Mitochondrial damage and iron metabolic dysregulation in hepatitis C virus infection.

Mitochondrial damage and iron metabolic dysregulation in hepatitis C virus infection. Free Radic Biol Med. 2018 Sep 27;: Authors: Hino K, Nishina S, Sasaki K, Hara Y Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection often leads to chronic hepatitis that can progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although HCV infection is expected to decrease due to the high rate of HCV eradication via the rapid dissemination and use of directly acting antivirals, HCV infection remains a leading cause of HCC. Although the mechanisms underlying the HCC development are not fully understood, oxidative stress is present to a greater degree in HCV infection than in other inflammatory liver diseases and has been proposed as a major mechanism of liver injury in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatocellular mitochondrial alterations and iron accumulation are well-known characteristics in patients with chronic hepatitis C and are closely related to oxidative stress, since the mitochondria are the main site of reactive oxygen species generation, and iron produces hydroxy radicals via the Fenton reaction. In addition, phlebotomy is an iron reduction approach that aims to lower serum transaminase levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Here, we review and discuss the mechanisms by which HCV induces mitochondrial damage and iron accumulation in the liver and offer new insights concerning how mitochondrial damage and iron accumulation are linked to the develo...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

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This study delves into the mechanisms by which a short period of fasting can accelerate wound healing. Fasting triggers many of the same cellular stress responses, such as upregulated autophagy, as occur during the practice of calorie restriction. It isn't exactly the same, however, so it is always worth asking whether any specific biochemistry observed in either case does in fact occur in both situations. In particular, the period of refeeding following fasting appears to have beneficial effects that are distinct from those that occur while food is restricted. Multiple forms of therapeutic fasting have been repor...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusion Massive SI and immune cell paralysis associated with ACLF represent the extreme severity of CAID in response to an infectious or sterile challenge. The severe immune disturbance plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of the distinctive features of ACLF: organ failure and bacterial infection susceptibility. Excessive SI in ACLF results from the massive activation and dysfunction of an innate immune system challenged by increased PAMPs and DAMPs. SI leads to cell and tissue immunopathology contributing to hepatic and extrahepatic organ failure. Concomitantly, the course of ACLF is associated with a disproportio...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions: While there is a certain overlap between the results of the current study and published transcriptomic profiles of non-transplanted livers with steatosis, we have identified discrete characteristics of the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in liver grafts potentially utilizable for the establishment of predictive signature. Introduction Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in industrialized countries, its prevalence being estimated at 19–31.3% (1). It encompasses a range of conditions that are thought to arise from fatty liver (simple steatosis) throu...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Joanna Mikulak1,2, Elena Bruni1,2, Ferdinando Oriolo1,2, Clara Di Vito1 and Domenico Mavilio1,2* 1Unit of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Milan, Italy 2Department of Medical Biotechnologies and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy The liver is considered a preferential tissue for NK cells residency. In humans, almost 50% of all intrahepatic lymphocytes are NK cells that are strongly imprinted in a liver-specific manner and show a broad spectrum of cellular heterogeneity. Hepatic NK (he-NK) cells play key roles in tuning liver immune response in b...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Farakh Javed, Sobia ManzoorAbstractCurrently almost 170 million of the world population is suffering with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) that is the major cause of liver diseases, which leads to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Approximately 6% of the Pakistani population is chronically infected with HCV, with genotype 3a being the most prominent strain in Pakistan. Complex of HCV non-structural proteins NS3-4A plays an important role in the viral replication machinery that together has serine protease and helicase a...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major risk factor for the development of chronic liver disease. The disease typically progresses from chronic HCV to fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and death. Chronic inflammation associated with HCV infection is implicated in cirrhosis and HCC, but the molecular players and signaling pathways contributing to these processes remain largely unknown. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is a molecule of interest in HCV-associated HCC because it has critical roles in virus-, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-, and IFN-induced signaling pathways. IRF5 is also a tumor suppres...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Molecular Bases of Disease Source Type: research
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Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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