Blink and You Will Miss It: a Core Role for Fast and Dynamic Visual Processing in Social Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIndividuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have often been reported to demonstrate a range of anomalies in visual perceptual function. Rather than reflecting an epiphenomenon to core social communication difficulties in ASD, a visual disturbance in early development could provide a causal mechanism for some aspects of impaired social communication. An overview of key visual pathways and cortical/subcortical regions of the visual system is provided, to aid the reader in appreciating the subsequent discussion of the relationship between visual processing and social communication.Recent FindingsW...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - October 15, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Current Trends in Telehealth Applications to Deliver Social Communication Interventions for Young Children with or at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder
This article highlights the current trends in social communication intervention via telehealth used in early intervention practices for children with ASD over the past 5  years, including a brief review of studies (from 2014 to January 2020) and our team’s experiences in this area.Recent FindingsBased on our experience and the 22 studies we identified in this area, we describe the current trends in telehealth applications used and how interventions were delivered. We also provide recommendations, limitations, and future directions on this topic.SummaryTelehealth offers innovative intervention delivery options by...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - October 12, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Coping with Tics in School and with Peers
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTics often draw negative attention and may interfere with social and academic performance. When enduring a year or longer ( “persistent”), tic disorders are usually associated with one or more nontic coexisting conditions that can exacerbate tic severity and pose their own social and academic interferences. This review examines the range of these vulnerabilities and explores strategies and interventions to help affec ted children and youth cope with tics in school and with peers.Recent FindingsStigma and bullying are frequent outcomes, which contribute to coping challenges that emerge f...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - October 5, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Prescribing Trends in Adult ADHD and Co-occurring Substance Use Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIllicit substance use overlapping with mental illness has always been a huge clinical concern. The same extends true for ADHD and substance use overlap as both these conditions alone and together can negatively affect the individual ’s quality of life. It is important to understand and identify any potential gaps in-regards to the need vs receiving the treatment for these co-occurring disorders. The data was collected from Board certified, USA based adult psychiatrist.Recent FindingsNo recent data available that studies the prescribing trends among physicians who treat adult ADHD and substanc...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - October 4, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Associations between Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Attachment Patterns in Preschool-Aged Children: Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAttachment is a biological evolutionary system contributing to infant survival. In neurotypical children, secure attachment is critical to healthy brain and organ-system development. Attachment patterns in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) have not been extensively explored. The purpose of this review is to appraise and summarize the literature examining attachment in children with NDDs.Recent FindingsChildren with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability (ID) or developmental language disorder (DLD) displayed behavior indicative of secure attachments. Approximately 4...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - October 3, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Prenatal Risk Factors for Tourette Syndrome: a Systematic Review Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTourette ’s syndrome (TS), a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent motor and vocal tics, is understood to be a genetic disorder with a complex pattern of inheritance and a high degree of heritability. Nonetheless, adversity during pregnancy and early life has been associated with the onse t of TS. Understanding these associations may reveal more about the pathogenesis and disease processes of TS.Recent FindingsAll of the studies included in the review found at least one association between a peri-/prenatal risk factor and TS, although inconsistencies were present. Maternal p...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - September 29, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Handwriting Difficulties in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHandwriting is a particular difficulty in DCD. Children who struggle to produce legible and sufficiently fast handwriting may under-achieve at school. Using van Galen ’s model, this review examines recent research to describe the nature of handwriting difficulties in DCD. The range of assessment tools is highlighted and recommendations for intervention provided.Recent FindingsEmbedded in the broader skill of writing, handwriting involves more than motor skill. Children with DCD tend to produce less writing than their peers. Their slow rate of production is characterised by frequent pauses. Er...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - September 26, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Novel Pharmacological Approaches for Tourette Syndrome
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe need to develop novel pharmacological approaches for TS is balanced by the necessity for interventions to be safe and tolerable. This review provides an overview of studies of medications for TS over the last 3  years.Recent FindingsFour studies of deutetrabenazine and valbenazine in TS failed in their primary outcomes. Ecopipam was more effective than placebo in reducing tics in children. Preliminary evidence suggests that a new endocannabinoid modulator (ABX-1431) has an acute effect on tics in adults. Intravenous valproic acid was more effective than oral aripiprazole in children wi...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - September 14, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Diverse Patterns of Autonomic Nervous System Response to Sensory Stimuli Among Children with Autism
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChildren with autism have been found to exhibit sensory modulation difficulties related to atypical autonomic nervous system responses to sensory stimuli. Most studies mainly differentiate their autonomic response to sensory stimuli from their typically developing peers. The patterns of autonomic response may provide a compelling explanation of the regulatory capabilities among these populations. The purpose of this review is to characterize the patterns of autonomic nervous response to sensory stimulation among children with autism.Recent FindingsThere is emerging evidence from the recent literatu...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - September 13, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

What Can We Do to Promote Mental Health Among Individuals With Developmental Coordination Disorder?
We present and discuss options based on a societal perspective (awareness and understanding), parental perspective (access to services and resources), and child perspective (participation).SummaryIn order to improve mental health, interventions must take into account multiple levels in a complex framework that includes community, family, and the individual. While more research on intervention effectiveness is necessary, researchers, practitioners, and community advocates can use existing initiatives as a starting point to address the urgent need for improving mental health in DCD. (Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports)
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - August 18, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Key Considerations for Providing Self-Management Support to Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this review is to identify key considerations for health providers delivering self-management support to adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) living with chronic health conditions.Recent FindingsThere is an emerging body of evidence to inform the delivery of self-management support for adults with IDD living with chronic health conditions. The most extensive research on this topic relates to diabetes self-management, with a small number of studies on general chronic disease self-management. Three over-arching themes were identified: (1) acknowledging autonomy, re...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - July 12, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Communication in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: a Brief Overview of the Profile, Intervention Approaches, and Future Considerations
AbstractPurpose of Brief Review22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a micro-deletion disorder with a heterogenous complex presentation including significant communication difficulties. This brief review discusses the communication profile and potential approaches to enhancing communication skills for these learners.Recent FindingsThe communication profile of 22q11.2DS has been described in several studies identifying early assessment, monitoring, and on-going language interventions as best practice for those with 22q11.2DS. However, few studies have reported on empirical findings of specific interventions to enhance th...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - July 5, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Quality of Life of Adults with an Intellectual Disability
AbstractPurpose of ReviewQuality of life can be measured both objectively, by frequencies and quantities, and subjectively through feelings. The subjective dimension is the most difficult to measure and the topic of this review.Recent FindingsSubjective wellbeing is commonly measured by asking how “happy” or “satisfied” people feel on a standardized set of questions. One crucial requirement is that these questions are the same for everyone, whether they have a disability or not. This ensures equivalent standards for judging high and low life quality. The Personal Wellbeing Index meets these requirem...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - July 1, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Stigma, Acceptance and Belonging for People with IDD Across Cultures
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review explores recent literature (from 2017 onwards) to identify current developments related to reducing stigma and increasing acceptance for people with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD) in their communities across diverse cultures.Recent FindingsWe identified literature related to experiences of stigma for people with IDD and their families across diverse cultures, as well as current and potential interventions and approaches for promoting acceptance.SummaryAlthough the literature confirms that stigma is still a major barrier to acceptance and inclusion for people with IDD ...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - June 29, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Employment Supports and Outcomes for Persons with Intellectual and/or Developmental Disabilities: a Review of Recent Findings
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this article is to examine the preparation of youths and adults with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) for employment and the personal and organizational factors that support their participation in the workforce.Recent FindingsDespite evidence of the positive impacts of employment, high rates of unemployment and underemployment persist. However, the variety of employment options is increasing to include social purpose enterprise, customized employment, integrated work, competitive employment, and military membership. Central to employment success is the fit between...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - June 29, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Recent Trends and Future Directions in Research Regarding Parents with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
This report updates research on parents with IDD and their children published since 2014.Recent FindingsSince 2014, a plethora of studies using large administrative databases in different countries support a contextual approach to understand why parents with IDD and their children may have worse outcomes than other families. In most studies, increased risk of ill health in women with IDD and health and developmental problems in their children were fully or partially accounted for by socioeconomic and psychosocial hardships. New research has found that pregnant women with IDD tend to have risk factors for pregnancy, birth, ...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - June 29, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Early Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEarly intervention can enhance the development of young children with IDD by altering the developmental trajectory and preventing further delay. This review summarizes the approach and findings of studies on early behavioral interventions specific to young children (
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - June 28, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Navigating School Interactions: Parents of Students with Intellectual Disabilities Speak Out
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOur attraction to the verbiage of partnership casts a misleading conjecture that schools and parents are a collaborative unit with a single purpose. For too many parents, especially for those whose children present “problems” for schools, the relationship can be fraught with disillusionment and frustration. The purpose of this work is to highlight and contextualize the complex experiences of parents of children with intellectual disabilities as they navigate their child’s schooling.Recent FindingsThrough the presentation of research findings and project data, we explore the nature...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - June 26, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Emotion Regulation as a Transdiagnostic Feature in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEmotion regulation is recognized as a core underlying dimension common across psychiatric disorders and could be conceptualized as a transdiagnostic feature (i.e., mechanism underlying comorbidity). This review highlights recent research examining emotion regulation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).Recent FindingsDifficulties with emotion regulation are increasingly recognized as common deficits in children with ADHD and ASD. Research indicates that emotion regulation transmits risk for co-occurring disorders within a diagnostic gro...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - June 20, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Language Screening: How Far Have We Come?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewA brief literature review of the past 5  years was conducted to provide updated information regarding language screening at all ages. Included will be information regarding classification accuracy of commercially available tools, as well as current methods reported in recent literature for early intervention, preschool, school age, adole scent, and adult populations.Recent FindingsBased on a brief literature review of the past 5  years, there seem to be very little novel or important new findings in this area.SummaryTo date, there is no gold standard for language screening at any age. Whi...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - June 8, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Mindfulness and ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) in Adolescents
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this review is to discuss benefits of mindfulness for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents.Recent FindingsADHD is a developmental disorder that persists into adulthood for most of the cases. ADHD, an often lifelong condition, is characterized by prevalent impairment in numerous domains such as mental health, occupational, academic, and many more. Pharmacological treatment option (e.g., stimulant) is a core of treatment for ADHD. However, even after receiving proper pharmacological medications, numerous patients continue to experience impairment ...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - June 7, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Opportunity Barriers and Promising Practices for Supporting Individuals with Complex Communication Needs
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIt is well established that individuals with complex communication needs (CCN) can increase their ability to communicate efficiently and effectively. However, many individuals with CCN experience opportunity barriers with regard to the development of communication skills. This paper will review promising practices and research implications for addressing opportunity barriers for individuals with complex communication needs.Recent FindingsIndividuals with CCN may experience opportunity barriers to the development of communication skills, including barriers related to policies, practices, knowledge/s...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - May 29, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Biomarkers for ADHD: the Present and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by inattention, impulsivity, diminished executive functions, and hyperactivity. Objective criteria can be used to assess the diagnosis and response of the disease to medications.Recent FindingsSeveral biomarkers belonging to electrophysiological, genetic, peripheral, and miRNA-based biomarkers have shown promise in studies to be an objective aid to clinical diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of ADHD.SummaryThis review article focuses on summarizing the existing evidence for differ...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - May 26, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

A Selective Review of Milieu Interventions for Adults with Severe Intellectual Disabilities
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper considers milieu training (MT) as a communication treatment for adults with severe intellectual disabilities. The paper seeks the following answers: (1) What is MT? (2) How does current research inform the MT knowledge base? and (3) Is MT a viable treatment option for adults with severe intellectual disabilities challenged by communication impairments?Recent FindingsResearch describes MT as a viable treatment option for young children with communication and language impairments. Specifically, MT has been applied with fidelity to several populations demonstrating emergent communication an...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - May 25, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Treatment in Geriatrics
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe main purpose of this review is to understand how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects geriatrics (elderly population).Recent FindingsADHD is a common neuropsychiatric condition, which is not well studied in geriatrics. Current literature does not have too much information on effects of ADHD in geriatrics. ADHD in elderly population is accompanied by various comorbidities such as anxiety and depression.SummaryThis review will provide an overview of existing literature on prevalence of ADHD in elderly population along with the comorbidities and available treatment options for t...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - May 7, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Autism in Later Life: What Is Known and What Is Needed?
This report summarises the available literature regarding older autistic adults over the age of 50, from 2010 to mid-2019.Recent FindingsEmerging evidence suggests that older autistic adults experience complex physical and mental health comorbidities. Studies that have included older adults report challenges such as underemployment, a lack of appropriate healthcare, and concerns for caring relationships as the adult ages. However, these studies have tended to be skewed towards younger and middle-aged adults.SummaryOverall, there is a notable lack of studies that focus on older autistic adults and on ageing-relevant topics,...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - April 29, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Promoting Participation in DCD: Physical Activity Levels and the Social Network
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPhysical inactivity is a worldwide problem, also affecting children with motor problems, such as developmental coordination disorder. We try to understand what motivates children to start, continue, and stop having an active lifestyle and explore the role that the social network of the child can have to stimulate an active lifestyle.Recent FindingsSocial network theory is useful for understanding individual and group behavior related to physical activity. Social networks, ranging from peers and parents to teachers and medical professionals were shown to play an important role in bringing about sust...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - April 25, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Training-Induced Neuroplasticity in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder
We present an overview of current knowledge and highlight the effects of Cognitive Orientation to Occupational Performance (CO-OP) intervention on brain st ructure in children with DCD.Recent FindingsThe frontal lobe, parietal lobe, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and the corpus callosum have been associated with motor learning difficulties in children with DCD. We found that white matter microstructure and/or volume in theright corona radiata,anterior thalamic radiation, and thecorpus callosum improves following CO-OP intervention in children with DCD.SummaryTraining-induced changes in brain structure and function can be seen ...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - April 20, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

As Diverse as the Spectrum Itself: Trends in Sexuality, Gender and Autism
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this paper is to provide an update on recent findings relating to sexuality and gender in autism. The following questions were posed in the review of recent literature: What are the key emerging trends in sexuality and gender within autism, and how might these issues have clinical significance?Recent FindingsAfter many years of misinformation, it is now recognised that most autistic people are interested in romance and sexuality. There is growing awareness of reduced heterosexuality and increased diversity and dysphoria in gender identity in autistic people, and initial clinical guideli...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - March 22, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Relationships Between Motor Competence, Physical Activity, Fitness and Self-Concept in Children and Adolescents with DCD
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStrong links exist in children and adolescents with high motor competence between physical activity level, physical fitness and self-concept. Are similar associations also evident for those with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and do they vary with age or between genders?Recent FindingsLow levels of physical activity and fitness have been identified in those with DCD, but self-concept was not considered in these studies. The picture is muddied by the many terms used to investigate the self. We identified that self-concept is not necessarily lower in those with DCD if they do not believe ...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - February 12, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Examining the Effectiveness of a Variable Momentary Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior Procedure on Reduction and Maintenance of Problem Behavior
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo evaluate the effectiveness of variable-momentary differential reinforcement of other behavior (VM DRO) schedules in the reduction and maintenance of problem behavior. Specifically, will VM DRO be effective in reducing severe problem behavior for two children diagnosed with developmental disorders (DD)?Recent FindingsDifferential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing severe problem behavior for decades. However, recent manipulations to the schedule of delivery have led to advancements in DRO. Indicatively, VM DRO has been an effective intervention...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - February 7, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Is Developmental Coordination Disorder a Dysconnection Syndrome?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewClassical view of disconnection refers to damage in white matter connections leading to behavioral deficits on sensorimotor and cognitive tasks in brain-injured patients. A more recent conception refers to dysconnection, that means abnormal connectivity between brain regions, as found in psychiatric, neurodegenerative, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The present paper aims to explore the hypothesis that Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) presents a set of neural, behavioral, and cognitive signs that suggest a dysconnection syndrome.Recent FindingsCurrent literature on DCD using behavioral ...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - January 27, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Augmentative and Alternative Communication Intervention for People With Angelman Syndrome: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAngelman syndrome is often associated with severe communication impairment indicating the need for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention. The present review sought to identify and summarize intervention studies on the use of augmentative and alternative communication for people with Angelman syndrome.Recent FindingsRecently, a specific communicative profile has been suggested for people with Angelman syndrome. To identify the usefulness of AAC to augment this profile, we conducted a systematic search of the literature. Nine studies were identified and summarized with respect...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - January 13, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Nature and Function of Vocalizations in Atypical Communication
AbstractPurpose of ReviewA survey of current research including people with disorders in which speech is impaired shows that vocalizations are vastly discussed as a communication strategy, used both in isolation or paired with other aids. The principal goal of this paper is to describe the ways researchers are using the termvocalizations and the meanings and functions attributed to it. We also discuss possible future developments for specific research on unaided communication.Recent FindingsAlthough research has not focused specifically on the nature and function of vocalizations, several scholars were able to highlight th...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - January 10, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Preventing Challenging Behaviors in People with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review the current literature on preventing challenging behaviors in people with neurodevelopmental disabilities. The goal of the review is to identify existing best practices shown to prevent or reduce challenging behaviors. We then review emerging areas of innovation that may help contribute to a more robust approach to prevent the development of these behaviors.Recent FindingsPreventative interventions that include family-based protective factors, communication skills, social competence, and/or functional skills show evidence of reducing or preventing challenging behaviors. Research on the em...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - November 15, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

ADHD in Adults and Its Relation with Methamphetamine Use: National Data
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder and methamphetamine use disorder are common comorbidities. National data regarding methamphetamine use is available per the most recent SAMSHA report. Even though attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and methamphetamine seem to commonly coexist, we do not have national figures which would provide a more comprehensive picture. The purpose of the article is to highlight this comorbidity and discuss some of the possible shared neurobiological and other pertinent overlapping features.Recent FindingsPer the 2017 SAMSHA report, among the 8.3 million younger ad...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - November 14, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Prevalence of Challenging Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities, Correlates, and Association with Mental Health
We describe common correlates identified such as communication impairments, severity of intellectual disability, and living in institutional settings or congregate care. We also describe the complex and multifaceted relationship between challenging behaviour and mental health.SummaryBased on recent studies, we propose a revised framework model to help understand challenging behaviour. We propose a number of areas where more research is required, particularly the development of risk tools clinicians can utilise in practice. (Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports)
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - November 7, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Driving and Road Rage Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe main objective of the present review was to give an overall idea regarding the impacts of ADHD on driving and road rage. In addition, we have also discussed the possible treatment options for ADHD drivers in brief.Recent FindingsAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a type of developmental disorder, which is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. ADHD affects around 2.5% of the population. Individuals with ADHD have numerous impairments of cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. And this affects their day-to-day life. One of the major daily activities, ...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - November 6, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Review of Evidence-Based Approaches to Caregiver Training
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTraining caregivers on tasks related to quality of life for the individuals they support is important across service sectors. Moreover, trainees often rank quality training as highly acceptable. This review summarizes the current status of the caregiver training literature, while providing recommendations for future research initiatives.Recent FindingsTelecommunication and pyramidal training models represent advancements in caregiver trainings, and burgeoning evidence suggests that these approaches may effectively develop caregiver skill mastery. However, improved caregiver performance may not reli...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - November 6, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Sleep and ADHD: A review article
AbstractPurpose of ReviewADHD which is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder affecting cognitive and behavioral domains of the person affected has also been known to be associated with sleep problems as a comorbidity.Recent FindingsSleep disorders including sleep-disordered breathing, restless leg syndrome, narcolepsy, insomnia, and hypersomnia have been known to have an intertwined relationship. On the other hand, changes in sleep pattern have also been reported to affect the domains that are affected in ADHD. Medications used to treat ADHD have also been known to affect sleep in these patients.SummaryThis review article su...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - November 6, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Neurobiology of ADHD: A Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewADHD is a complex neuropsychiatric condition which has been known to cause a lot of changes in the structural and functional aspects as well as neurochemistry of the brain.Recent FindingsThe structural aspects include changes primarily affecting but not limited to the prefrontal cortex, corpus striatum, and cerebellum. Dopamine and norepinephrine are the key neurotransmitters that are implicated in the pathophysiology of this condition. The above-mentioned neurotransmitter transporters and alterations or mutations to their genes have also been known to be a common finding in patients with ADHD.Summ...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - November 5, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Variations of Functional Communication Training and Their Effects on Resurgence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this study was to evaluate what effect teaching multiple functional communicative responses (FCRs) as outlined in serial functional communication training (FCT) had on resurgence of problem behavior and FCRs during extinction challenges. Researchers then evaluated what effect implementing a lag schedule of reinforcement following serial FCT had on resurgence of problem behavior and FCRs during extinction challenges compared with serial FCT.Recent FindingsRecent findings evaluated the effect of a serial FCT procedure on resurgence of problem behavior, and the persistence of FCRs in an...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - October 28, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Psychotropic Medication in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Patterns of Use and Recommendations for Monitoring Effects
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this paper is to provide a brief review of the patterns of psychotropic medication use in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and recommendations for monitoring the effects of these medications.Recent FindingsChallenging behavior (e.g., aggression, self-injury, property destruction) in individuals with IDD is often observed, and both behavioral and pharmacological interventions have been evaluated for their effectiveness in treating these behaviors. Although behavioral interventions have been shown to be effective at decreasing challenging behavior, psy...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - October 25, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Functional Assessment of Challenging Behavior
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to evaluate recent research on functional assessment procedures to identify recent advances and best practices.Recent FindingsIndirect assessments are the most limited form of functional assessment, but their value increases when conducted by behavior analysts rather than caregivers. Direct assessments produce more valid outcomes than indirect assessments, but do not demonstrate a functional relationship between the environmental contingencies and the behavior. Functional analysis procedures are the most rigorous and valid approaches. Recent research has evaluated func...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - October 25, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Non-Behavioral and Non-Medical Psychosocial Interventions in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review non-behavioral and non-medical psychosocial therapies for individuals with intellectual disabilities to identify if any such approaches are effective.Recent FindingsThere are more randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews, and meta-analyses than in the past; however, most RCTs are of poor quality.SummaryMost research treatments such as cognitive behavior therapy and diagnoses such as depression and anger. There is limited research on other forms of psychotherapy and other diagnoses. Future research needs to include high quality RCTs of psychosocial treatments for common, soc...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - October 22, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Comorbidity Among Chronic Physical Health Conditions and Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Childhood
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide an overview of neurodevelopmental risk in children with chronic physical health conditions from large population cohorts, identify potential causes for comorbidity, and discuss intervention strategies.Recent FindingsChildren with a chronic health condition are at greater risk for delayed neurodevelopment, academic difficulties, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Limited evidence exists for risk of other neurodevelopmental disorders. Potential causes for comorbidity are multifactorial and include both physiological and psychosocial factors. Physical activity interventions may b...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - August 23, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Link Between Problem Behavior and Communication Impairment in Persons with Developmental Disabilities
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFunctional communication training (FCT) is rooted in the theory that if people with developmental disabilities (DD) have a socially appropriate way (i.e., communication) to get their needs or wants met, they will no longer need to resort to problem behavior. This review will examine the history of the link between problem behavior and communication impairment in individuals with DD as well as recent advances in research on FCT and directions for future research.Recent FindingsTeaching people with DD a functional communication response (FCR) leads to a decrease in problem behaviors, provided that th...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - June 30, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Assessing Communication in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Are Minimally Verbal
AbstractPurpose of reviewChildren with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who are minimally verbal may often require timely and tailored intervention to optimize their short- and long-term communication outcomes. Effective intervention relies on appropriate and accurate assessment. The purposes of this review are to summarize current and emerging issues and practices in the assessment of these children and to consider implications for research and clinical practice.Recent findingsThere is growing awareness of the need for improved assessment practices and emerging consensus regarding principles that should underpin the assessm...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - June 16, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Assessment and Management of Tic Disorders in Pediatric Primary Care Settings
This article discusses neuropsychiatric and medical complexities of tic disorder assessment, with particular emphasis on differential and comorbid diagnoses. Tiered referral recommendations, based on symptom severity, impairment, and consideration of comorbid conditions, are provided. Future directions for tic management, including dissemination of evidence-based treatments of tic disorders and multidisciplinary teams within pediatric primary care settings, are included. (Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports)
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - June 6, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Canonical Babbling: A Marker for Earlier Identification of Late Detected Developmental Disorders?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize findings about the emergence and characteristics of canonical babbling in children with late detected developmental disorders (LDDDs), such as autism spectrum disorder, Rett syndrome, and fragile X syndrome. In particular, we ask whether infants ’ vocal development in the first year of life contains any markers that may contribute to earlier detection of these disorders.Recent FindingsOnly a handful studies have investigated canonical babbling in infants with LDDDs. With divergent research paradigms and definitions applied, findings on the onset and characteristics of canonical b...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - May 29, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research