Chromatin status is key for regeneration
Publication date: Available online 18 June 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Sonia V. Forcales, Montserrat Corominas (Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 20, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Role of coenzymes in cancer metabolism
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Maheshwor Thapa, Guido DallmannAbstractCancer is a heterogeneous set of diseases characterized by the rewiring of cellular signaling and the reprogramming of metabolic pathways to sustain growth and proliferation. In past decades, studies were focused primarily on the genetic complexity of cancer. Recently, increasing number of studies have discovered several mutations among metabolic enzymes in different tumor cells. Most of the enzymes are regulated by coenzymes, organic cofactors, that function as intermediate c...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 20, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Calcium signalling in health and disease
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Anant B. Parekh (Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 17, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Autophagy and mitophagy in cancer metabolic remodelling
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Fabio Ferro, Stéphane Servais, Pierre Besson, Sébastien Roger, Jean-François Dumas, Lucie BrissonAbstractMetabolic reprogramming in tumours is now recognized as a hallmark of cancer, participating both in tumour growth and cancer progression. Cancer cells develop global metabolic adaptations allowing them to survive in the low oxygen and nutrient tumour microenvironment. Among these metabolic adaptations, cancer cells use glycolysis but also mitochondrial oxidations to produce ATP and building ...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 14, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

NF-κB and mitochondria cross paths in cancer: mitochondrial metabolism and beyond
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Daria Capece, Daniela Verzella, Barbara Di Francesco, Edoardo Alesse, Guido Franzoso, Francesca ZazzeroniAbstractNF-κB plays a pivotal role in oncogenesis. This transcription factor is best known for promoting cancer cell survival and tumour-driving inflammation. However, several lines of evidence support a crucial role for NF-κB in governing energy homeostasis and mediating cancer metabolic reprogramming. Mitochondria are central players in many metabolic processes altered in cancer. Beyond their bioen...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 14, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Large scale control and programming of gene expression using CRISPR
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Matthew Deyell, Sandeep Ameta, Philippe NgheAbstractThe control of gene expression in cells and organisms allows to unveil gene to function relationships and to reprogram biological responses. Several systems, such as Zinc fingers, TALE (Transcription activator-like effectors), and siRNAs (small-interfering RNAs), have been exploited to achieve this. However, recent advances in Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) have overshadowed them due to high specificity, compatibil...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 12, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The multifaceted contribution of α-ketoglutarate to tumor progression: An opportunity to exploit?
This article is part of the special issue “Mitochondrial metabolic alterations in cancer cells and related therapeutic targets”. (Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 11, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

CRISPR-Cas9 directed genome engineering for enhancing salt stress tolerance in rice
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Sufia Farhat, Neha Jain, Nisha Singh, Rohini Sreevathsa, Prasanta K. Dash, Rhitu Rai, Sandeep Yadav, Pramod Kumar, Ananda K. Sarkar, Ajay Jain, Nagendra K Singh, Vandna RaiAbstractCrop productivity in rice is harshly limited due to high concentration of salt in the soil. To understand the intricacies of the mechanism it is important to unravel the key pathways operating inside the plant cell. Emerging state-of-the art technologies have provided the tools to discover the key components inside the plant cell for salt ...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Mitochondria at the interface between neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Verian Bader, Konstanze F. WinklhoferAbstractMitochondria are essential organelles for the maintenance of neuronal integrity, based on their manifold functions in regulating cellular metabolism and coordinating cell death and viability pathways. Accordingly, mitochondrial damage, dysfunction, or ineffective mitochondrial quality control is associated with neurological disorders and can occur as a cause or consequence of neurodegenerative diseases. Recent research revealed that mitochondria play a central role in orc...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Nucleocytoplasmic transport defects in neurodegeneration — Cause or consequence?
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Saskia Hutten, Dorothee DormannAbstractDefects in nucleocytoplasmic transport have been associated with several neurodegenerative disorders and, in particular, the formation of pathological protein aggregates characteristic for the respective disease. However, whether impaired nucleocytoplasmic transport is a consequence of such aggregates or rather contributes to their formation is still mostly unclear.In this review, we summarize recent findings how both soluble and stationary components of the nucleocytoplasmic t...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Cytoplasmic functions of TDP-43 and FUS and their role in ALS
Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Nicol Birsa, Matthew Peter Bentham, Pietro FrattaAbstractTAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) and fused in sarcoma (FUS) are RNA binding proteins (RBPs) primarily located in the nucleus, and involved in numerous aspects of RNA metabolism. Both proteins can be found to be depleted from the nucleus and accumulated in cytoplasmic inclusions in two major neurodegenerative conditions, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Recent evidences suggest that, in addition to their nuclear functions, ...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 5, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

From old to new — Repurposing drugs to target mitochondrial energy metabolism in cancer
Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Sepideh Aminzadeh-Gohari, Daniela D. Weber, Silvia Vidali, Luca Catalano, Barbara Kofler, René G. FeichtingerAbstractAlthough we have entered the era of personalized medicine and tailored therapies, drugs that target a large variety of cancers regardless of individual patient differences would be a major advance nonetheless. This review article summarizes current concepts and therapeutic opportunities in the area of targeting aerobic mitochondrial energy metabolism in cancer. Old drugs previously used for dis...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 5, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Editorial Board/Publication Information
Publication date: July 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, Volume 91Author(s): (Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 5, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Evolution and development of the cartilaginous skull: From a lancelet towards a human face
Publication date: July 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, Volume 91Author(s): Marketa Kaucka, Igor AdameykoAbstractChrondrocranium, the cartilaginous skull, is one of the major innovations that underlie evolution of the vertebrate head. Control of the induction and shaping of the cartilage is a key for the formation of the facial bones and largely defines facial shape. The appearance of cartilage in the head enabled many new functions such as protection of central nervous system and sensory structures, support of the feeding apparatus and formation of muscle attachment points ensuring faster and coor...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 5, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Evolvability of the vertebrate craniofacial skeleton
Publication date: July 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, Volume 91Author(s): Jennifer L. FishAbstractThe skull is a vertebrate novelty. Morphological adaptations of the skull are associated with major evolutionary transitions, including the shift to a predatory lifestyle and the ability to masticate while breathing. These adaptations include the chondrocranium, dermatocranium, articulated jaws, primary and secondary palates, internal choanae, the middle ear, and temporomandibular joint. The incredible adaptive diversity of the vertebrate skull indicates an underlying bauplan that promotes evolvabili...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 5, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

To roll the eyes and snap a bite – function, development and evolution of craniofacial muscles
This article reviews the key aspects of craniofacial muscle and muscle stem cell formation and discusses how this differs from the trunk programme of myogenesis; we show novel RNAseq data to support this notion. We also trace the origin of head muscle in the chordate ancestors of vertebrates and discuss links with smooth-type muscle in the primitive chordate pharynx. We look out as to how the special properties of head muscle precursor and stem cells, in particular their competence to contribute to the heart, could be exploited in regenerative medicine. (Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 5, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Genes and pathways in optic fissure closure
Publication date: July 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, Volume 91Author(s): Aara Patel, Jane C. SowdenAbstractEmbryonic development of the vertebrate eye begins with the formation of an optic vesicle which folds inwards to form a double-layered optic cup with a fissure on the ventral surface, known as the optic fissure. Closure of the optic fissure is essential for subsequent growth and development of the eye. A defect in this process can leave a gap in the iris, retina or optic nerve, known as a coloboma, which can lead to severe visual impairment. This review brings together current information a...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 5, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Periderm: Life-cycle and function during orofacial and epidermal development
Publication date: July 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, Volume 91Author(s): Nigel L. Hammond, Jill Dixon, Michael J. DixonAbstractDevelopment of the secondary palate involves a complex series of embryonic events which, if disrupted, result in the common congenital anomaly cleft palate. The secondary palate forms from paired palatal shelves which grow initially vertically before elevating to a horizontal position above the tongue and fusing together in the midline via the medial edge epithelia. As the epithelia of the vertical palatal shelves are in contact with the mandibular and lingual epithelia,...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 5, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

CRISPR/Cas: An intriguing genomic editing tool with prospects in treating neurodegenerative diseases
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Safikur Rahman, Manali Datta, Jihoe Kim, Arif Tasleem JanAbstractThe CRISPR/Cas genome editing tool has led to a revolution in biological research. Its ability to target multiple genomic loci simultaneously allows its application in gene function and genomic manipulation studies. Its involvement in the sequence specific gene editing in different backgrounds has changed the scenario of treating genetic diseases. By unravelling the mysteries behind complex neuronal circuits, it not only paved way in understanding the ...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 1, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Advancements in CRISPR/Cas9 technology—Focusing on cancer therapeutics and beyond
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Zeenat Mirza, Sajjad KarimAbstract“CRISPR” is an abbreviation for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, which are a characteristic of the bacterial defense system and Cas9 (or "CRISPR-associated") is a RNA-guided DNA endonuclease or molecular scissor, capable of cutting DNA strands. Both together forms the basis for CRISPR-Cas9 targeted genome editing technology and enables highly specific genomic modifications to an organism's DNA. Recent advent of high-throughput genomics...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - June 1, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Microglia-neuron crosstalk: Signaling mechanism and control of synaptic transmission
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Silvia Marinelli, Bernadette Basilico, Maria Cristina Marrone, Davide RagozzinoAbstractThe continuous crosstalk between microglia and neurons is required for microglia housekeeping functions and contributes to brain homeostasis. Through these exchanges, microglia take part in crucial brain functions, including development and plasticity. The alteration of neuron-microglia communication contributes to brain disease states with consequences, ranging from synaptic function to neuronal survival.This review focuses on th...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Glia-specific autophagy dysfunction in ALS
Publication date: Available online 28 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Laura Strohm, Christian BehrendsAbstractNeuronal cell death is the main pathological feature of chronic neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). As age is strongly linked to NDs, these diseases are one of the leading medical and societal challenges faced by the rapidly aging western societies. Despite the increasing prevalence, the causes and mechanisms behind most NDs are still vagu...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Metabolic pathways regulating colorectal cancer initiation and progression
Publication date: Available online 28 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Sofia La Vecchia, Carlos SebastiánAbstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. Despite recent advances in the molecular genetics of CRC, poor treatment outcomes highlight the need for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms accounting for tumor initiation and progression. Recently, deregulation of cellular metabolism has emerged as a key hallmark of cancer. Reprogramming of core cellular metabolic pathways by cancer cells provides energy, anaplerotic precurs...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

3D gastrointestinal models and organoids to study metabolism in human colon cancer
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Catarina Silva-Almeida, Marie-Ann Ewart, Colin WildeAbstractRecent advances in the field of cancer metabolism raised awareness for the importance of the tumour microenvironment in tumour growth and progression. The initial theory by Heinrich Warburg was that cancer cells had a deficient oxidative respiration and thus had to perform aerobic glycolysis to produce energy. However, further research suggested that there is a metabolic reprogramming within the tumour microenvironment, controlled by communication between t...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 26, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Interorganellar calcium signaling in the regulation of cell metabolism: A cancer perspective
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Alessandro Rimessi, Gaia Pedriali, Bianca Vezzani, Anna Tarocco, Saverio Marchi, Mariusz R. Wieckowski, Carlotta Giorgi, Paolo PintonAbstractOrganelles were originally considered to be individual cellular compartments with a defined organization and function. However, recent studies revealed that organelles deeply communicate within each other via Ca2+ exchange. This communication, mediated by specialized membrane regions in close apposition between two organelles, regulate cellular functions, including metabolism a...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 26, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Wild type- and mutant p53 proteins in mitochondrial dysfunction: emerging insights in cancer disease
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Giovanni Blandino, Fabio Valenti, Andrea Sacconi, Silvia Di AgostinoAbstractDeregulated cell metabolism is one of the cancer hallmarks. Mitochondrial DNA mutations and enzyme defects, aberrant tumor suppressor or oncogenic activities cause mitochondrial dysfunction leading to deregulated cellular energetics. The tumor suppressor protein, p53 is a tetrameric transcription factor that in response to diverse genotoxic and non-genotoxic insults activates a plethora of target genes to preserve genome integrity. In the la...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 24, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Stromal-induced mitochondrial re-education: Impact on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer aggressiveness
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Marina Bacci, Luigi Ippolito, Lucia Magnelli, Elisa Giannoni, Paola ChiarugiAbstractMetabolic reprogramming as well as the flexible utilisation of fuel sources by tumour cells has been considered not only intrinsic to malignant cells but also sustained by resident and/or recruited stromal cells. The complexity of tumour-stroma cross-talk is experienced by neoplastic cells through profound changes in the own metabolic machinery. In such context, mitochondria are dynamic organelles that receive, orchestrate and exchan...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 23, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The multifaceted effects of metformin on tumor microenvironment
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Ivana Kurelac, Nikkitha Umesh Ganesh, Maria Iorio, Anna Maria Porcelli, Giuseppe GasparreAbstractThe efficacy of metformin in treating cancer has been extensively investigated since epidemiologic studies associated this anti-diabetic drug with a lower risk of cancer incidence. Since tumors are complex systems, in which cancer cells coexist and interact with several different types of non-malignant cells, it is not surprising that anti-cancer drugs affect not only cancer cells, but also the abundance and functions of...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 23, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Therapeutic targeting of glutaminolysis as an essential strategy to combat cancer
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): José M. Matés, Floriana J. Di Paola, José A. Campos-Sandoval, Sybille Mazurek, Javier MárquezAbstractMetabolic reprogramming in cancer targets glutamine metabolism as a key mechanism to provide energy, biosynthetic precursors and redox requirements to allow the massive proliferation of tumor cells. Glutamine is also a signaling molecule involved in essential pathways regulated by oncogenes and tumor suppressor factors. Glutaminase isoenzymes are critical proteins to control glutaminolysis...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 23, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

A CRISPR/Cas9 based polymeric nanoparticles to treat/inhibit microbial infections
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Richa Verma, Rajnish Sahu, Desh Deepak Singh, Timothy E. EgboAbstractThe latest breakthrough towards the adequate and decisive methods of gene editing tools provided by CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/CRISPR Associated System), has been repurposed into a tool for genetically engineering eukaryotic cells and now considered as the major innovation in gene-related disorders. Nanotechnology has provided an alternate way to overcome the conventional problems where methods to deliver ...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 23, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Reconciling environment-mediated metabolic heterogeneity with the oncogene-driven cancer paradigm in precision oncology
We report how a lactate-based metabolic symbiosis acts as a mechanism of adaptive resistance to targeted therapies and we describe the role of mitochondrial metabolism, in particular oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), to support the growth and survival of therapy-resistant tumor cells in a variety of cancers. Finally, we detail potential metabolism-interfering therapeutic strategies aiming to eradicate OXPHOS-dependent relapse-sustaining malignant cells and we discuss relevant (pre)clinical models that may help integrate TME-driven metabolic heterogeneity in precision oncology. (Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 23, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Fumarate hydratase in cancer: A multifaceted tumour suppressor
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Christina Schmidt, Marco Sciacovelli, Christian FrezzaAbstractCancer is now considered a multifactorial disorder with different aetiologies and outcomes. Yet, all cancers share some common molecular features. Among these, the reprogramming of cellular metabolism has emerged as a key player in tumour initiation and progression. The finding that metabolic enzymes such as fumarate hydratase (FH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), when mutated, cause cancer suggested that metabolic dysreg...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 23, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

CRISPR-cas 9 directed genome engineering for enhancing salt stress tolerance in rice
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Sufia Farhat, Neha Jain, Nisha Singh, Rohini Sreevathsa, Prasanta K. Das, Rhitu Rai, Sandeep Yadav, Pramod Kumar, Anand Sarkar, Ajay Jain, Nagendra K Singh, Vandna RaiAbstractCrop productivity in rice is harshly limited due to high concentration of salt in the soil. To understand the intricacies of the mechanism it is important to unravel the key pathways operating inside the plant cell. Emerging state-of-the art technologies have provided the tools to discover the key components inside the plant cell for salt toler...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 21, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Mitochondrial metabolism: Inducer or therapeutic target in tumor immune-resistance?
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Joanna Kopecka, Elena Gazzano, Barbara Castella, Iris C. Salaroglio, Eleonora Mungo, Massimo Massaia, Chiara RigantiAbstractMitochondria have been considered for a long time only as the principal source of building blocks and energy upon aerobic conditions. Recently they emerged as key players in cell proliferation, invasion and resistance to therapy. The most aggressive tumors are able to evade the immune-surveillance. Alterations in the mitochondria metabolism either in cancer cells or in host immune system cells ...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 20, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Chromatin dynamics in regeneration epithelia: Lessons from Drosophila imaginal discs
Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Elena Vizcaya-Molina, Cecilia C. Klein, Florenci Serras, Montserrat CorominasAbstractDuring the process of regeneration, a switch in the transcription program occurs in cells that contribute to the reconstruction of the missing tissue. Early signals released upon damage are integrated into the chromatin of responding cells to change its activity and function. Changes in chromatin dynamics result in transcriptional reprogramming, this is the coordinated regulation of expression of a specific subset of genes required ...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 17, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Chromatin dynamics underlying the precise regeneration of a vertebrate limb – Epigenetic regulation and cellular memory
Publication date: Available online 13 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Shinichi Hayashi, Koji Tamura, Hitoshi YokoyamaAbstractWound healing, tissue regeneration, and organ regrowth are all regeneration phenomena observed in vertebrates after an injury. However, the ability to regenerate differs greatly among species. Mammals can undergo wound healing and tissue regeneration, but cannot regenerate an organ; for example, they cannot regrow an amputated limb. In contrast, amphibians and fish have much higher capabilities for organ-level regeneration. In addition to medical studies and tho...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 14, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Targeting metabolic reprogramming in metastatic melanoma: The key role of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT)
Publication date: Available online 14 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Valentina Audrito, Antonella Managò, Federica Gaudino, Silvia DeaglioAbstractCancer cells rewire their metabolism to support proliferation, growth and survival. In metastatic melanoma the BRAF oncogenic pathway is a master regulator of this process, highlighting the importance of metabolic reprogramming in the pathogenesis of this tumor and offering potential therapeutic approaches.Metabolic adaptation of melanoma cells generally requires increased amounts of NAD+, an essential redox cofactor in cellular meta...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 14, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

CRISPR mediated genome engineering to develop climate smart rice: Challenges and opportunities
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Akshaya K. Biswal, Satendra K. Mangrauthia, M. Raghurami Reddy, Poli YugandharAbstractRice is a staple food crop, which ensures the calorie requirement of half of the world’s population. With the continued increase in population, rice will play a key role in achieving the food security. However, in the constantly shrinking scenario of rice fields, the necessity of these extra grains of rice must be met by reducing the yield loss due to various abiotic and biotic stresses. The adverse effects of climate impact ...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 11, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Charannya Sozheesvari Subhramanyam, Cheng Wang, Qidong Hu, S Thameem DheenAbstractMicroglia, being the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis and contributes towards brain development under normal conditions. However, when there is a neuronal injury or other insult, depending on the type and magnitude of stimuli, microglia will be activated to secrete either proinflammatory factors that enhance cytotoxicity or anti-inflammatory neuroprotective fa...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 11, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Epigenetics in neuronal regeneration
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Leah S. VandenBosch, Thomas A. RehAbstractDamage to neuronal tissues in mammals leads to permanent loss of tissue function that can have major health consequences. While mammals have no inherent regenerative capacity to functionally repair neuronal tissue, other species such as amphibians and teleost fish readily replace damaged tissue. The exploration of development and native regeneration can thus inform the process of inducing regeneration in non-regenerative systems, which can be used to develop new therapeutics....
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 11, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Improving plant-resistance to insect-pests and pathogens: The new opportunities through targeted genome editing
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Deepak Singh Bisht, Varnika Bhatia, Ramcharan BhattacharyaAbstractThe advantages of high input agriculture are fading away due to degenerating soil health and adverse effects of climate change. Safeguarding crop yields in the changing environment and dynamics of pest and pathogens, has posed new challenges to global agriculture. Thus, integration of new technologies in crop improvement has been imperative for achieving the breeding objectives in faster ways. Recently, enormous potential of genome editing through engi...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 8, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

CRISPR-Cas9: A multifaceted therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment
Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Itishree Kaushik, Sharavan Ramachandran, Sanjay K. SrivastavaAbstractCRISPR-Cas9 is an RNA guided endonuclease that has revolutionized the ability to edit genome and introduce desired manipulations in the target genomic sequence. It is a flexible methodology and is capable of targeting multiple loci simultaneously. Owing to the fact that cancer is an amalgamation of several genetic mutations, application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology is considered as a novel strategy to combat cancer. Genetic and epigenetic modulations i...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 6, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Tailored chromatin modulation to promote tissue regeneration
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Paloma Martinez-Redondo, Juan Carlos Izpisua BelmonteAbstractEpigenetic regulation of gene expression is fundamental in the maintenance of cellular identity and the regulation of cellular plasticity during tissue repair. In fact, epigenetic modulation is associated with the processes of cellular de-differentiation, proliferation, and re-differentiation that takes place during tissue regeneration. In here we explore the epigenetic events that coordinate tissue repair in lower vertebrates with high regenerative capacit...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Regulation of succinate dehydrogenase and role of succinate in cancer
Publication date: Available online 1 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Elisa Dalla Pozza, Ilaria Dando, Raffaella Pacchiana, Elio Liboi, Maria Teresa Scupoli, Massimo Donadelli, Marta PalmieriAbstractSuccinate dehydrogenase (SDH) has been classically considered a mitochondrial enzyme with the unique property to participate in both the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain. However, in recent years, several studies have highlighted the role of the SDH substrate, i.e. succinate, in biological processes other than metabolism, tumorigenesis being the most remarkable. For this r...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Editorial Board/Publication Information
Publication date: June 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, Volume 90Author(s): (Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - May 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

LC3-associated phagocytosis - The highway to hell for phagocytosed microbes
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Marc Herb, Alexander Gluschko, Michael SchrammAbstractPhagocytes ingest, kill and degrade invading microbes in a process called phagocytosis. LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) combines the molecular machinery of phagocytosis with that of autophagy, the cellular pathway for ingestion of cytoplasmic components, resulting in the eponymous association of ‘microtubule-associated proteins 1 A/1B light chain 3’ (LC3) with the phagosomal membrane. The LC3-decorated phagosomes, or LAPosomes, show enhance...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - April 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Microglial alterations induced by psychoactive drugs: A possible mechanism in substance use disorder?
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Clarissa Catale, Silvia Bussone, Luisa Lo Iacono, Valeria CarolaAbstractRecently, the xenobiotic hypothesis has implicated the immune system in targeting substances of abuse as foreign molecules and stimulating inflammatory responses. Microglial cells are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system and function in homeostatic surveillance. Microglial changes that are induced by exposure to substances of abuse appear to mediate in part the establishment of addiction and the persistence of drug-mediated ...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - April 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

What plant roots know?
Publication date: Available online 29 April 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Ariel NovoplanskyAbstractDespite their paramount role in plant life, the study of roots has been largely neglected until recently. Here, I shortly describe a few newly-discovered abilities of plants to undergo adaptive changes and execute developmental decisions based on roots’ perception of non-resource information pertaining to imminent challenges and opportunities. Seemingly simple in their morphology and architecture and lacking central information-processing centres, roots are able to sense and integrat...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - April 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Sound perception in plants
We describe evidence of plant responses to sounds, varying from changes in gene expression to changes in pathogen resistance and nectar composition.The main focus of this review is the effect of airborne sounds on living plants. We also review work on sound emissions by plants, and plant morphological adaptations to sound. Finally, we discuss the ecological contexts where response to sound would be most advantageous to plants. (Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - April 28, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Spotlight on epigenetic reprogramming in cardiac regeneration
Publication date: Available online 26 April 2019Source: Seminars in Cell & Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Carolina Soler-Botija, Sonia Vanina Forcales, Antoni Bayés GenísAbstractHeart failure of ischemic origin is caused by the presence of a large scar resulting from an acute myocardial infarction. Acute myocardial infarction generally occurs when blood supply to the heart is blocked. Regenerative strategies that limit infarct injury would be able to prevent adverse post-ischemic remodelling and maintain the structural support necessary for effective cardiomyocyte contraction. Our understanding of endoge...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - April 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research