A new era for understanding genetic evolution of multistep carcinogenesis

AbstractCancer development is a multistep process involving genetic and cellular alterations, and recent advances in next-generation sequencing have elucidated mutation landscapes of premalignant lesions as well as early- and late-stage tumors. In this issue of Journal of Gastroenterology, Kim and colleagues contributed to the better understanding of genetic events in putative precursors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Precancerous tissues are divided into canonical and non-canonical types, which share common driver mutations with cancerous lesions or not, and potential gatekeeper gene(s) for clonal selection play a critical role in driving precursors to cancers not only in HCC, but also in esophageal, gastric, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers.
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

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289Purpose: Recent development of quinoline based positron-emission-tomography (PET)-tracers that act as fibroblast-activation-protein inhibitors (FAPI) demonstrated promising preclinical and clinical results. FAP is overexpressed from cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) of several tumor entities. Here we quantify the tumor-uptake in FAPI-PET/CT of various primary and metastatic tumors to identify the most promising indications for future application. Methods: FAPI-PET/CTs were requested by various clinical referees according to individual clinical indication which were considered insufficiently covered by FDG-PET/CT. All...
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Other Solid Tumors (Diagnosis) Source Type: research
This study is an important step forward in highlighting C1q as a new prognostic candidate biomarker for a range of carcinomas. Methods Oncomine Database Analysis The expression levels of C1QA, C1QB, and C1QC genes in various carcinomas were analyzed using Oncomine (www.oncomine.org), a cancer microarray database and web-based data mining platform from genome-wide expression analyses (22, 23). We compared the differences in mRNA level between normal tissue and carcinoma. The mRNA expression levels in neoplastic tissues compared to the healthy tissues were obtained as the parameters of p-value 2, and gene ranking in the t...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate whether combining anti-PD-L1 Atezolizumab with BEV may have a synergistic effect and enhance the efficacy of both treatments in cisplatin resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (CREOC). We retrospectively analyzed 124 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients from Gynecologic Oncology Department of Tianjin Cancer Hospital between January 2013 and June 2018, who all were diagnosed with cisplatin resistance due to progressing
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Discussion Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 is an essential molecule for maintaining immune homeostasis and subverting inflammation. Disorders arising from excess inflammation or SOCS1 deficiency can be potentially treated with SOCS1 mimetics (Ahmed et al., 2015). While SOCS1 has promising potential in many disorders, it should be noted that new targets and actions of SOCS1 are still being discovered and not all the effects of this protein are beneficial in autoimmune diseases and cancer. For instance, SOCS1 degrades IRS1 and IRS2, required for insulin signaling, via the SOCS Box domain, thus, limiting its potential in ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conditions:   Cancer, All Types;   Cancer of Liver;   Cancer of Stomach;   Cancer of Head and Neck;   Cancer of Rectum;   Cancer of Kidney;   Cancer of Esophagus;   Cancer of Colon;   Cancer Skin;   Cancer of Cervix;   Cancer, Metastatic;   Cancer of Larynx;   Cancer of N eck;   Cancer of Lung;   Cancer of Brain and Nervous System;   Cancer of Vulva, Disseminated; &nb...
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
The objective of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of glycolysis-related proteins.Materials and methodsWe searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, using Pubmed and Ovid as search engines and Google Scholar from inception to April 2017. Eighty-six studies with 12,002 patients were included in the study.ResultsOur pooled results identified that glycolysis-related proteins in cancers were associated with shorter overall survival of colorectal cancer (HR 2.33, 95% CI 1.38 –3.93,P = 0.002), gastric cancer (HR 1....
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of glycolysis-related proteins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, using Pubmed and Ovid as search engines and Google Scholar from inception to April 2017. Eighty-six studies with 12,002 patients were included in the study. RESULTS: Our pooled results identified that glycolysis-related proteins in cancers were associated with shorter overall survival of colorectal cancer (HR 2.33, 95% CI 1.38-3.93, P = 0.002), gastric can...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: J Cancer Res Clin Oncol Source Type: research
Authors: Wang C, Zhang Q, Hu Y, Zhu J, Yang J Abstract Digestive system malignancies are the most common cancer types worldwide and exhibit an extremely low overall 5-year survival rate. Therefore, clinically applicable biomarkers for predicting clinical outcome are urgently required. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is abnormally expressed in several cancer types. However, to the best of our knowledge, the association between MALAT1 expression and the prognosis of digestive system malignancies remains unknown. Therefore, the current study performed a meta-analysis to comprehensively ...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
Purpose of review Alcohol is a type I carcinogen and the WHO stated that it caused 5% of all deaths in 2016, of which 13% because of cancers. Among digestive tract cancers, this association is clear for esophageal, liver and colorectal cancer, and more debated for gastric and pancreatic cancer. The present review will revise recent evidence on epidemiologic association and mechanisms linking alcohol with the risk of esophageal, gastric, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. Recent findings Moderate alcohol intake increases the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and colorectal cancer. Heavy alcohol intake is assoc...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: NUTRITION: Edited by Eamonn M.M. Quigley Source Type: research
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