Practical implications of integrated glioma classification according to the World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system 2016

Purpose of review: Morphological features identifiable by light microscopy have been the basis of brain tumor diagnostics for many decades. The revised WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system 2016 combines histological and molecular features for an integrated classification. This new approach builds upon advances in brain tumor molecular genetics and has important practical implications. Recent findings: Molecular genetic studies revealed distinct glioma entities with specific genetic and epigenetic profiles. Evidence has been accumulated that molecular classification more reliably discriminates glioma entities and better predicts patient outcome than histological classification. Major glioma entities can be distinguished by four molecular biomarkers included in the new WHO classification, namely isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation, codeletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q, codon 27 lysine-to-methionine mutation in H3 histones, and C11orf95-RELA gene fusions. Each is detectable by common techniques in routinely processed tissue specimens. Their integration into glioma classification greatly improves diagnostic accuracy but also has practical implications concerning establishment and quality control of novel techniques, increased costs and prolonged time to diagnosis. Summary: We summarize the relevant changes in the revised WHO classification of gliomas, outline the integrated approach, and discuss its practical implications and potential challenges.
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

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Cancers, Vol. 11, Pages 1838: Risk of Optic Pathway Glioma in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: No Evidence of Genotype–Phenotype Correlations in A Large Independent Cohort Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers11121838 Authors: Melloni Eoli Cesaretti Bianchessi Ibba Esposito Scuvera Morcaldi Micheli Piozzi Avignone Chiapparini Pantaleoni Natacci Finocchiaro Saletti The occurrence of optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) still raises many questions regarding screening and surveillance because of the lack of robust prognostic factors. Recent st...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In this study, we aimed to evaluate a novel approach for non-invasively predicting IDH status from conventional MRI via connectomics, a whole-brain network-based technique. We retrospectively extracted 93 connectome features from the preoperative, T1-weighted MRI data of 234 adult patients (148 IDH mutated) and evaluated the performance of four common machine learning models to predict IDH genotype. Results: Area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operator characteristic were 0.76 to 0.94 with random forest (RF) showing significantly higher performance (p
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Authors: Xu CH, Xiao LM, Zeng EM, Chen LK, Zheng SY, Li DH, Liu Y Abstract Gliomas are aggressive type of brain tumors and cause significant human mortality world over. The frequent relapses, development of drug resistance, the adverse effects of the chemotherapy and dearth of the therapeutic targets form the major hurdles in glioma treatment. Several studies suggest that microRNAs (miRs) are involved in the development and progression of different cancers. Herein, the therapeutic potential of miR-181 was explored in human glioma cells. The results showed that miR-181 is significantly downregulated in human glioma ...
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research
Authors: John F, Robinette NL, Amit-Yousif AJ, Bosnyák E, Barger GR, Shah KD, Mittal S, Juhász C Abstract BACKGROUND: Clinical glioblastoma treatment mostly focuses on the contrast-enhancing tumor mass. Amino acid positron emission tomography (PET) can detect additional, nonenhancing glioblastoma-infiltrated brain regions that are difficult to distinguish on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We combined MRI with perfusion imaging and amino acid PET to evaluate such nonenhancing glioblastoma regions. METHODS: Structural MRI, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps from perfusion MRI...
Source: Molecular Imaging - Category: Radiology Tags: Mol Imaging Source Type: research
(Jackson Laboratory) The Glioma Longitudinal Analysis (GLASS) Consortium characterized diffuse glioma cells both before and after therapy to characterize how they change and why this form of malignant brain cancer is so difficult to treat. The findings provide a foundation for further research and the opportunity for the clinical community to predict the effectiveness of newly developed treatments.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: news
(NIH/National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS)) Researchers have devised a new, promising plan of attack against deadly childhood brain cancers called diffuse midline gliomas (DMG). NCATS and Stanford University scientists and their colleagues showed that combining two drugs killed DMG patient cells grown in the laboratory and in animal models. The drugs countered the effects of a genetic mutation that causes the diseases. Their studies also uncovered an unrecognized vulnerability in the cancer cells that scientists may be able to exploit.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
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Source: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: J Neurosurg Sci Source Type: research
Authors: Philbrick B, Adamson DC Abstract INTRODUCTION: High grade gliomas (HGG) are extremely aggressive brain malignancies that are usually fatal. Despite maximal resection, chemotherapy and radiation, these tumors inevitably recur and present a poor median overall survival (mOS); hence there is a pressing need for improved treatments.Areas covered:This review assesses DNX-2401 as a treatment of recurrent HGG. Phase I data on efficacy, safety, and tolerability are examined while insights and perspectives on future directions are offered.Expert opinion:This phase I study assessed DNX-2401 in two groups; one group ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Investig Drugs Source Type: research
This study suggests that the interplay between sialic acids and Siglecs is a sensitive immune checkpoint axis and may be crucial for Dex-induced dampening of antitumor immunity. The targeting of sialic acid-Siglec glyco-immune checkpoint can be a novel therapeutic method in glioma th erapy.
Source: Immunologic Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the effects of AMPA receptor antagonist perampanel in rat C6 glioma model. In first pilot experiments, perampanel reduced glucose uptake but had no impact of extracellular glutamate level in vitro. To analyze the effects of perampanel in vivo, we injected C6 cells orthotopically into the neocortex of Wistar rats in order to establish a model of glioma-associated epilepsy. Spontaneous recurrent discharges in brain slices were abolished upon perfusion with the AMPA receptor blocker perampanel, supporting the major role of glutamatergic excitation. With respect to the tumor progression, no effec...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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