study, we aimed at evaluation the efficacy of the FX in a model of sepsis mouse. Methods: FX was successfully isolated from Conticribra weissflogii ND-8 for the first time. The FX was identified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Animals were randomly divided into 9 groups, including Sham group (mouse received an intraperitoneal injection of normal saline 1.0 mL/kg), FX-treated (0.1–10.0 mg/kg), Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated (20 mg/kg), FX+LPS-treated (0.1–10.0 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
by Teresa Buenaventura, Stavroula Bitsi, William E. Laughlin, Thomas Burgoyne, Zekun Lyu, Affiong I. Oqua, Hannah Norman, Emma R. McGlone, Andrey S. Klymchenko, Ivan R. Corr êa Jr, Abigail Walker, Asuka Inoue, Aylin Hanyaloglu, Jak Grimes, Zsombor Koszegi, Davide Calebiro, Guy A. Rutter, Stephen R. Bloom, Ben Jones, Alejandra Tomas The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), a key pharmacological target in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, undergoes rapid endocytosis after stimulation by endogenous and therapeutic agonists. We have previously highlighted the relevance of this process in fine-tuning GLP-1R respon...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Min Yu, He Huang, Shiyang Dong, Huanhuan Sha, Wei Wei, Cunming LiuAbstractHigh-fat high-sugar diet-induced obesity can lead to hippocampal inflammation and cognitive deficits, but the detailed underlying mechanism is still not clear. We aim to investigate the role of HMGB1 in hippocampal inflammatory responses and cognitive impairment in high-fat high-fructose diet (HFHFD)-induced obesity. Rats were fed with a normal control diet or an HFHFD diet for 14 weeks. In the last 6 weeks on the diets, the rats were treated with control...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Translocation of intestinal bacteria into the blood is implicated in the systemic inflammatory response that occurs after a high fat meal. We showed that after gut microbiota manipulation with vancomycin, the postprandial inflammatory phenotype in lean and obese subjects is unaffected, despite major vancomycin ‐induced disruption of the gut microbiota and increased fasting plasma LPS. This suggests that bacterial translocation may not play a large role in postprandial inflammation. AbstractIntake of a high ‐fat meal induces a systemic inflammatory response in the postprandial which is augmented in obese subjects. Howev...
Source: Physiological Reports - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
Faria AMC Abstract Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota have been associated with development of type 1 diabetes (T1D), but little is known about changes in intestinal homeostasis that contribute to disease pathogenesis. Here, we analyzed oral tolerance induction, components of the intestinal barrier, fecal microbiota, and immune cell phenotypes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice during disease progression compared to non-obese diabetes resistant (NOR) mice. NOD mice failed to develop oral tolerance and had defective protective/regulatory mechanisms in the intestinal mucosa, including de...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research
FNDC5 inhibits foam cell formation and monocyte adhesion in vascular smooth muscle cells via suppressing NFκB-mediated NLRP3 upregulation. Vascul Pharmacol. 2019 Jul 15;:106579 Authors: Zang YH, Chen D, Zhou B, Chen AD, Wang JJ, Gao XY, Chen Q, Li YH, Kang YM, Zhu GQ Abstract Foam cell formation and monocytes adhesion are key events in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are an important origin of foam cells besides macrophages. Fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 (FNDC5) is a protein, which induces browning of fat and attenuates glucose/lipid metab...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research
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