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Penn researchers identify new target, develop new drug for cancer therapies

(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Opening up a new pathway to fight cancer, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have found a way to target an enzyme that is crucial to tumor growth while also blocking the mechanism that has made past attempts to target that enzyme resistant to treatment. Researchers were able to use this finding to develop a drug that successfully inhibits tumor growth of melanoma as well as pancreatic and colorectal cancer in mice.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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Inhibition of interleukin 8/C‑X-C chemokine receptor 1,/2 signaling reduces malignant features in human pancreatic cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2018 Apr 30;: Authors: Fu S, Chen X, Lin HJ, Lin J Abstract Interactions between interleukin (IL)-8 and its receptors, C‑X-C chemokine receptor 1, (CXCR1) and CXCR2 serve crucial roles in increasing cancer progression. Inhibition of this signaling pathway has yielded promising results in a number of human cancers, including breast, melanoma and colon. However, the effects of CXCR1/2 antagonist treatment on pancreatic cancer remain unclear. The pres...
Source: International Journal of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Int J Oncol Source Type: research
Tumors consist of diverse cell populations with different tumorigenic capacities, phenotypes and functions. This tumor heterogeneity is a hallmark of cancer and drives disease progression. However, the genes associated with highly tumorigenic subpopulations and their mechanism or regulation remain elusive. We analyzed patient-derived xenografts from melanoma, colon and pancreatic cancer tissues to isolate subpopulations with increased tumor initiating potential and identify their underlying gene signature.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Pigmentation and Melanoma Source Type: research
Authors: Wang Y, Lan GB, Peng FH, Xie XB Abstract Renal transplantation is associated with an increased risk of cancers at multiple sites; however, the relationships between increased cancer risk and participant characteristics remain unclear. We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify prospective observational studies performed up to July 2017. Totally 11 prospective studies reported data on 79,988 renal transplant recipients were included. Renal transplant recipients were found to display a higher risk of all cancers (standard incidence ratio [SIR]: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.13-3.91; P
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
We studied the effects of gut microbiome depletion by oral antibiotics on tumor growth in subcutaneous and liver metastases model of pancreatic cancer, colon cancer and melanoma. Gut microbiome depletion significantly reduced tumor burden in all the models tested. However, depletion of gut microbiome did not reduce tumor growth in Rag1-knockout mice, which lack mature T and B cells. Flowcytometry analyses demonstrated that gut microbiome depletion led to significant increase in interferon gamma-producing T cells with corresponding decrease in interleukin 17A and interleukin 10-producing T cells.
Source: Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Owczarek W, Słowińska M, Lesiak A, Ciążyńska M, Maciąg A, Paluchowska E, Marek-Józefowicz L, Czajkowski R Abstract Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is found in many cancers, including those of the head and neck area, non-small-cell lung cancer, and colorectal, cervical, prostate, breast, ovary, stomach, and pancreatic cancer. The EGFR inhibitors are used at present in the treatment of such cancers. Skin lesions that develop during and after cancer treatment may be due to specific cytostatics, molecular-targeted drugs, radiation therapy, complementary therapy, or th...
Source: Advances in Dermatology and Allergology - Category: Dermatology Tags: Postepy Dermatol Alergol Source Type: research
Background: It has been shown that mutations alone are not the sole determinant of response to targeted agents, for example,BRAF mutations predict response to BRAF inhibitors in melanoma but not colon cancer due to differential EGFR signalling in colon cancer. We aimed to study any context-dependent differences in signalling pathways between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), colorectal cancer (CRC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) withKRAS mutations using a targeted phosphoproteomic approach in cell lines exposed to targeted anticancer drugsex vivo.
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conditions:   Cancer, Metastatic;   Cancer;   Cancer of Pancreas;   Cancer of Liver;   Cancer of Stomach;   Cancer Liver;   Cancer of Rectum;   Cancer of Kidney;   Cancer of Esophagus;   Cancer of Cervix;   Cancer of Colon;   Cancer of Larynx;   Cancer, Lung;   Cancer, Breas t;   Cancer, Advanced;   Cancer Prostate;   Cancer of Neck;   Cancer of Skin;   Neuroendocrine Tumors;   Carc...
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
This study identifies chemical features of dimeric compounds that increase their lysosomal specificity, and a new molecular target for these compounds, reclassifying these compounds as targeted therapies. Targeting PPT1 blocks mTOR signaling in a manner distinct from catalytic inhibitors, while concurrently inhibiting autophagy, thereby providing a new strategy for cancer therapy. Cancer Discov; 7(11); 1266–83. ©2017 AACR. See related commentary by Towers and Thorburn, p. 1218. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1201
Source: Cancer Discovery - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
In this study we demonstrate the use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based epigenome editing to alter cell response to inflammatory environments by repressing inflammatory cytokine cell receptors, specifically TNFR1 and IL1R1. This has applications for many inflammatory-driven diseases. It could be applied for arthritis or to therapeutic cells that are being delivered to inflammatory environments that need to be protected from inflammation." In chronic back pain, for example, slipped or herniated discs are a result of damaged tissue when inflammation causes cells to create ...
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Molecular Pathways: The Balance between Cancer and the Immune System Challenges the Therapeutic Specificity of Targeting Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling for Cancer Treatment. Clin Cancer Res. 2016 Jul 15; Authors: Zeligs KP, Neuman MK, Annunziata CM Abstract The Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway is a complex network linking extracellular stimuli to cell survival and proliferation. Cytoplasmic signaling to activate NF-kB can occur as part of the DNA damage response or in response to a large variety of activators including viruses, inflammation, and cell death. NF-κB transc...
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
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