Behavior and Molecular Genetic Approaches to Comorbidity

AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides an overview of studies that used behavioral genetic methods to understand the genetic and environmental influences that lead to comorbidity, the co-occurrence of two or more developmental disorders in the same individual.Recent FindingsComorbidity is primarily explained by shared genetic influences for most pairs of disorders that have been studied, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities, conduct disorder and ADHD, anxiety and depression, and anxiety and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Molecular genetic studies indicate that the etiologies of developmental disorders are highly multifactorial, with dozens or even hundreds of genes acting in combination with environmental risk factors to lead to each individual disorder and the extensive comorbidity between disorders. Due to this complexity, current state-of-the-art studies are now combining molecular genetic data from multiple large samples to begin to achieve adequate statistical power to identify the specific genetic polymorphisms that lead to comorbidity.SummaryAn extensive literature demonstrates the pervasiveness and potential importance of comorbidity between developmental disorders, and results of family, twin, and molecular genetic studies indicate that these comorbidities may be largely explained by shared genetic influences. Additional studies are ongoing to identify the specific genetic polymorphisms that increase risk for eac...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Related Links:

Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: Journal of Pharmacological SciencesAuthor(s): Kinzo Matsumoto, Hironori Fujiwara, Ryota Araki, Takeshi YabeAbstractPost-weaning social isolation of laboratory animals is known induce many behavioural and neurochemical abnormalities, which resemble neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Therefore, they can help provide a suitable animal model to investigate the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms and explore potential drugs for the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. Our recent studies have demonstrated that post-weaning social isolat...
Source: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be at higher risk for psychiatric disorders and suicide attempt, according to a large, population-basedstudy published inJAMA Pediatrics.The risk for psychiatric disorders and suicide among children with IBD was greater when compared with siblings without IBD, indicating that the risk is likely related to IBD itself and not to genetic or environmental factors shared with siblings."Particularly concerning is the increased risk of suicide attempt," wrote Agnieszka Butwicka, M.D., Ph.D., of the Karolinska Institute in Sweden and colleagues. "Long-term psycholog...
Source: Psychiatr News - Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADHD anxiety autism Crohn's disease IBD inflammatory bowel disease mood disorders personality disorders suicide ulcerative colitis Source Type: research
People living with autism are sensitive to the social world and the environment in general. They could experience great difficulties in social situations, have anxieties, fears, phobias, or sensory sensitivities. On the other hand, they could be on good terms with technologies: social stories apps can navigate them in difficult situations, virtual and augmented reality can offer a safe space for them to exercise, and artificial intelligence helps in early detection. We scoured the ground carefully and hereby present you the intersections of autism and digital health. Raymond Babbitt’s heritage and the chronicles ...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Future of Medicine AI app AR artificial intelligence autism digital digital health digital technology games genetics health app health apps Innovation virtual reality VR Source Type: blogs
Conclusion: Fun seeking on the BAS and frustration intolerance should be considered as targets in prevention and intervention programs for IA among adolescents with ADHD.IntroductionThe negative effects of internet addiction (IA) have become a concern in the past decades. IA is characterized by persistent internet use despite negative consequences, loss of control, preoccupation with internet use, increasing amounts of time spent online, and withdrawal symptoms (1). Internet gaming disorders are listed in the “Conditions for Further Study” section in the Fifth Edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Men...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusions: Sleep patterns in children and adolescents were related to the psychiatric diagnosis of their parent(s). Future follow-up of these results may clarify the relations between early sleep differences and the risk of developing mood disorders in individuals at high familial risk.IntroductionSleep disturbances are core symptoms of mood disorders including major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder (1). Additionally, sleep problems have been associated with more severe symptoms, greater functional impairment, and increased risk for relapse among individuals with mood disorders (2). Over 40% of children and youth...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
ConclusionCompared with girls in the general population, girls with epilepsy seem to be at a higher risk of being diagnosed with ADHD/ASD as the gender ratio is more equal. This could be related to differences in the assessment of CWE and/or a shared pathogenesis between psychiatric conditions and epilepsy.
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Compared with girls in the general population, girls with epilepsy seem to be at a higher risk of being diagnosed with ADHD/ASD as the gender ratio is more equal. This could be related to differences in the assessment of CWE and/or a shared pathogenesis between psychiatric conditions and epilepsy. PMID: 30909078 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research
CASE: Sam is a 6-year-old boy with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who recently relocated and has an appointment with you, his new pediatric clinician, to establish care. He was previously followed by a psychiatrist for 2 years for additional diagnoses of insomnia, bipolar disorder, anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and intellectual disability. He has tried and (apparently) failed multiple psychotropic trials including stimulants, nonstimulants, mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics. He has a delayed sleep onset and frequent night awakenings each night f...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics - Category: Child Development Tags: Challenging Case Source Type: research
CASE: Alex is a 13-year-old adolescent with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-combined type, anxiety, and depression. He has been resistant to engaging in therapy and treatment with various medications has been unsuccessful. Alex's parents are concerned about his anxiety, isolation, oppositional behaviors, academic underachievement, truancy, and substance use. A recent altercation with his stepfather led to a police intervention and a brief removal of Alex from the home. Alex previously used alcohol and other drugs; at present, he reports that his current drug use co...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics - Category: Child Development Tags: Challenging Case Source Type: research
Conclusion: Prenatal urinary BPA concentration was associated with some aspects of child behavior in this cohort, and some associations were stronger among boys. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP984 Received: 18 August 2016 Revised: 09 December 2016 Accepted: 12 December 2016 Published: 16 June 2017 Address correspondence to Joseph M. Braun, Department of Epidemiology, Box G-S121-2, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 USA. Telephone: (401) 863-5397. E-mail: joseph_braun_1@brown.edu Supplemental Material is available online (https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP984). The authors declare they have no actual or potential competing fi...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
More News: ADHD | Anxiety | Autism | Child Development | Depression | Disability | Environmental Health | Genetics | Hyperactivity | Learning | Statistics | Study | Universities & Medical Training