Ximenia caffra Sond. (Ximeniaceae) in sub-Saharan Africa: A synthesis and review of its medicinal potential

Conclusion In this review, the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, biological activities and toxicity of different extracts and compounds of X. caffra have been summarized. Although many of the ethnomedicinal uses of X. caffra have been validated by phytochemical and pharmacological studies, there are still some gaps where current knowledge could be improved. There are very few to nil experimental animal studies, randomized clinical trials and target-organ toxicity studies involving X. caffra and its derivatives that have been carried out so far. At the present moment, there is not sufficient evidence to interpret the specific chemical mechanisms associated with some of the documented biological activities of the species. Therefore, future studies should identify the bioactive components, details of the molecular modes or mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics and physiological pathways for specific bioactives of X. caffra.
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Mindfulness Activism Protest Psychology Society Buddhism Source Type: news
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Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
This study was undertaken to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance patterns of toxigenic C. difficile isolates cultured from diarrhoeal stool samples of hospitalised patients with suspected CDI in three tertiary care hospitals in Tehran, Iran.MethodsTwo hundred and fifty diarrhoeal stool samples were investigated by toxigenic culture using cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar and the VERO cell line. Antimicrobial susceptibility to metronidazole, vancomycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and moxifloxacin was performed by disk diffusion and Etest methods on Brucella Blood Agar supplemented with hemin and vitamin K.ResultsThirty-...
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Authors: Kułak-Bejda A, Waszkiewicz N, Bejda G, Zalewska A, Maciejczyk M Abstract A growing interest in the usability of saliva has been observed recently. Using saliva as a diagnostic material is possible because it contains a varied range of composites, organic and inorganic like proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, which are secreted into saliva. Moreover, this applies to drugs and their metabolites. Saliva collection is noninvasive, and self-collection is possible. There is a lack of risk of injuries related to injection with needle, and it is generally safe. Human saliva has been successfully used, for exampl...
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Source: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Biol Regul Homeost Agents Source Type: research
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