New concepts in opioid analgesia.
This article reviews pharmacological principles and research strategies aiming at novel opioids with reduced side effects. Basic mechanisms underlying pain, opioid analgesia and other opioid actions are outlined. To illustrate the clinical situation and medical needs, plasticity of opioid receptors, intracellular signaling pathways, endogenous and exogenous opioid receptor ligands, central and peripheral sites of analgesic and side effects are discussed. Expert opinion: The epidemic of opioid misuse has taught us that there is a lack of fundamental knowledge about the characteristics and management of chronic pain, that conflicts of interest and validity of models must be considered in the context of drug development, and that novel analgesics with less abuse liability are badly needed. Currently, the most promising perspectives appear to be augmenting endogenous opioid actions and selectively targeting pathological conformations of peripheral opioid receptors. PMID: 30148648 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
ConclusionsOur study demonstrates the antitumor effect of IL-24 on endometrial cancer and shows that IL-24 may be a promising therapeutic gene for endometrial cancer gene therapy.Graphical abstract
Authors: Barton BB, Segger F, Fischer K, Obermeier M, Musil R Abstract Introduction: Antipsychotic-induced weight-gain (AIWG) is a very important, yet often neglected side-effect in the treatment with first and second generation antipsychotics. AIWG can increase the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Meta-analyses mostly concentrate on AIWG in schizophrenic and bipolar patients, even though antipsychotics are prescribed off-label across many other diagnostic groups (e.g. anxiety disorders, depression, autistic disorder).Areas covered: Pub Med and Web of Science were systemat...
CONCLUSION: The epidemic of opioid misuse has shown that there is a lack of fundamental knowledge about the characteristics and management of chronic pain, that conflicts of interest and validity of models must be more intensively considered in the context of drug development and that novel analgesics with less addictive potential are urgently needed. Currently, the most promising perspectives appear to be augmenting endogenous opioid actions and the selective activation of peripheral opioid receptors. PMID: 31222410 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
RX PAD With the death of the entertainer Prince attributed to a fentanyl overdose, and new FDA warnings, opioids have been making headlines. Since the most common reason patients visit the emergency department is for pain, it is not surprising that emergency physicians prescribe and administer medications such as oxycodone on a daily basis. Here are some of the basics about how oxycodone works, and also the reason why chronic users may be at even higher risk of unexpected respiratory depression. HOW IT WORKS: Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid with analgesic properties. Oxycodone binds to mu, kappa, and delta opio...