Goodbye 'stress granules': Study expands possibilities for treating neurological diseases

(Tokyo Institute of Technology) Cell biologists have deepened understanding of proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases. The findings could open up new treatment approaches for disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), among others.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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CONCLUSIONS: The varied pharmacological mechanisms of NBP involve many complex molecular mechanisms; however, there many unknown pharmacological effects await further study.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0. PMID: 31107716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
In this study, a significant (30%) increase in maximum lifespan of mice was found after nonablative transplantation of 100 million nucleated bone marrow (BM) cells from young donors, initiated at the age that is equivalent to 75 years for humans. Moreover, rejuvenation was accompanied by a high degree of BM chimerism for the nonablative approach. Six months after the transplantation, 28% of recipients' BM cells were of donor origin. The relatively high chimerism efficiency that we found is most likely due to the advanced age of our recipients having a depleted BM pool. In addition to the higher incorporation rates, ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Much of the spectrum of age-related neurodegenerative conditions is associated with, and at least partly caused by, the accumulation of abnormal proteins or protein aggregates in the brain. These include the α-synuclein associated with Parkinson's disease, the amyloid-β and tau of Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. This sort of condition, in which malformed proteins are a contributing cause, is termed a proteopathy. A more recently recognized neurodegenerative proteopathy involves the TDP-43 protein, and the evidence for its relevance to age-related dementia has reached the point at which researchers and adminis...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Conclusions: This study demonstrated that NAR targeted microglial NLRP3 inflammasome to protect DA neurons against LPS-induced neurotoxicity. These findings suggest NAR might hold a promising therapeutic potential for PD. Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent central nervous system (CNS) degenerative disease. It is characterized by slow and progressive loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the midbrain substantia nigra (SN) with the accumulation of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies and neuritis (1). Although the etiology of PD remains unclear, amounts of studies have suggested that neur...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Mesenchymal stromal cells are multipotent cells that are being used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Over the past decade, there has been considerable excitement about using MSCs to treat neurodegenerative diseases, which are diseases that are typically fatal and without other robust therapies. In this review, we discuss the proposed MSC mechanisms of action in neurodegenerative diseases, which include growth factor secretion, exosome secretion, and attenuation of neuroinflammation. We then provide a summary of preclinical and early clinical work on MSC therapies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple system a...
Source: Mayo Clinic Proceedings - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Thematic review series on neurosciences Source Type: research
Albert Sanfeliu1, Karsten Hokamp2, Michael Gill1 and Daniela Tropea1,3*1Neuropsychiatric Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, St James Hospital, Dublin, Ireland2Department of Genetics, School of Genetics and Microbiology, Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Trinity College Institute for Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, IrelandRett syndrome is a rare neuropsychiatric disorder with a wide symptomatology including impaired communication and movement, cardio-respiratory abno...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Abstract Abnormal protein aggregation is a common pathological feature of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs) play a crucial regulatory role in the formation of pathologic aggregation. Among the known PTMs involved in neurodegeneration, poly(ADP-ribosylation) (PARylation) has emerged with promising therapeutic potentials of the use of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. In this review, we describe the mounting evidence that abnormal PA...
Source: Biochemical Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Aspects This review summarizes available NTF expression data, compiles existing evidence on the effects of glial NTF signaling in healthy conditions and in disease models (Figure 1), and highlights the importance of this topic for future studies. The relationship between NTFs and glia is crucial for both the developing and adult brain. While some of these factors, such as NT-3 and CNTF, have highly potent effects on gliogenesis, others like BDNF and GDNF, are important for glia-mediated synapse formation. Neurotrophic factors play significant roles during neurodegenerative disorders. In many cases, ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Conclusion The key problem with the ND field is the lack of understanding in the events preceding the development of protein-based markers – such as Tau – currently used to diagnose NDs. By this stage, the diseases become more difficult to treat. SncRNAs play an important regulatory role in the maintenance of the homeostatic brain. Therefore, changes in their concentration levels can be indicative of mechanistic changes that could precede protein-based markers. One single sncRNA biomarker is unlikely to differentiate between diseases. However, a combination of sncRNA biomarkers could be illustrative of the me...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the National Animal Care and Use Committee of the University of Buenos Aires (CICUAL). The protocol was approved by the CICUAL. Mice were kept under a 12-h light/dark cycle, with controlled temperature (23 ± 2°C) and humidity (40–60%) and had ad libitum access to food and water. To produce hTDP-43 transgenic lines, as described previously (Igaz et al., 2011), pronucleus of fertilized eggs from C57BL/6J × C3HeJ F1 matings were injected with a vector containing hTDP-43-WT cDNA. Monogenic tetO-TDP-WT12 mice wer...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
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