Vaccine Being Tested To Prevent Dementia In People With Down Syndrome

BOSTON (CBS) – Local researchers are testing an experimental vaccine that may not only prevent Alzheimer’s disease in people with Down syndrome, but in those without Down syndrome as well. People with Down syndrome are at high risk of developing Alzheimer’s-like dementia at a very young age. Michael Clayburgh, 29, has Down syndrome, but that doesn’t hold him back. “Michael has three jobs,” says Nancy Novelline Clayburgh, Michael’s mom.  “He works at Target, McDonald’s and Dunkin Donuts.” Dr. Brian Skotko and Michael Clayburgh (WBZ-TV) He’s also quite the Special Olympics athlete, but perhaps Michael’s greatest contribution will be a scientific one. “He could be a major factor in finding the cure to Alzheimer’s,” explains Nancy. People with Down syndrome have an extra copy of chromosome 21.  One of the genes on that chromosome can lead to plaque build-up in the brain. “That goop in the brain when it starts to come together can really disrupt neuronal function and lead to the dementia that’s associated with Alzheimer’s,” explains Dr. Brian Skotko, director of the Down Syndrome Program at Massachusetts General Hospital. He says up to 50 percent of people with Down syndrome will develop dementia by age 50.  He worries about his 38-year-old sister, Kristin, who also has Down syndrome. Dr. Brian Skotko and his sister Kristin (WBZ-TV) “Because o...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Boston News Health Healthwatch Seen On WBZ-TV Syndicated Local Alzheimer's Disease Dementia Down Syndrome Dr. Mallika Marshall Source Type: news

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We described a 52-year-old female with Down syndrome who developed progressively more frequent myoclonus following cognitive decline and died at the age of 59 years.
Source: Brain and Development - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
ConclusionDisorders associated with early-life alterations in amyloid precursor protein production or processing are associated with a distinct pattern of early striatal fibrillary Aβ deposition before significant cognitive impairment. A better understanding of this unique pattern could identify important mechanisms of Aβ deposition and possibly important targets for early intervention.
Source: Alzheimer's and Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association - Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research
PHILADELPHIA - A study on amyloid plaque accumulation, white-matter hyperintensity,...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: Are amyloid PET scans ready for the clinical setting? PET links amyloid, vascular factors to cognitive decline PiB-PET study strengthens link between amyloid, dementia High amyloid levels on PET may indicate early Alzheimer's SNMMI: PiB-PET finds unique Down syndrome trait
Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
AbstractDown syndrome, caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is the single most common risk factor for early-onset Alzheimer ’s disease. Worldwide approximately 6 million people have Down syndrome, and all these individuals will develop the hallmark amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer’s disease by the age of 40 and the vast majority will go on to develop dementia. Triplication ofAPP, a gene on chromosome 21, is sufficient to cause early-onset Alzheimer ’s disease in the absence of Down syndrome. However, whether triplication of other chromosome 21 genes influences disease pathogenesis i...
Source: Brain - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
The presence of amyloid on PET scans may be a sign that adults with no symptoms...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: High amyloid levels on PET may indicate early Alzheimer's PiB-PET could open window on common meningiomas SNMMI: PET shows tau may be Alzheimer's catalyst SNMMI: PiB-PET finds unique Down syndrome trait PiB-PET shows link between arterial stiffness and beta amyloid
Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
Authors: Eady N, Sheehan R, Rantell K, Sinai A, Bernal J, Bohnen I, Bonell S, Courtenay K, Dodd K, Gazizova D, Hassiotis A, Hillier R, McBrien J, Mukherji K, Naeem A, Perez-Achiaga N, Sharma V, Thomas D, Walker Z, McCarthy J, Strydom A Abstract BACKGROUND: There is little evidence to guide pharmacological treatment in adults with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease. Aims To investigate the effect of cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine on survival and function in adults with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease. METHOD: This was a naturalistic longitudinal follow-up of a clinical cohort of 310 people with ...
Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry for Mental Science - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Br J Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion Disorders associated with early-life alterations in amyloid precursor protein production or processing are associated with a distinct pattern of early striatal fibrillary Aβ deposition before significant cognitive impairment. A better understanding of this unique pattern could identify important mechanisms of Aβ deposition and possibly important targets for early intervention.
Source: Alzheimer's and Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association - Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research
AbstractAmyloid precursor protein (APP) is a member of the APP family of proteins, and different enzymatic processing leads to the production of several derivatives that are shown to have distinct biological functions. APP is involved in the pathology of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder causing dementia. Furthermore, it is believed that individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have increased APP expression, due to an extra copy of chromosome 21 (Hsa21), that contains the gene for APP. Nevertheless, the physiological function of APP remains unclear. It is known that APP plays an importa...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions Results are notably concordant with the well-established anatomical changes signaling the progression to dementia in Alzheimer's disease, despite the dense baseline pathology that developmentally accumulates in Down syndrome. This commonality supports the potential value of Down syndrome as a genetic model of Alzheimer's neurodegeneration and may serve to further support the view that Down syndrome patients are best candidates to benefit from treatment research in Alzheimer's disease.
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
We examined brain microvasculature in five DS subjects with AD-type histopathology, seven AD cases, and seven controls without AD-type pathology. We counted microvessels in five anatomic regions and assessed endothelial integrity by CD31 immunohistochemistry. Results Microvascular numbers and endothelial integrity were significantly diminished in DS brains compared with controls and were similar to AD brains. Discussion People with DS and trisomy 21 produce a large amount of Aβ. If Alzheimer's pathology occurred in DS without microvascular loss or endothelial impairment, a direct neurotoxic Aβ mechanism would be ...
Source: Alzheimer's and Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association - Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research
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