Microglia along sex lines: From brain colonization, maturation and function, to implication in neurodevelopmental disorders

Publication date: Available online 22 June 2019Source: Seminars in Cell &Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Maude Bordeleau, Micaël Carrier, Giamal N. Luheshi, Marie-Ève TremblayAbstractIn addition to their traditional role as immune sentinels, recent discoveries over the last decade have shown that microglial functions now include regulation of neuronal/glial cell migration, differentiation and maturation, as well as neuronal network formation. It was thus proposed that disruption of these microglial roles, during critical periods of brain development, could lead to the pathological onset of several neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder. The prevalence of these disorders exhibits a clear distinction along sex lines with very little known about the mechanisms underlying this difference. One of the fundamental discoveries that arose from recent research into the physiological roles of microglia in neurodevelopment is their sexual dimorphism, raising the intriguing possibility that sex differences in microglial colonization, maturation and/or function in the developing brain could underlie the emergence of various neurodevelopmental disorders. This review discusses the physiological roles of microglia across neurodevelopment, these roles in the two sexes, and the recent evidence that microglial sexually dimorphic nature may contribute, at lea...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - Category: Cytology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 1 April 2020Source: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological PsychiatryAuthor(s): Nashwa Amin, Shiyi Xie, Xiaoning Tan, Yili Chen, Qiannan Ren, Benson O.A. Botchway, Shaohua Hu, Yongchun Ma, Zhiying Hu, Marong Fang
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: 31 March 2020Source: Cell Reports, Volume 30, Issue 13Author(s): Sneha Shah, Gemma Molinaro, Botao Liu, Ruijia Wang, Kimberly M. Huber, Joel D. Richter
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
This study comprehensively reviews brain-impaired patients: The studies involving patient populations and the diseases discussed in more than 10 works are included. Eleven diseases examined in this paper include autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, depressive disorders, anxiety and panic disorder, schizophrenia, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer ’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. For each disease, the tasks used for examination, fNIRS variables, and significant findings on the impairment are discussed. The channel configurations and t...
Source: Journal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
In conclusion, the studies presented in the current review demonstrate that CBD has the potential to limit delta-9-THC-induced cognitive impairment and improve cognitive function in various pathological conditions. Human studies suggest that CBD may have a protective role in delta-9-THC-induced cognitive impairments; however, there is limited human evidence for CBD treatment effects in pathological states (e.g. schizophrenia). In short, they found that CBD may help alleviate the negative impact of a person with schizophrenia from taking cannabis, both in the psychotic and cognitive symptoms associated with schizophrenia. T...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Alternative and Nutritional Supplements Disorders General Research Treatment cannabidiol Cannabis cbd cbd oil Marijuana THC Source Type: blogs
AbstractIn the recent 5  years (2014–2018), there has been growing interest in the use of machine learning (ML) techniques to explore image diagnosis and prognosis of therapeutic lesion changes within the area of neuroradiology. However, to date, the majority of research trend and current status have not been clearly il luminated in the neuroradiology field. More than 1000 papers have been published during the past 5 years on subject classification and prediction focused on multiple brain disorders. We provide a survey of 209 papers in this field with a focus on top ten active areas of research; i.e., Alzhe...
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
We can link grain consumption with causing or worsening some of the most mysterious brain disorders that have eluded the medical community for years, such as schizophrenia, epilepsy, depression, bipolar disorder, and, more recently, autism and ADHD. Are you and your kids unknowingly under the influence of opiates? Opiates come disguised in many forms.   Grains contain opiates. Not figuratively, but quite literally. These opiates are not too different from morphine or heroin. Yes, wheat and grains, cleverly disguised as a multigrain loaf of bread to make sandwiches or a hot, steamy plate of macaroni and cheese for the ...
Source: Wheat Belly Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: News & Updates adhd bipolar disorder brain fog concentration Depression diy health Dr. Davis epilepsy grain-free headaches Inflammation mind mood swings OCD opiates schizophrenia undoctored wheat belly Wheat Belly Tot Source Type: blogs
Publication date: July 2018Source: The Lancet Psychiatry, Volume 5, Issue 7Author(s): Line Olsen, Thomas Sparsø, Shantel M Weinsheimer, Marcelo Bertalan Quintanilha Dos Santos, Wiktor Mazin, Anders Rosengren, Xabier Calle Sanchez, Louise K Hoeffding, Henriette Schmock, Marie Baekvad-Hansen, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Mark J Daly, Benjamin M Neale, Marianne G Pedersen, Esben Agerbo, Ole Mors, Anders Børglum, Merete Nordentoft, David M Hougaard, Preben Bo MortensenSummaryBackgroundAlthough the pathogenic nature of copy number variants (CNVs) on chromosome 22q11.2 has been recognised for decades, unbiased estimates...
Source: The Lancet Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 26 October 2017 Source:Epilepsy & Behavior Author(s): Andres M. Kanner, Helen Scharfman, Nathalie Jette, Evdokia Anagnostou, Christophe Bernard, Carol Camfield, Peter Camfield, Karen Legg, Ilan Dinstein, Peter Giacobe, Alon Friedman, Bernd Pohlmann-Eden Epilepsy is a neurologic condition which often occurs with other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. The relation between epilepsy and these conditions is complex. Some population-based studies have identified a bidirectional relation, whereby not only patients with epilepsy are at increased risk of suffering from some of these neur...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2015 Source:Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews Author(s): Deepmala , John Slattery , Nihit Kumar , Leanna Delhey , Michael Berk , Olivia Dean , Charles Spielholz , Richard Frye N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is recognized for its role in acetaminophen overdose and as a mucolytic. Over the past decade, there has been growing evidence for the use of NAC in treating psychiatric and neurological disorders, considering its role in attenuating pathophysiological processes associated with these disorders, including oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation a...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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