Hiking trails ideal for sauntering grizzlies [INSIDE JEB]
Kathryn Knight (Source: Journal of Experimental Biology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 30, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Knight, K. Tags: INSIDE JEB Source Type: research

Quantifying energetic costs and defining energy landscapes experienced by grizzly bears [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Anthony M. Carnahan, Frank T. van Manen, Mark A. Haroldson, Gordon B. Stenhouse, and Charles T. Robbins Animal movements are major determinants of energy expenditure and ultimately the cost–benefit of landscape use. Thus, we sought to understand those costs and how grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) move in mountainous landscapes. We trained captive grizzly bears to walk on a horizontal treadmill and up and down 10% and 20% slopes. The cost of moving upslope increased linearly with speed and slope angle, and this was more costly than moving horizontally. The cost of downslope travel at slower speeds was greater than the c...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 30, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Carnahan, A. M., van Manen, F. T., Haroldson, M. A., Stenhouse, G. B., Robbins, C. T. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Autotomy induced effects on the locomotor performance of the ghost crab, Ocypode quadrata [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Janne A. Pfeiffenberger and S. Tonia Hsieh The voluntary amputation of an appendage, or autotomy, is an effective defensive mechanism that allows an animal to escape aggressive interactions. However, animals may suffer long-term costs that can reduce their overall fitness. Atlantic ghost crabs (Ocypode quadrata) are one of the fastest terrestrial invertebrates, and regularly lose one or more limbs in response to an antagonist encounter. When running laterally at fast speeds, they adopt a quadrupedal gait using their 1st and 2nd pair of legs while raising their 4th, and sometimes the 3rd, pair of legs off the ground. This s...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 30, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Pfeiffenberger, J. A., Hsieh, S. T. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Archerfish coordinate fin-maneuvers with their shots [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
We describe here that characteristic rapid fin maneuvers, most notably of the pectoral and pelvic fins, are precisely coordinated with the release of the jet. We discovered these maneuvers in two fish that had been trained to shoot from fixed positions at targets in different height, whose jets had been characterized in detail and who remained stable during their shots. Based on the findings in these individuals we examined shooting-associated fin-movement in 28 further archerfish of two species that could shoot from freely chosen positions at targets of different height. Slightly before onset of the water jet, at a time w...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 30, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Gerullis, P., Reinel, C. P., Schuster, S. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Transgenerational plasticity responses of oysters to ocean acidification differ with habitat [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Laura M. Parker, Elliot Scanes, Wayne A. O'Connor, and Pauline M. Ross Transgenerational plasticity (TGP) has been identified as a critical mechanism of acclimation which may buffer marine organisms against climate change, yet whether the TGP response of marine organisms is altered depending on their habitat is unknown. Many marine organisms are found in intertidal zones where they experience episodes of emersion daily as the tide rises and recedes. During episodes of emersion, the accumulation of metabolic carbon dioxide (CO2) leads to hypercapnia for many species. How this metabolic hypercapnia impacts the TGP response o...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 30, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Parker, L. M., Scanes, E., O'Connor, W. A., Ross, P. M. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Synchrony of complex signals in an acoustically communicating katydid [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Vivek Nityananda and Rohini Balakrishnan The ability to entrain to auditory stimuli has been a powerful method to investigate the comparative rhythm abilities of different animals. While synchrony to regular simple rhythms is well documented, synchrony to complex stimuli, with multiple components at unequal time intervals, is rarer. Several katydid species with simple calls have been shown to achieve synchrony as part of their natural calling interactions in multi-individual choruses. Yet no study so far has demonstrated synchrony in any insect with a complex call. Using natural calling behaviour and playback experiments, ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 30, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Nityananda, V., Balakrishnan, R. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Exercise training has morph-specific effects on telomere, body condition and growth dynamics in a color-polymorphic lizard [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Christopher R. Friesen, Mark Wilson, Nicky Rollings, Joanna Sudyka, Mathieu Giraudeau, Camilla M. Whittington, and Mats Olsson Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) are correlated suites of sexually selected traits that are likely to impose differential physiological costs on different individuals. While moderate activity might be beneficial, animals living in the wild often work at the margins of their resources and performance limits. Individuals using ARTs may have divergent capacities for activity. When pushed beyond their respective capacities, they may experience condition loss, oxidative stress, and molecular dama...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 30, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Friesen, C. R., Wilson, M., Rollings, N., Sudyka, J., Giraudeau, M., Whittington, C. M., Olsson, M. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Versatile gene expression helps trail-blazing house sparrows adapt [INSIDE JEB]
Kathryn Knight (Source: Journal of Experimental Biology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 28, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Knight, K. Tags: INSIDE JEB Source Type: research

Experience, but not age, is associated with volumetric mushroom body expansion in solitary alkali bees [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Mallory A. Hagadorn, Makenna M. Johnson, Adam R. Smith, Marc A. Seid, and Karen M. Kapheim In social insects, changes in behavior are often accompanied by structural changes in the brain. This neuroplasticity may come with experience (experience-dependent) or age (experience-expectant). Yet, the evolutionary relationship between neuroplasticity and sociality is unclear, because we know little about neuroplasticity in the solitary relatives of social species. We used confocal microscopy to measure brain changes in response to age and experience in a solitary halictid bee (Nomia melanderi). First, we compared the volume of ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 28, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Hagadorn, M. A., Johnson, M. M., Smith, A. R., Seid, M. A., Kapheim, K. M. Tags: Neuroethology RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Epigenetic potential affects immune gene expression in house sparrows [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Haley E. Hanson, Cedric Zimmer, Bilal Koussayer, Aaron W. Schrey, J. Dylan Maddox, and Lynn B. Martin Epigenetic mechanisms may play a central role in mediating phenotypic plasticity, especially during range expansions, when populations face a suite of novel environmental conditions. Individuals may differ in their epigenetic potential (EP; their capacity for epigenetic modifications of gene expression), which may affect their ability to colonize new areas. One form of EP, the number of CpG sites, is higher in introduced house sparrows (Passer domesticus) than in native birds in the promoter region of a microbial surveill...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 28, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Hanson, H. E., Zimmer, C., Koussayer, B., Schrey, A. W., Maddox, J. D., Martin, L. B. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Dwarf sperm whales click like shallow dwellers despite open ocean lifestyle [INSIDE JEB]
Kathryn Knight (Source: Journal of Experimental Biology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Knight, K. Tags: INSIDE JEB Source Type: research

Echolocation click parameters and biosonar behaviour of the dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Chloe E. Malinka, Pernille Tonnesen, Charlotte A. Dunn, Diane E. Claridge, Tess Gridley, Simon H. Elwen, and Peter Teglberg Madsen Dwarf sperm whales (Kogia sima) are small toothed whales that produce narrow-band high-frequency (NBHF) echolocation clicks. Such NBHF clicks, subject to high levels of acoustic absorption, are usually produced by small, shallow-diving odontocetes, such as porpoises, in keeping with their short-range echolocation and fast click rates. Here, we sought to address the problem of how the little-studied and deep-diving Kogia can hunt with NBHF clicks in the deep sea. Specifically, we tested the hyp...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Malinka, C. E., Tonnesen, P., Dunn, C. A., Claridge, D. E., Gridley, T., Elwen, S. H., Teglberg Madsen, P. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Combined secondary compounds naturally found in nectars enhance honeybee cognition and survival [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Ignacio L. Marchi, Florencia Palottini, and Walter M. Farina The alkaloid caffeine and the amino acid arginine are present as secondary compounds in nectars of some flower species visited by pollinators. Each of these compounds affects honeybee appetitive behaviours by improving foraging activity and learning. While caffeine potentiates responses of mushroom body neurons involved in honeybee learning processes, arginine acts as precursor of nitric oxide, enhancing the protein synthesis involved in memory formation. Despite existing evidence on how these compounds affect honeybee cognitive ability individually, their combi...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Marchi, I. L., Palottini, F., Farina, W. M. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Independent effects of seawater pH and high PCO2 on olfactory sensitivity in fish: possible role of carbonic anhydrase [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Zelia Velez, Rita A. Costa, Wenjing Wang, and Peter C. Hubbard Ocean acidification may alter olfactory-driven behaviour in fish by direct effects on the peripheral olfactory system; olfactory sensitivity is reduced in CO2-acidified seawater. The current study tested whether this is due to elevated PCO2 or the consequent reduction in seawater pH and, if the former, the possible involvement of carbonic anhydrase, the enzyme responsible for the hydration of CO2 and production of carbonic acid. Olfactory sensitivity to amino acids was assessed by extracellular multi-unit recording from the olfactory nerve of the gilthead...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Velez, Z., Costa, R. A., Wang, W., Hubbard, P. C. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Controlled expression of the migratory phenotype affects oxidative status in birds [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
We examined whether the emergence of the migratory phenotype, primarily signalled by increased food intake and fuelling, is accompanied by changes in oxidative status. We induced autumn migration followed by a non-migratory wintering phase in common quails (Coturnix coturnix). We compared three markers of oxidative status – oxidative damage to lipids expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS); superoxide dismutase (SOD); and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) – between birds sampled during the migratory and non-migratory phase. We found that the emergence of the migratory phenotype was associated wi...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Marasco, V., Sebastiano, M., Costantini, D., Pola, G., Fusani, L. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Not just shades of grey: life is full of colour for the ocellate freshwater river stingray (Potamotrygon motoro) [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
In conclusion, the genetic and behavioural results support prior data on marine stingrays. However, this study suggests that freshwater stingrays of the family Potamotrygonidae may have a visual colour system that has ecologically adapted to a riverine habitat. (Source: Journal of Experimental Biology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Schluessel, V., Rick, I. P., Seifert, F. D., Baumann, C., Davies, W. I. L. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Exposure to artificial light at night alters innate immune response in wild great tit nestlings [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
This study provides a potential physiological mechanism underlying the documented differences in immune function between urban and rural birds observed in other studies. Moreover, it gives evidence that ALAN exposure affects nestling physiology, potentially causing long-term effects on physiology and behaviour, which ultimately can affect their fitness. (Source: Journal of Experimental Biology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Ann-Kathrin, Z., Hannah, W., Arne, H., Richard, M., Virginie, C., Jan-Ake, N., Caroline, I. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Carbon dioxide and bicarbonate accumulation in caiman erythrocytes during diving [SHORT COMMUNICATION]
Naim M. Bautista, Christian Damsgaard, Angela Fago, and Tobias Wang The ability of crocodilian haemoglobins to bind HCO3– has been appreciated for more than half a century, but the functional implication of this is exceptional mechanism has not previously been assessed in vivo. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to address the hypothesis that CO2 primarily binds to Hb, rather than being accumulated in plasma as in other vertebrates, during diving in caimans. Here, we demonstrate that CO2 primarily accumulates within the erythrocyte during diving and that most of the accumulated CO2 is bound to haemoglobin. ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Bautista, N. M., Damsgaard, C., Fago, A., Wang, T. Tags: SHORT COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Sound detection by the American lobster (Homarus americanus) [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Youenn Jezequel, Ian T. Jones, Julien Bonnel, Laurent Chauvaud, Jelle Atema, and T. Aran Mooney Although many crustaceans produce sounds, their hearing abilities and mechanisms are poorly understood, leaving uncertainties regarding whether or how these animals use sound for acoustic communication. Marine invertebrates lack gas-filled organs required for sound pressure detection, but some of them are known to be sensitive to particle motion. Here, we examined whether the American lobster (Homarus americanus) could detect sound and subsequently sought to discern the auditory mechanisms. Acoustic stimuli responses were measu...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 25, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Jezequel, Y., Jones, I. T., Bonnel, J., Chauvaud, L., Atema, J., Mooney, T. A. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Masculinized Drosophila females adapt their fighting strategies to their opponent [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Rachel E. Monyak, Nicole M. Golbari, Yick-Bun Chan, Ausra Pranevicius, Grace Tang, Maria Paz Fernandez, and Edward A. Kravitz Many animal species show aggression to gain mating partners and to protect territories and other resources from competitors. Both male and female fruit flies of the species Drosophila melanogaster exhibit aggression in same-sex pairings, but the strategies used are sexually dimorphic. We have begun to explore the biological basis for the differing aggression strategies, and the cues promoting one form of aggression over the other. Here, we describe a line of genetically masculinized females that sw...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 25, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Monyak, R. E., Golbari, N. M., Chan, Y.-B., Pranevicius, A., Tang, G., Fernandez, M. P., Kravitz, E. A. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Effects of wave-driven water flow on the fast-start escape response of juvenile coral reef damselfishes [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Dominique G. Roche Fish often evade predators with a fast-start escape response. Studies typically examine this behaviour in still water despite water motion being an inherent feature of aquatic ecosystems. In shallow habitats, waves create complex flows that likely influence escape performance, particularly in small fishes with low absolute swimming speeds relative to environmental flows. I examined how wave-driven water flow affects the behaviour and kinematics of escape responses in juveniles of three coral reef damselfishes (Pomacentridae) with different body morphologies. Tropical damselfishes have similar fin and bo...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 25, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Roche, D. G. Tags: Comparative biomechanics of movement RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Metabolic response of dolphins to short-term fasting reveals physiological changes that differ from the traditional fasting model [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Dorian S. Houser, Davina Derous, Alex Douglas, and David Lusseau Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) typically feed on prey that are high in lipid and protein content and nearly devoid of carbohydrate, a dietary feature shared with other marine mammals. However, unlike fasted-adapted marine mammals that predictably incorporate fasting into their life history, dolphins feed intermittently throughout the day and are not believed to be fasting-adapted. To assess whether the physiological response to fasting in the dolphin shares features with or distinguishes them from those of fasting-adapted marine mammals, the plasma ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 25, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Houser, D. S., Derous, D., Douglas, A., Lusseau, D. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Bile acid production is life-stage and sex-dependent and affected by primer pheromones in the sea lamprey [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Yu-Wen Chung-Davidson, Ugo Bussy, Skye D. Fissette, Anne M. Scott, and Weiming Li Pheromonal bile salts are important for sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus) to complete their life cycle. The synthesis and release of a releaser/primer pheromone 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS) by spermiating males have been well characterized. 3kPZS evokes sexual behaviors in ovulatory females, induces immediate 3kPZS release in spermiating males, and elicits neuroendocrine responses in prespawning adults. Another primer pheromone released by spermiating males, 3-keto allocholic acid (3kACA), antagonizes the neuroendocrine effect...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 23, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Chung-Davidson, Y.-W., Bussy, U., Fissette, S. D., Scott, A. M., Li, W. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Daily temperature cycles prolong lifespan and have sex-specific effects on peripheral clock gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Grace H. Goh, Dominique Blache, Peter J. Mark, W. Jason Kennington, and Shane K. Maloney Circadian rhythms optimize health by coordinating the timing of physiological processes to match predictable daily environmental challenges. The circadian rhythm of body temperature is thought to be an important modulator of molecular clocks in peripheral tissues, but how daily temperature cycles impact physiological function is unclear. Here, we examined the effect of constant (25°C, TCON) and cycling (28°C/22°C during light/dark, TCYC) temperature paradigms on lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster, and the expression of clo...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 23, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Goh, G. H., Blache, D., Mark, P. J., Kennington, W. J., Maloney, S. K. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A thermoregulatory role of the medullary raphe in birds [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Caroline Cristina-Silva, Luciane H. Gargaglioni, and Kenia Cardoso Bicego The brainstem region medullary raphe modulates non-shivering and shivering thermogenesis and cutaneous vasomotion in rodents. Whether the same scenario occurs in the other endothermic group, i.e. birds, is still unknown. Therefore, we hypothesised that the medullary raphe modulates heat gain and loss thermoeffectors in birds. We investigated the effect of glutamatergic and GABAergic inhibitions in this specific region on body temperature (Tb), oxygen consumption (thermogenesis), ventilation (O2 supply in cold, thermal tachypnea in heat) and heat loss...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 23, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Cristina-Silva, C., Gargaglioni, L. H., Bicego, K. C. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Eat yourself sexy: how selective macronutrient intake influences the expression of a visual signal in common mynas [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Chloe Peneaux, Gabriel E. Machovsky-Capuska, John A. Endler, and Andrea S. Griffin Producing colored signals often requires consuming dietary carotenoid pigments. Evidence that food deprivation can reduce coloration, however, raises the question of whether other dietary nutrients contribute to signal coloration, and furthermore, whether individuals can voluntarily select food combinations to achieve optimal coloration. We created a 2-way factorial design to manipulate macronutrient and carotenoid access in common mynas (Acridotheres tristis) and measured eye patch coloration as a function of the food combinations individua...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 23, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Peneaux, C., Machovsky-Capuska, G. E., Endler, J. A., Griffin, A. S. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Pollen protein and lipid content influence resilience to insecticides in honey bees (Apis mellifera) [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Makaylee K. Crone and Christina M. Grozinger In honey bees (Apis mellifera), there is growing evidence that the impacts of multiple stressors can be mitigated by quality nutrition. Pollen, which is the primary source of protein and lipids in bees diets, is particularly critical for generating more resilient phenotypes. Here, we evaluate the relationship between pollen protein-to-lipid ratios (P:Ls) and honey bee insecticide resilience. We hypothesized that pollen diets richer in lipids would lead to increased survival in bees exposed to insecticides, as pollen-derived lipids have previously been shown to improve bee resili...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 23, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Crone, M. K., Grozinger, C. M. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

High temperature impairs mitochondrial function in rainbow trout cardiac mitochondria [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Jakob Michaelsen, Angela Fago, and Amanda Bundgaard Mitochondria provides cellular energy through oxidative phosphorylation, and thus temperature-induced constraints on mitochondrial function may be crucial to animal aerobic scope and thermal tolerance. Here, we report the effect of temperature in the range 5-30°C on respiration rates of isolated cardiac mitochondria from rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) studied by high-resolution respirometry and spectrophotometric enzyme activity assays. Arrhenius breakpoint temperature analysis indicated that mitochondrial respiration rates under phosphorylating and fully uncouple...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 23, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Michaelsen, J., Fago, A., Bundgaard, A. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Effects of food intake and hydration state on behavioral thermoregulation and locomotor activity in the tropidurid lizard Tropidurus catalanensis [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Dylan J. Padilla Perez, Jose E. de Carvalho, and Carlos A. Navas Theoretical models predict that lizards adjust their body temperature through behavioral thermoregulation as a function of food availability. However, behavioral thermoregulation is also governed by interactions among physiological and ecological factors other than food availability, such as hydration state, and sometimes it can even conflict with the locomotor activity of animals. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of food intake and hydration state on behavioral thermoregulation and voluntary locomotor activity in the lizard Tropidurus catalanensis. We...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 22, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Padilla Perez, D. J., de Carvalho, J. E., Navas, C. A. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Cardiorespiratory adjustments to chronic environmental warming improve hypoxia tolerance in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
We examined European perch (Perca fluviatilis) from the Biotest enclosure (23°C, Biotest population), a unique ~1 km2 ecosystem artificially warmed by cooling water from a nuclear power plant, and an adjacent reference site (16–18°C, reference population). Specifically, we evaluated how acute and chronic warming affect routine oxygen consumption rate (MO2,routine) and cardiovascular performance in acute hypoxia, alongside assessment of the thermal acclimation of the aerobic contribution to hypoxia tolerance (critical O2 tension for MO2,routine: Pcrit) and absolute hypoxia tolerance (O2 tension at loss of...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 22, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Ekström, A., Sundell, E., Morgenroth, D., McArley, T., Gardmark, A., Huss, M., Sandblom, E. Tags: Ecophysiology: responses to environmental stressors and change RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Jaw kinematics and tongue protraction-retraction during Chewing and drinking in the pig [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
The objective of this study is to compare jaw and tongue kinematics during chewing and drinking in pigs. We hypothesize there will be differences in jaw gape cycle dynamics and tongue protraction-retraction between behaviors. Mastication cycles had an extended slow-close phase, reflecting tooth-food-tooth contact, whereas drinking cycles had an extended slow-open phase, corresponding to tongue protrusion into the liquid. Compared to chewing, drinking jaw movements were of lower magnitude for all degrees of freedom examined (jaw protraction, yaw, and pitch), and were bilaterally symmetrical with virtually no yaw. The magnit...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 22, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Olson, R. A., Montuelle, S. J., Chadwell, B. A., Curtis, H., Williams, S. H. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Fruit fly mitochondria switch fuel when the going gets hot [INSIDE JEB]
Kathryn Knight (Source: Journal of Experimental Biology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 19, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Knight, K. Tags: INSIDE JEB Source Type: research

Dramatic changes in mitochondrial substrate use at critically high temperatures: a comparative study using Drosophila [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Lisa Bjerregaard Jorgensen, Johannes Overgaard, Florence Hunter-Manseau, and Nicolas Pichaud Ectotherm thermal tolerance is critical to species distribution, but at present the physiological underpinnings of heat tolerance remain poorly understood. Mitochondrial function is perturbed at critically high temperatures in some ectotherms, including insects, suggesting that heat tolerance of these animals is linked to failure of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and/or ATP production. To test this hypothesis, we measured mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate in six Drosophila species with different heat tolerance using high-r...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 19, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Jorgensen, L. B., Overgaard, J., Hunter-Manseau, F., Pichaud, N. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Zebra finches recognise friends voices [INSIDE JEB]
Kathryn Knight (Source: Journal of Experimental Biology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 18, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Knight, K. Tags: INSIDE JEB Source Type: research

The frugivorous bat Carollia perspicillata dynamically changes echolocation parameters in response to acoustic playback [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
M. Jerome Beetz, Manfred Kössl, and Julio C. Hechavarria Animals extract behaviorally relevant signals from ‘noisy’ environments. Echolocation behavior provides a rich system testbed for investigating signal extraction. When echolocating in acoustically enriched environments, bats show many adaptations that are believed to facilitate signal extraction. Most studies to date focused on describing adaptations in insectivorous bats while frugivorous bats have rarely been tested. Here, we characterize how the frugivorous bat Carollia perspicillata adapts its echolocation behavior in response to acoustic playback....
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 18, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Beetz, M. J., Kössl, M., Hechavarria, J. C. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The ROS scavenger PDTC affects adaptation to treadmill running in mice: distinct effects on murine body mass, resting heart rate and skeletal muscle fiber type composition [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Franziska Röchner, Angelika Schmitt, Anne-Lena Brändle, Annunziata Fragasso, and Barbara Munz Regular exercise induces a broad spectrum of adaptation reactions in a variety of tissues and organs. However, the respective mechanisms are incompletely understood. In the context of their analysis, animal model systems, specifically rodent treadmill running protocols, play an important role. However, few researchers have studied different aspects of adaptation, such as cardiorespiratory and skeletal muscle training effects, within one set of experiments. Here, we analyzed physiological adaptation to 10 weeks of regular...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 18, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Röchner, F., Schmitt, A., Brändle, A.-L., Fragasso, A., Munz, B. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Auditory perception of self and others in zebra finches: evidence from an operant discrimination task [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Nicole Geberzahn, Sandor Zsebok, and Sebastien Deregnaucourt Vocal communication is essential for social interactions in many animal species. For this purpose, an animal has to perceive vocal signals of conspecifics and is often also required to discriminate conspecifics. The capacity to discriminate conspecifics is particularly important in social species in which individuals interact repeatedly. In addition, auditory perception of self plays an important role for vocal learners. A vocal learner has to memorise vocalisations of conspecifics and to subsequently modify its own vocalisations in order to match the memorised ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 18, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Geberzahn, N., Zsebok, S., Deregnaucourt, S. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Improving spring-mass parameter estimation in running using nonlinear regression methods [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
We present a method to model runners as spring–mass systems using nonlinear regression (NLR) and the full vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) time series without additional inputs and fewer traditional parameter assumptions. We derived and validated a time-dependent vGRF function characterized by four spring–mass parameters – stiffness, touchdown angle, leg length and contact time – using a sinusoidal approximation. Next, we compared the NLR-estimated spring–mass parameters with traditional calculations in runners. The mixed-effect NLR method (ME NLR) modeled the observed vGRF best (RMSE:155...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 18, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Burns, G. T., Gonzalez, R., Zernicke, R. F. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Physiological adjustments to high foraging effort negatively affect fecundity but not final reproductive output in captive zebra finches [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Kang Nian Yap, Donald R. Powers, Melissa L. Vermette, Olivia Hsin-I Tsai, and Tony D. Williams Foraging at elevated rates to provision offspring is thought to be an energetically costly activity and it has been suggested that there are potentially physiological costs associated with the high workload involved. However, for the most part evidence for costs of increased foraging and/or reproductive effort is weak. Furthermore, despite some experimental evidence demonstrating negative effects of increased foraging and parental effort, the physiological mechanisms underlying costs associated with high workload remain poorly un...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 18, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Yap, K. N., Powers, D. R., Vermette, M. L., Tsai, O. H.-I., Williams, T. D. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Genome size influences adaptive plasticity of water loss, but not metabolic rates in lungless salamanders [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Benjamin B. Johnson, Jeremy B. Searle, and Jed P. Sparks Many expressions of phenotype, such as physiological performance, integrate multiple underlying traits to function. Linking component traits to adaptive physiology thus gives insight into mechanisms of selection acting on performance. Genome size (C-value) is a trait that influences physiology in multiple taxa by exerting a nucleotypic effect, constraining cell size and cellular physiology such that whole-organism mass-specific metabolism is reduced with increasing C-value. We tested for this mechanism of C-value function acting in lungless salamanders, plus an unexp...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 18, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Johnson, B. B., Searle, J. B., Sparks, J. P. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Mantis shrimp identify an object by its shape rather than its color during visual recognition [SHORT COMMUNICATION]
Rickesh N. Patel, Veniamin Khil, Laylo Abdurahmonova, Holland Driscoll, Sarina Patel, Olivia Pettyjohn-Robin, Ahmad Shah, Tamar Goldwasser, Benjamin Sparklin, and Thomas W. Cronin Mantis shrimp commonly inhabit seafloor environments with an abundance of visual features including conspecifics, predators, prey, and landmarks used for navigation. While these animals are capable of discriminating color and polarization, it is unknown what specific attributes of a visual object are important during recognition. Here we show that mantis shrimp of the species Neogonodactylus oerstedii are able to learn the shape of a trained targ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 18, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Patel, R. N., Khil, V., Abdurahmonova, L., Driscoll, H., Patel, S., Pettyjohn-Robin, O., Shah, A., Goldwasser, T., Sparklin, B., Cronin, T. W. Tags: SHORT COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

How extraordinary periwinkles withstand extreme heat [INSIDE JEB]
Kathryn Knight (Source: Journal of Experimental Biology)
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 15, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Knight, K. Tags: INSIDE JEB Source Type: research

Aversive operant conditioning alters the phototactic orientation of the marbled crayfish [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Shione Okada, Natsumi Hirano, Toshiki Abe, and Toshiki Nagayama Aversive learning was applied to affect the phototactic behaviour of the marbled crayfish. Animals initially showed negative phototaxis to white light and positive taxis to blue light. Using an aversive learning paradigm, we investigated the plasticity of innate behaviour following operant conditioning. The initial rate of choosing a blue-lit exit was analysed by a dual choice experiment between blue-lit and white-lit exits in pre-test conditions. During training, electrical shocks were applied to the animals when they oriented to the blue-lit exit. Memory te...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 15, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Okada, S., Hirano, N., Abe, T., Nagayama, T. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Temperature adaptations of the thermophilic snail Echinolittorina malaccana: insights from metabolomic analysis [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Ya-qi Chen, Jie Wang, Ming-ling Liao, Xiao-xu Li, and Yun-wei Dong The periwinkle snail Echinolittorina malaccana, for which the upper lethal temperature is near 55°C, is one of the most heat-tolerant eukaryotes known. We conducted a multi-level investigation – including cardiac physiology, enzyme activity, and targeted and untargeted metabolomic analyses – that elucidated a spectrum of adaptations to extreme heat in this organism. All systems examined showed heat intensity-dependent responses. Under moderate heat stress (37–45°C), the snail depressed cardiac activity and entered a state of metab...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 15, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Chen, Y.-q., Wang, J., Liao, M.-l., Li, X.-x., Dong, Y.-w. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Parallel evolution of placental calcium transfer in the lizard Mabuya and eutherian mammals [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Nathaly Hernandez-Diaz, Francisca Leal, and Martha Patricia Ramirez-Pinilla An exceptional case of parallel evolution between lizards and eutherian mammals occurs in the evolution of viviparity. In the lizard genus Mabuya, viviparity provided the environment for the evolution of yolk-reduced eggs and obligate placentotrophy. One major event that favored the evolution of placentation was the reduction of the eggshell. As with all oviparous reptiles, lizard embryos obtain calcium from both the eggshell and egg yolk. Therefore, the loss of the eggshell likely imposes a constraint for the conservation of the egg yolk, which c...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 15, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Hernandez-Diaz, N., Leal, F., Ramirez-Pinilla, M. P. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Neuroethology of number sense across the animal kingdom [REVIEW]
Andreas Nieder Many species from diverse and often distantly related animal groups (e.g. monkeys, crows, fish and bees) have a sense of number. This means that they can assess the number of items in a set – its ‘numerosity’. The brains of these phylogenetically distant species are markedly diverse. This Review examines the fundamentally different types of brains and neural mechanisms that give rise to numerical competence across the animal tree of life. Neural correlates of the number sense so far exist only for specific vertebrate species: the richest data concerning explicit and abstract number represe...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 15, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Nieder, A. Tags: Neuroethology REVIEW Source Type: research

Effect of density and species preferences on collective choices: an experimental study on maggot aggregation behaviours [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
This study was designed to (1) assess the collective behaviours of blow fly larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in groups varying in density and species composition, and (2) relate them to the costs and benefits of aggregating on fresh or decomposed food. First, experiments testing conspecific groups of Lucilia sericata and Calliphora vicina larvae, two species feeding at the same time on fresh carcasses, demonstrated decreases in growth and survival on rotten beef liver compared with fresh liver. However, mixing species together reduced this adverse impact of decomposition by increasing the mass of emerged adults. Second, lar...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 12, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Fouche, Q., Hedouin, V., Charabidze, D. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Visual stimulus-specific habituation of innate defensive behaviour in mice [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Azadeh Tafreshiha, Sven A. van der Burg, Kato Smits, Laila A. Blömer, and J. Alexander Heimel Innate defensive responses such as freezing or escape are essential for animal survival. Mice show defensive behaviour to stimuli sweeping overhead, like a bird cruising the sky. Here, we tested this in young male mice and found that mice reduced their defensive freezing after sessions with a stimulus passing overhead repeatedly. This habituation is stimulus specific, as mice freeze again to a novel shape. Habituation occurs regardless of the visual field location of the repeated stimulus. The mice generalized over a range of s...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 12, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Tafreshiha, A., van der Burg, S. A., Smits, K., Blömer, L. A., Heimel, J. A. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Continuous body 3-D reconstruction of limbless animals [METHODS [amp ] TECHNIQUES]
Qiyuan Fu, Thomas W. Mitchel, Jin Seob Kim, Gregory S. Chirikjian, and Chen Li Limbless animals such as snakes, limbless lizards, worms, eels and lampreys move their slender, long bodies in three dimensions to traverse diverse environments. Accurately quantifying their continuous body's 3-D shape and motion is important for understanding body–environment interactions in complex terrain, but this is difficult to achieve (especially for local orientation and rotation). Here, we describe an interpolation method to quantify continuous body 3-D position and orientation. We simplify the body as an elastic rod and apply a ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 12, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Fu, Q., Mitchel, T. W., Kim, J. S., Chirikjian, G. S., Li, C. Tags: Comparative biomechanics of movement METHODS [amp ] TECHNIQUES Source Type: research

Plasticity in parental effects confers rapid larval thermal tolerance in the estuarine anemone Nematostella vectensis [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Hanny E. Rivera, Cheng-Yi Chen, Matthew C. Gibson, and Ann M. Tarrant Parental effects can prepare offspring for different environments and facilitate survival across generations. We exposed parental populations of the estuarine anemone, Nematostella vectensis, from Massachusetts to elevated temperatures and quantified larval mortality across a temperature gradient. We found that parental exposure to elevated temperatures resulted in a consistent increase in larval thermal tolerance, as measured by the temperature at which 50% of larvae die (LT50), with a mean increase in LT50 of 0.3°C. Larvae from subsequent spawns r...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - March 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Rivera, H. E., Chen, C.-Y., Gibson, M. C., Tarrant, A. M. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research