Update on PET imaging biomarkers in the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders

Purpose of review To give an update on recent imaging studies probing positron emission tomography (PET) as a tool for improving biomarker-guided diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent findings Several studies confirmed the value of imaging of regional neuronal activity and imaging of dopaminergic, serotonergic, and other neuroreceptor function in the diagnostic process of neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, depression/bipolar disorder, substance use disorders, obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Additionally, imaging brain microglial activation using translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) radiotracer allows for unique in-vivo insights into pathophysiological neuroinflammatory changes underlying schizophrenia, affective disorders, and OCD. Summary The role of PET imaging in the biomarker-guided diagnostic process of neuropsychiatric disorders has been increasingly acknowledged in recent years. Future prospective studies are needed to define the value of PET imaging for diagnosis, treatment decisions, and prognosis in neuropsychiatric disorders.
Source: Current Opinion in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: NEUROIMAGING: Edited by Stefan Klöppel Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 22 August 2019Source: The Lancet PsychiatryAuthor(s): Meng-Chuan Lai, Caroline Kassee, Richard Besney, Sarah Bonato, Laura Hull, William Mandy, Peter Szatmari, Stephanie H AmeisSummaryBackgroundCo-occurring mental health or psychiatric conditions are common in autism, impairing quality of life. Reported prevalences of co-occurring mental health or psychiatric conditions in people with autism range widely. Improved prevalence estimates and identification of moderators are needed to enhance recognition and care, and to guide future research.MethodsIn this systematic review and meta-analysis...
Source: The Lancet Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
In conclusion, this review highlights the importance for clinicians to investigate for the presence of chronic nightmares along with other sleep difficulties (most commonly, insomnia and sleep apnea), to consider the potential influence of nightmares on the course of the primary mental disorder, and to be prepared to grant access to treatments targeting nightmares. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
Source: Dreaming - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
, Eating Disorder Working Group of the PGC, Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the PGC, Obsessive Compulsive Disorders and Tourette Syndrome Working Group of the PGC, Schizophrenia CLOZUK, Substance Use Disorder Working Group of the PGC, Agrawal A, Børglum AD, Bulik CM, Daly MJ, Davis LK, Demontis D, Edenberg HJ, Grove J, Gelernter J, Neale BM, Pardiñas AF, Stahl E, Walters JTR, Walters R, Sullivan PF, Posthuma D, Polderman TJC PMID: 30334498 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Psychological Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research
What is a Co-Occuring disorder? The coexistence of both a mental health disorder and a substance abuse use disorder is referred to as a co-occurring disorder. Any combination of mental health and addiction can be referred to as having a co-occuring disorder. The combinations can be seemingly endless, and can even include more than one of either a mental disorder or an addiction. Combinations may include depression and alcoholism, anorexia and cocaine addiction, bipolar disorder and heroin addiction and the list goes on. Surprisingly, as many as 6 in 10 substance abusers also have at least one other mental disorder. There i...
Source: Cliffside Malibu - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Addiction Addiction Recovery Addiction Treatment and Program Resources ADHD Alcohol Alcohol Rehab Information Alcoholism Anxiety Behavioral Addictions Depression Depression Treatment Drinking Drug Treatment Dual Diagnosis and Eat Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS: Given the unique character of each study design, the convergent findings for these eight psychiatric conditions suggest that heritability estimates are robust across different methods. The findings also highlight large differences in genetic and environmental influences between psychiatric disorders, providing future directions for etiological psychiatric research. PMID: 30221610 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Psychological Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research
We can link grain consumption with causing or worsening some of the most mysterious brain disorders that have eluded the medical community for years, such as schizophrenia, epilepsy, depression, bipolar disorder, and, more recently, autism and ADHD. Are you and your kids unknowingly under the influence of opiates? Opiates come disguised in many forms.   Grains contain opiates. Not figuratively, but quite literally. These opiates are not too different from morphine or heroin. Yes, wheat and grains, cleverly disguised as a multigrain loaf of bread to make sandwiches or a hot, steamy plate of macaroni and cheese for the ...
Source: Wheat Belly Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: News & Updates adhd bipolar disorder brain fog concentration Depression diy health Dr. Davis epilepsy grain-free headaches Inflammation mind mood swings OCD opiates schizophrenia undoctored wheat belly Wheat Belly Tot Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSION: Four psychoradiological patterns of altered small-world properties are proposed. The analysis of altered small-world properties may provide novel insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders from a connectomic perspective. In future connectome studies, the global network measures of both segregation and integration should be calculated to fully evaluate altered small-world properties in patients with a particular disease. PMID: 29952747 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Psychiatry Neurosci Source Type: research
Conclusions Urgent research questions to further clarify the underlying pathophysiological and structural alterations are further outlined to bring this promising technique to the clinic. PMID: 28971725 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: World J Biol Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion The SCIP is reliable and valid diagnostic interview, is compatible with experimental psychopathology and personalized psychiatry research, and is in line with the NIMH RDoC framework. The SCIP Instruction Manual is also available for download by visiting http://innovationscns.com/wp-content/uploads/SCIP_Instruction_Manual_2015.pdf. Acknowledgment Dr. Aboraya had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analyses. References 1.     Stone M. Healing the Mind: A History of Psychiatry from Antiquity to the Present. In: ...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Assessment Tools Current Issue Evaluations Psychiatry Reliability of Diagnoses Review Scales Trial Methodology descriptive psychopathology diagnostic criteria dimensional scores Psychiatric interview SCIP Standard for Clinicians‚ Source Type: research
Conclusion The SCIP is reliable and valid diagnostic interview, is compatible with experimental psychopathology and personalized psychiatry research, and is in line with the NIMH RDoC framework. The SCIP Instruction Manual is also available for download by visiting http://innovationscns.com/wp-content/uploads/SCIP_Instruction_Manual_2015.pdf. Acknowledgment Dr. Aboraya had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analyses. References 1.     Stone M. Healing the Mind: A History of Psychiatry from Antiquity to the Present. In: ...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Assessment Tools Current Issue Evaluations Psychiatry Reliability of Diagnoses Review Scales Trial Methodology descriptive psychopathology diagnostic criteria dimensional scores Psychiatric interview SCIP Standard for Clinicians‚ Source Type: research
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