Characterization of an evolutionarily conserved calcitonin signalling system in a lophotrochozoan, the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) RESEARCH ARTICLE

Julie Schwartz, Emilie Realis-Doyelle, Marie-Pierre Dubos, Benjamin Lefranc, Jerome Leprince, and Pascal Favrel In Protostoma, the diuretic hormone 31 (DH31) signalling system was long considered as the orthologue of the chordate calcitonin (CT) signalling system. Using the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) transcriptomic database GigaTON, we characterized seven G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) named Cragi-CTR1–7 and phylogenetically related to chordate CT receptors (CTRs) and to protostome DH31 receptors. Two CT precursors (Cragi-CTP1 and Cragi-CTP2) containing two CT-type peptides and encoded by two distinct genes with a similar organization were also characterized. These oyster neuropeptides (Cragi-CT1/2) exhibit the two N-terminal paired cysteine residues and, except CTP2-derived peptide (Cragi-CTP2dp), show the C-terminal proline-amide motif typical of deuterostome CT-type peptides. All mature Cragi-CTs except Cragi-CTP2dp were detected in visceral ganglion extracts using mass spectrometry. Cell-based assays revealed that the previously characterized oyster receptors Cg-CT-R and Cragi-CTR2 were specifically activated by Cragi-CT1b and Cragi-CT2, respectively. This activation does not require the co-expression of receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). Thus, oyster CT signalling appears functionally more closely related to vertebrate CT/CTR signalling than to calcitonin gene-related peptide/calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CGRP/CLR) signalling. Gene exp...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Related Links:

ConclusionDespite the limitations of a retrospective study, we feel our study adds to the growing evidence base that pulsed radiofrequency treatment adjacent to the cervical dorsal root ganglion has a role in the treatment of chronic cervical radicular pain.
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Multiple innate immune signaling pathways become activated upon skin injury in order to reestablish the antimicrobial barrier and prevent infection. Damage to the skin barrier often elicits pain and/or itch, and leads to activation of the nervous system which communicates intimately with the immune system in a variety of skin inflammatory conditions (Kashem&Kaplan, 2016; Riol-Blanco et al. 2014, Chiu et al. 2013, Ding et al. 2016). Given that sensory dorsal root ganglion neurons express toll-like receptors that sense viral nucleic acids (Chiu et al.
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
Herpes zoster is a dermatologic condition characterized by multiple painful vesicles and ulceration along a dermatome innervated by a dorsal root or sensory ganglion. It is caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) in the setting of stress, infection, illness or an immunosuppressed state. Common complications of herpes zoster include postherpetic neuralgia and bacterial superinfection. If cranial nerves are involved, patients may suffer from ophthalmologic sequelae or meningoencephalitis.
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
Background: Herpes zoster is caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) that normally lies dormant in the dorsal root ganglia. If it involves three or more dermatomes, then it is classified as disseminated zoster. One known complication of this is Ramsay-Hunt, which is a rare disorder involving reactivation of VZV in the geniculate ganglion, which can cause hearing loss, vertigo, and nystagmus. It can be challenging to determine the diagnosis given the multiple dermatomal involvement; however, a thorough examination including the oral mucosa can help to identify the correct diagnosis.
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
Pain is a frequent and disabling symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, the underlying mechanisms of MS-related pain are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that cathepsin E (CatE) in neutrophils contributes to the generation of mechanical allodynia in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS. We showed that CatE-deficient (CatE−/−) mice were highly resistant to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55)-induced mechanical allodynia. After MOG35-55 immunization, neutrophils immediately accumulated in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Adoptive transfer of MOG...
Source: Pain - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Neuropathic pain is frequently driven by ectopic impulse discharge (ectopia) generated in injured peripheral afferent neurons. Observations in the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model in rats suggest that cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) contribute 3 times more to the ectopic barrage than the site of nerve injury (neuroma). The DRG is therefore a prime interventional target for pain control. Since DRG ectopia is selectively suppressed with lidocaine at concentrations too low to block axonal impulse propagation, we asked whether targeted delivery of dilute lidocaine to the L5 DRG can relieve L5 SNL-induced tactile...
Source: Pain - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
This study investigated the existence of the inflammasome in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and the functional significance in the development of inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. Tissue inflammation was induced in male C57BL/6 mice with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or ceramide injection into the hind paw. Behavioral testing was performed to investigate inflammation-induced pain hypersensitivity. Ipsilateral L5 DRGs were obtained for analysis. Expression of nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) was analyzed with real-time PCR. Cleaved interleukin (IL)-1β and NLRP2 expression was investigated with i...
Source: Pain - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Chuandi Zhou, Dawei Luo, Wenwen Xia, Chufeng Gu, Tashi lahm, Xiaofang Xu, Qinghua Qiu, Zhenzhen ZhangAbstractHistone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have displayed neuroprotective effects in animal models of retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor responds to oxidative damage. We investigated the role of Nrf2 in retinal I/R injury, and further explored the mechanisms underlying Nrf2-mediated neuroprotection exerted by HDACi. High intraocular pressure...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
This study was conducted on 25 rabbits. Five animals were in the control group (GI; n = 5), five in the sham group (GII; n = 5), and 15 in the study group (GIII; n = 15). After injection of 1 cc serum saline into the cisterna magna in the sham group, and autologous blood in the SAH group, the animals were followed for 3 weeks. All animals underwent a retinal examination five times a week for 3 weeks before and after the experiment. After the experiment, the neuron density of PPGs of the facial nerves, vasospasm index (VSI) of OpAs, and total basal surface values of the detac...
Source: Journal of Neurological Surgery Part A: Central European Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Angélica Almanza, Pedro Segura-Chama, Martha León-Olea, Enoch Luis, René Garduño-Gutiérrez, Jonathan Mercado-Reyes, Karina Simón-Arceo, Ulises Coffeen, Arturo Hernández-Cruz, Francisco Pellicer, Francisco MercadoAbstractIntrathecal (i.t.) administration of quinpirole, a dopamine (DA) D2-like receptor agonist, produces antinociception to mechanonociceptive stimuli but not to thermonociceptive stimuli. To determine a cellular mechanism for the specific antinociceptive effect of D2-like receptor act...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
More News: Biology | Brain | Databases & Libraries | Ganglions | Genetics | Hormones | Neurology | Study