Improvement of Anti-malarial Artemisinin and Essential Oil Production in Response to Optimization of Irrigation and Nitrogen Supply to Artemisia annua L. Plant

The objective of study was to describe how plant biomass, essential oil production and anti-malarial artemisinin accumulation can be enhanced through irrigation and nitrogen fertilization. Materials and Methods: A field experiment was carried out during 2012 and 2013 seasons to determine biomass yield, essential oil and artemisinin content of German Artemisia under water stress (2, 3 and 4 weeks irrigation intervals) and nitrogen fertilization (30, 45 and 60 kg N/fed = 0.42 ha). Irrigation intervals and nitrogen rates were laid out in strip-plot design with three replicates. The obtained data were used to determine optimal irrigation interval and nitrogen rate. Statistical analysis was performed based on a strip-plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design. Results: Prolonging irrigation intervals up to 4 weeks significantly decreased (p
Source: Research Journal of Medicinal Plant - Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 13 October 2018Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug ResistanceAuthor(s): Anna C.C. Aguiar, Erika Murce, Wilian A. Cortopassi, Andre S. Pimentel, Maria M.F.S. Almeida, Daniele C.S. Barros, Jéssica S. Guedes, Mario R. Meneghetti, Antoniana U. KrettliAbstractIn spite of recent efforts to eradicate malaria in the world, this parasitic disease is still considered a major public health problem, with a total of 216 million cases of malaria and 445,000 deaths in 2016. Artemisinin-based combination therapies remain effective in most parts of the world, but recent c...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
In this study, SQR1-CQ was used to label live Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) parasite cultures of varying sensitivities towards chloroquine. SQR1-CQ positively stained ring, mature trophozoite and schizont stages of both chloroquine–sensitive and chloroquine–resistant P. falciparum strains. In addition, SQR1-CQ exhibited significantly higher fluorescence, when compared to the commercial chloroquine-BODIPY (borondipyrromethene) conjugate CQ-BODIPY. We also achieved successful SQR1-CQ labelling of P. falciparum directly on thin blood smear preparations. Drug efficacy experiments measuring half-maxi...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Across most of sub-Saharan Africa, malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes from the Anopheles gambiae complex, comprising seven morphologically indistinguishable but behaviourally-diverse sibling species with ecolog...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Short report Source Type: research
The objective of the study was to estimate the malaria incidence attributable to the 2013 flood in Almanagil Locality, Gezira State in central Sudan. Methods Study Area Gezira State is located in the east-central region of Sudan, is crossed by the Blue Nile and is irrigated by two canals of the Gezira and Managil agriculture schemes. Almanagil Locality was in 2013 one of the 8 localities that constituted the Gezira State and was situated in the south western part of the state. Almanagil Town, the capital of the locality, is 62 km away from Wadmedani, the capital of Gezira State, and 156 km from Khartoum, the capital o...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
The continuing morbidity and mortality associated with infection with malaria parasites highlights the urgent need for a vaccine. The efficacy of sub-unit vaccines tested in clinical trials in malaria-endemic ...
Source: BMC Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
This study deals with the development of an in silico model of the PfCRT protein and its interaction with the CQ ligand molecule as well as the biochemical and biophysical characterization of the transmembrane domain 1 (TMD 1) peptide of the PfCRT protein. The physiochemical analysis of the PfCRT protein identified basic differences between the wild and mutant forms of the protein, as well as identifying the high hydrophobic nature of the mutant-type protein. The tertiary structure of the PfCRT protein was predicted and interaction with CQ revealed different active pocket binding regions in both the wild and mutant form of...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
We present results of hemoglobin (Hb) assessment and the association between parasitic infections and Hb levels of that SAC population. Overall, 511 SAC (girls:boys ratio 1:1, mean age 9.4 years [95% confidence interval {CI}: 9.3-9.5]) had Hb levels measured by using a portable Hb system HB 301+ (HemoCue1 AB; Angelhome, Sweden). The prevalence of anemia was 23% (117/511), with mean and median Hb level = 12.2 g/dL (95% CI: 12.1-12.3; range 9.2-15.4 g/dL). By multivariate analysis, H. nana infection was associated with an increased risk of anemia (odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI: 1.5-5.7, P = 0.002). Two samples (0.5%) were positive ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
ey CJ Abstract Antibodies directed against malaria parasites are easy and inexpensive to measure but remain an underused surveillance tool because of a lack of consensus on what to measure and how to interpret results. High-throughput screening of antibodies from well-characterized cohorts offers a means to substantially improve existing assays by rationally choosing the most informative sets of responses and analytical methods. Recent data suggest that high-resolution information on malaria exposure can be obtained from a small number of samples by measuring a handful of properly chosen antibody responses. In thi...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Authors: Moore BR, Davis TME Abstract INTRODUCTION: Malaria in pregnancy continues to be a significant public health burden globally, with over 100 million women at risk each year. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is the only antimalarial recommended for intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (IPTp) but increasing parasite resistance threatens its viability. There are few other available antimalarial therapies that currently have sufficient evidence of tolerability, safety, and efficacy to replace SP. Areas covered: Novel antimalarial combinations are under investigation for potential use as chemoprophylaxis an...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
Abstract We investigate numerically the microscale blood flow in which red blood cells (RBCs) are partially infected by Plasmodium falciparum, the malaria parasite. The infected RBCs are modeled as more rigid cells with less deformability than healthy ones. Our study illustrates that, in a 10 μm microvessel in low-hematocrit conditions (18% and 27%), the Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (Pf-IRBCs) and healthy ones first form a train of cells. Because of the slow moving of the Pf-IRBCs, the local hematocrit (Hct) near the Pf-IRBCs is then increased, to approximately 40% or even higher values...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
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