Six Things to Know About DNA and DNA Repair

Deoxyribonucleic acid, better known as DNA, was first identified on a discarded surgical bandage almost 150 years ago. Increasingly sophisticated tools and techniques have allowed scientists to learn more about this chemical compound that includes all the instructions necessary for building a living organism. From among the dozens of fascinating things known about DNA, here are six items touching on the make up of DNA’s double helix, the vast amounts of DNA packed into every human’s cells, common DNA errors and a few ways DNA can repair itself. 1. DNA is in every living thing. DNA consists of two long, twisted chains made of nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains one base, one phosphate molecule and the sugar molecule deoxyribose. The bases in DNA nucleotides are adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine. Credit: NIGMS. The chemical instructions for building a person—and every other creature on Earth—are contained in DNA. DNA is shaped like a corkscrew-twisted ladder, called a double helix. The two ladder rails are referred to as backbones, made of alternating groups of sugar and phosphate. The ladder’s rungs are made from four different building blocks called bases, arranged in pairs: adenine (A) paired with thymine (T), and cytosine (C) paired with guanine (G). Humans have about 3 billion base pairs in each cell. The order of the base pairs determines the exact instructions encoded in that part of the DNA molecule. Also, the sequence of DNA base...
Source: Biomedical Beat Blog - National Institute of General Medical Sciences - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Genetics DNA DNA repair Source Type: blogs

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Our study aimed to evaluate the impact of the introduction of a new gynecologic referral service in our adult Cystic Fibrosis (CF) center on contraceptive coverage, gynecological follow-up regularity, and cervical cancer screening coverage.
Source: Contraception - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research
Aim: To determine the characteristics of chronic lung diseases in patients with mycobacterioses caused by slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM).We studied 51 patients with pulmonary mycobacterioses caused by slowly growing NTM; the average age was 54.1±0.3 yrs; disease duration was 19.5±0.5 months. In all patients the diagnosis was microbiologically verified. Out of them 25 (49%) were infected with M. avium, 21.5% – M. intracellulare, 9.8% – M. kansasii, 5.8% – M. xenopi, 3.9% – M. gordonae, 3.9% – M. lentiflavum. Four patients were co-infected with M. avium + M. intra...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research
Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency occurs when there is insufficient production or delivery of pancreatic enzymes required for the digestion and absorption of food. It is associated with relatively poor outcomes, including reduced quality of life and survival.1 Common causes are cancer of the head/body of the pancreas, chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic resection and cystic fibrosis. It can occur following duodenectomy, gastrectomy or untreated coeliac disease via a reduction in cholecystokinin and thereby post-prandial pancreatic stimulation.
Source: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management - Category: Palliative Care Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Brennan GT, Saif MW Abstract Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is safe and effective at treating pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. There are multiple causes of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency including chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis and pancreatic cancer. Testing fecal elastase-1 level is useful for the diagnosis of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Starting doses of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy should be at least 30-40,000 IU with each meal and 15-20,000 IU with snacks. pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy should be taken in divided doses throughout meals. Patients who do not resp...
Source: Journal of the Pancreas - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: JOP Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31721358 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cell Biology International - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Biol Int Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 November 2019Source: Respiratory InvestigationAuthor(s): Lucia Vietri, Annalisa Fui, Laura Bergantini, Miriana d’Alessandro, Paolo Cameli, Piersante Sestini, Paola Rottoli, Elena BargagliAbstractSerum amyloid A is an acute-phase protein with multiple immunological functions. Serum amyloid A is involved in lipid metabolism, inflammatory reactions, granuloma formation, and cancerogenesis. Additionally, serum amyloid A is involved in the pathogenesis of different autoimmune lung diseases. The levels of serum amyloid A has been evaluated in biological fluids of patients with different...
Source: Respiratory Investigation - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
AbstractIbuprofen first came to market about 50  years ago and rapidly moved to over-the-counter (OTC) sales. In April 2019, the National Agency for the Safety of Medicines and Health Products (ANSM) of France issued a warning for NSAID uses by patients with infectious diseases based on an analysis of 20 years of real-world safety data on ibupr ofen and ketoprofen. Nevertheless, ibuprofen remains a mainstay in the analgesic armamentarium and with numerous randomized clinical trials, head-to-head studies, and decades of clinical experience. The authors offer a review of the safety of ibuprofen and how it may diffe...
Source: Advances in Therapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Semin Respir Crit Care Med DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1697591Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multiorgan disease, and gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations can contribute to significant morbidity and mortality for individuals with CF. Up to 85% of patients with CF experience GI symptoms, thus addressing the GI aspects of this disease is paramount. With the advent of highly effective CF transmembrane conductance regulator modulators that are increasingly available, many individuals with CF now have significantly improved life expectancy. With these advances, GI manifestations that can be a detriment to quality of life such as gastroesopha...
Source: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Abstract Purinergic signaling was proposed in 1972, after it was demonstrated that adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) was a transmitter in nonadrenergic, noncholinergic inhibitory nerves supplying the guinea-pig taenia coli. Later, ATP was identified as an excitatory cotransmitter in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, and it is now apparent that ATP acts as a cotransmitter in most, if not all, nerves in both the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system (CNS). ATP acts as a short-term signaling molecule in neurotransmission, neuromodulation, and neurosecretion. It also has potent, long-term (trophic) ...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
As of October, 2019 Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series contain details of 69,204 epidemiological surveys – of which 1,107 (1.6%) are related to the prevalence of specific viral species in patients with respiratory tract infection.  [1-3] The following chronology of published studies summarizes the relative proportion of viral agents associated with non-influenza childhood respiratory infection in the United States.  Additional details and primary references are available on request. 1976 – 2001 Tennessee hMPV accounted for 20% of acute respiratory illness among children ages 0 to...
Source: GIDEON blog - Category: Databases & Libraries Authors: Tags: Ebooks Epidemiology ProMED Source Type: blogs
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