Efficacy and immunogenicity of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in the prevention of typhoid fever using a controlled human infection model of Salmonella Typhi: a randomised controlled, phase 2b trial

Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017 Source:The Lancet Author(s): Celina Jin, Malick M Gibani, Maria Moore, Helene B Juel, Elizabeth Jones, James Meiring, Victoria Harris, Jonathan Gardner, Anna Nebykova, Simon A Kerridge, Jennifer Hill, Helena Thomaides-Brears, Christoph J Blohmke, Ly-Mee Yu, Brian Angus, Andrew J Pollard Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) is responsible for an estimated 20 million infections and 200 000 deaths each year in resource poor regions of the world. Capsular Vi-polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (Vi-conjugate vaccines) are immunogenic and can be used from infancy but there are no efficacy data for the leading candidate vaccine being considered for widespread use. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed the efficacy of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine using an established human infection model of S Typhi. Methods In this single-centre, randomised controlled, phase 2b study, using an established outpatient-based human typhoid infection model, we recruited healthy adult volunteers aged between 18 and 60 years, with no previous history of typhoid vaccination, infection, or prolonged residency in a typhoid-endemic region. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive a single dose of Vi-conjugate (Vi-TT), Vi-polysaccharide (Vi-PS), or control meningococcal vaccine with a computer-generated randomisation schedule (block size 6). Investigators and participants were masked to treatment allocati...
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

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ConclusionThese results indicate that A. farnesiana pods contain nematocidal compounds and might be promising natural anthelmintic agents against H. contortus. This leguminous plant could be used as a nutraceutical food source for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe found that EFVF is safe with regard to acute toxicity in rats as well as genotoxicity such as mutagenesis or clastogenesis under the present experimental conditions. These results might support the safety of EFVF as a potential therapeutic material for the traditional use or pharmaceutical development.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: Food ChemistryAuthor(s): Selina Brighina, Cristina Restuccia, Elena Arena, Rosa Palmeri, Biagio FallicoAbstractThe antibacterial activities of the dicarbonyl compounds glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MGO), 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) were assessed against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria, both in agarised and liquid assay system. The kinetics of dicarbonyls’ degradation at different antimicrobial assay conditions were studied, to determine the possible interference of the nutrient medium.In agarised assay system, GO and MGO exhib...
Source: Food Chemistry - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: Zoologischer AnzeigerAuthor(s): Frederico Falcão Salles, Jeane Marcelle C. Nascimento, Marina Monjardim, Roberta Paresque, Neusa Hamada, Eduardo DominguezAbstractA new genus and species is described based on nymphs and adults collected exclusively at the Chapada Diamantina National Park, in Brazil. The generic category of this new taxon was tested by reanalyzing a morphological dataset used to access the phylogenetic relationships of species of Ulmeritus and Ulmeritoides and by the use of molecular analysis, using two different genes. Both analysis corrobora...
Source: A Journal of Comparative Zoology - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): A. Firouzabadi, D. Saadati, M. Najimi, M. JajarmiAbstractSalmonella is one of the most important pathogens in the poultry industry that not only causes financial and economic damage, but also, some serovars of this bacterium, including the S. Typhimurium, can infect humans through poultry-to-human transmission. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of this pathogen among broiler poultry houses in the Kerman region, southeast of Iran and to identify factors which could increase the risk for Salmonella co...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Conclusion: B. coagulans can reduce the adhesion, cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis caused by S. Typhimurium in HT-29 cells in vitro. PMID: 31719962 [PubMed]
Source: Iranian Journal of Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: Iran J Microbiol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: Molecular Phylogenetics and EvolutionAuthor(s): Sylvain G. Razafimandimbison, Kent Kainulainen, Bruno Senterre, Charles Morel, Catarina RydinAbstractThe granitic islands of the Seychelles harbor about 268 native angiosperm species, with 28% being endemics there. The Seychelles biota contains a mix of ancient taxa with Gondwanan origins and young taxa that arrived there via dispersals. We investigate the phylogenetic position of an enigmatic, critically endangered, Seychellean endemic of the coffee family (Rubiaceae), Psathura/Psychotria sechellarum, and assess whet...
Source: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
This study aimed to improve WCTVs with xenoantigens to end immune tolerance and to further activate the adaptive immune system. In the present study, we designed a WCTV by transducing a vector encoding human FAPα (hFAPα) into murine tumour cells and evaluated its efficacy in multiple solid tumour models. Immunotherapy with this WCTV effectively delayed tumour growth and prevented recurrence. The anti-tumour responses were clearly linked to antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells, whereas CD4(+) T lymphocytes also played a role. Humoural immune responses were activated because the adoptive transfer of immunoglobulins...
Source: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Tags: Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol Source Type: research
Authors: Maleki M, Salouti M, Shafiee Ardestani M, Talebzadeh A Abstract Brucellosis is one of the most common and important diseases between humans and animals. Herein, we developed a nanovaccine against Brucella melitensis based on oligopolysaccharide (OPS) antigen and PLGA nanoparticles. The conjugation of extracted OPS with poly lactic-co-glycolic acid was performed. The antigenicity evaluation was conducted in 4 groups of 5 female BALB/c mice including OPS-PLGA conjugate, OPS alone, PLGA alone and PBS as a control. The mice were vaccinated intra-peritoneal three times with two-week intervals. To determine the ...
Source: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Tags: Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: Protein Expression and PurificationAuthor(s): Haruna Yuasa, Eiji Kotani, Hajime Mori, Keiko TakakiAbstractCypovirus is an insect virus that is encapsulated in stable cubic protein crystals composed of polyhedrin protein produced in virus-infected cells. Molecular technology developed over the last decade is now able to immobilise proteins of interest on polyhedrin crystals. Modified polyhedrin crystals can be used in cell cultures for implantation in animals and vaccines, among other applications. However, this technique does not work for some proteins. Here, we de...
Source: Protein Expression and Purification - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
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