In vitro generation of pancreatic β-cells for diabetes treatment. I. β-like cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells.

In vitro generation of pancreatic β-cells for diabetes treatment. I. β-like cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2019 Mar 14;: Authors: Cierpka-Kmiec K, Wronska A, Kmiec Z Abstract Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by the lack of pancreatic β-cells that had been destroyed as a result of an autoimmune response. Therefore, in patients with T1D, the replacement therapy with functional β-cells derived from extrinsic sources could be a preferable option as compared to insulin treatment. Unfortunately, successful transplantation of whole pancreata or pancreatic islets into patients with diabetes is available only to a fraction of them due to the scarcity of donors. The rapid development of cell reprogramming methods made it possible to generate large numbers of human β-like cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). This review describes the basis of in vitro differentiaton protocols of β-like cells that mimic changes of the main signaling pathways during the key stages of human and murine pancreas development, which are described first. During the last 15 years it was found that there are no important differences between hESCs and hiPSCs in their differentiation capacities into β-like cells and the expression profiles of the key tr...
Source: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica - Category: Cytology Tags: Folia Histochem Cytobiol Source Type: research

Related Links:

Authors: Umnyakova ES, Zharkova MS, Berlov MN, Shamova OV, Kokryakov VN Abstract Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were firstly discovered as cytotoxic substances that killed bacteria. Later they were described as biologically active peptides that are able not only to kill invaders but also to modulate host immunity. In particular, it is shown that human antimicrobial peptides are able to influence the activity of different innate and adaptive immunity components, thus, obviously, they also participate in autoimmune processes. In this review we discuss the nature of human AMPs and analyze their role in such autoimmune ...
Source: Autoimmunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research
1% of all live born children are born with a congenital heart defect (CHD) and currently 95% reach adulthood. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that can develop due to i.e. heredity, exposure to infections and stress-strain. The incidence of T1DM in patients with CHD is unknown and we analysed the risk of developing T1DM for patients with CHD, and how this influences mortality.
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
Immunotherapy has transformed the treatment landscape for a wide range of human cancers. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), monoclonal antibodies that block the immune-regulatory “checkpoint” receptors CTLA-4, PD-1, or its ligand PD-L1, can produce durable responses in some patients. However, coupled with their success, these treatments commonly evoke a wide range of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that can affect any organ system and can be treatment-limiting and life-threatening, such as diabetic ketoacidosis, which appears to be more frequent than initially described. The majority of irAEs from check...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that targets the destruction of islet beta-cells resulting in insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia and death if untreated. Despite advances in medical devices and longer-acting insulin, there is still no robust therapy to substitute and protect beta-cells that are lost in T1DM. Attempts to refrain from the autoimmune attack have failed to achieve glycemic control in patients highlighting the necessity for a paradigm shift in T1DM treatment. Paradoxically, beta-cells are present in T1DM patients indicating a disturbed equilibrium between the immune attack and beta-cell r...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsBased on a large, unselected patient cohort we find that epilepsy patients more often are prescribed medications used to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, myasthenia gravis and MS. This was true for both men and women, and in most age-groups.
Source: Seizure - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusion: Patients with type 1 DM should be examined for thyroid diseases, and patients with suspected thyroid disease should be evaluated with a thyroid ultrasound. Type 1 DM and PTC coexistence albeit very rare; It should be known that type 1 diabetes can be seen together with thyroid cancer. PMID: 31686641 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Diabetes Reviews - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Curr Diabetes Rev Source Type: research
Conclusion: Pancreatic atrophy may be more common among children with DM, suggesting more advanced exocrine disease. However, data in this exploratory cohort also suggest increased autoimmunity and hypertriglyceridemia in children with DM, suggesting that risk factors for type 1 and type 2 DM, respectively may play a role in mediating DM development in children with pancreatitis.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Article: Pancreatology Source Type: research
Authors: Manoylov IK, Boneva GV, Doytchinova IA, Mihaylova NM, Tchorbanov AI Abstract Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune syndrome defined by the presence of autoreactive T and B cells, which results in destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. Autoantibodies against GAD65 (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65)-a membrane-bound enzyme on pancreatic beta cells, contribute to beta cells' destruction and the loss of pancreatic functions. Mouse FcγRIIb on B lymphocytes possesses an inhibitory effect on the activity of these cells. We hypothesized that it may be possible to suppress GAD65-specific B cells in mi...
Source: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy - Category: Microbiology Tags: Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother Source Type: research
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. Its two most common forms are type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), for which genetic and environmental risk factors act in synergy. Because it occurs in children and involves infectious, autoimmune or toxic destruction of the insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells, type 1 diabetes has been called juvenile or insulin-deficient diabetes. In type 2, patients can still secrete some insulin but its effectiveness may be attenuated by ‘insulin resistance.’ There is also a group of rare forms of diabetes...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
More News: Autoimmune Disease | Clinical Trials | Cytology | Diabetes | Diabetes Mellitus | Diabetes Type 1 | Endocrinology | Insulin | Pancreas | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cells | Transplants