Antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in south-west Germany, 2004 to 2015: increasing minimal inhibitory concentrations of tetracycline but no resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.
We examined the susceptibility (determined by Etest and evaluated using the breakpoints of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) of 434 N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected from 107 female and 327 male patients in Stuttgart, south-west Germany, between 2004 and 2015. During the study period, high proportions of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (70.3%), tetracycline (48.4%; increasing from 27.5% in 2004/2005 to 57.7% in 2014/2015; p = 0.0002) and penicillin (25.6%). The proportion of isolates resistant to azithromycin was low (5.5%) but tended to increase (p = 0.08). No resistance and stable minimum inhibitory concentrations were found for cefixime, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin. High-level resistance was found for ciprofloxacin (39.6%) and tetracycline (20.0%) but not for azithromycin; 16.3% of the isolates produced betalactamase. Thus, cephalosporins can still be used for the treatment of gonorrhoea in the study area. To avoid further increasing resistance to azithromycin, its usage should be limited to patients allergic to cephalosporins, or (in combination with cephalosporins) to patients for whom no susceptibility testing could be performed or those co-infected with chlamydiae. PMID: 27632642 [PubMed - in process]
In conclusion, the cross-resistance with azithromycin indicates that cethromycin may not be considered for empirical first-line monotherapy of gonorrhoea. However, cethromycin might be valuable in combination antimicrobial therapy and for second-line therapy e.g. for cases with ceftriaxone resistance or allergy. PMID: 31106713 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of gentamicin as an alternative to ceftriaxone (both combined with azithromycin) for treatment of gonorrhoea.MethodsG-ToG was a multicentre, parallel-group, pragmatic, randomised, non-inferiority trial comparing treatment with gentamicin to treatment with ceftriaxone for patients with gonorrhoea. The patients, treating physician, and assessing physician were masked to treatment but the treating nurse was not. The trial took place at 14 sexual health clinics in England. Adults aged 16–70 years were eligible for participation if they had a diagnosis of uncompl...
CONCLUSIONS: Molecular typing may be a useful tool to predict antimicrobial resistance. High rates of resistance to penicillin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were found in this area. It is highly recommended to carry out antimicrobial susceptibility in all gonorrhoea cases and to identify treatment failures to verify emerging resistance. PMID: 30727713 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska B, Malejczyk M, Majewski S, Unemo M Abstract Gonorrhoea is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and in 2012, the World Health Organization estimated about 78 million of new global urogenital cases among adults per year. The main concern during the latest decade has been the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Resistance has emerged internationally to the extended-spectrum cephalosporins, ceftriaxone and cefixime, which are the last remaining options for empiric first-line monotherapy of gonorrhoea. In Poland, the levels of re...
Abstract Patients who are HIV-positive and co-infected with other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are at risk of increased morbidity and mortality. This is of clinical significance. There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of STIs, particularly syphilis, gonorrhoea, Mycoplasma genitalium and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HIV-positive patients. The reasons for this are multifactorial, but contributing factors may include effective treatment for HIV, increased STI testing, use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and use of social media to meet sexual partners. The rate of syphilis-HIV co-infection is incr...
Abstract A number of national and international organizations are advocating more intensive screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in high-prevalence populations as a way to reduce the prevalence of these infections. In this article, we review the available evidence and conclude that there is a paucity of evidence to support this approach. We further hypothesize that increasing screening intensity in high-prevalence populations will result in a considerable risk for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and other pathobionts. PMID: 30520712 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Numerous preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) guidelines recommend three-monthly screening for gonorrhoea and chlamydia. To quantify the risk of antimicrobial resistance this may induce, we conducted a literature review of the incidence of gonorrhoea and chlamydia in PrEP studies that conducted 3-site, 3-monthly screening. We found that screening could result in macrolide consumption rates that exceed those in high macrolide consumption populations where consumption has been strongly associated with macrolide resistance.
Conclusion: Alarming increase in the resistance to commonly used antimicrobials for gonorrhoea in our study, especially of fluoroquinolones, is a clarion call for the urgent need for prudence in prescribing them. Observing the rampant resistance exhibited by N. gonorrhoeae, it is clear that the day is not far when it will acquire a superbug status and become intractable to treatment by the available antibiotics.
ConclusionPrevalence and drug resistance ofN.gonorrhoeae were high in the study area. A large study is needed in order to know the magnitude in the community as well as to increase awareness of both regional health bureaus and the Ministry of Health about the treatment guide-lines.
ConclusionsThe situation in Laos is similar to that in neighbouring countries; this fortunately means that the latest Lao national guidelines for treating gonorrhoea should still be effective.