Real-time monitoring of electrically evoked catecholamine signals in the songbird striatum using in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry

Publication date: Available online 18 April 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Amanda R. Smith , Paul A. Garris , Joseph M. Casto Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry is a powerful technique for monitoring rapid changes in extracellular neurotransmitter levels in the brain. In vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry has been used extensively in mammalian models to characterize dopamine signals in both anesthetized and awake preparations, but has yet to be applied to a non-mammalian vertebrate. The goal of this study was to establish in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in a songbird, the European starling, to facilitate real-time measurements of extracellular catecholamine levels in the avian striatum. In urethane-anesthetized starlings, changes in catecholamine levels were evoked by electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area and measured at carbon-fiber microelectrodes positioned in the medial and lateral striata. Catecholamines were elicited by different stimulations, including trains related to phasic dopamine signaling in the rat, and were analyzed to quantify presynaptic mechanisms governing exocytotic release and neuronal uptake. Evoked extracellular catecholamine dynamics, maximal amplitude of the evoked catecholamine signal, and parameters for catecholamine release and uptake did not differ between striatal regions and were similar to those determined for dopamine in the rat dorsomedial striatum under similar conditions. Chemical identification of m...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Yongzhen Liu, Zengkun Xu, Yu Zhang, Mengmeng Yu, Suyan Wang, Yulong Gao, Changjun Liu, Yanping Zhang, Li Gao, Xiaole Qi, Hongyu Cui, Qing Pan, Kai Li, Xiaomei WangAbstractThe CRISPR/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system is a powerful gene-editing tool originally discovered as an integral mediator of bacterial adaptive immunity. Recently, this technology has been explored for its potential utility in providing new and unique treatments for viral infection. Marek’s disease virus (MDV) and avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of MaterialsAuthor(s): Nerith Rocío Elejalde-Cadena, Mayra Cuéllar-Cruz, Abel MorenoAbstractThis contribution is a scientific journey divided into three parts. In the first part, we review the role that silica biomorphs of alkaline earth metals have played in the formation of complex structures as a reminiscence of the chemistry of the primitive life on Earth. These biomorphs, and their variety of forms synthesized by simple chemical reactions, can nowadays be experimentally used to explain some mechanism...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology, Volume 174Author(s): L. Starvaggi Cucuzza, A.D. Pérez-Rodríguez, P. Pregel, B. Biolatti, F.T. Cannizzo, E. Bollo, F.E. Scaglione
Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology, Volume 174Author(s): C. Bianco, A. Nunez, P. Sanchez-Cordon, R. Hansen, S. Reid, S. Jeckel, I.H. Brown, S. Thomas, C. Poulos, S.M. Brooks
Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology, Volume 174Author(s): S.A. Bergervoet, S. Vreman, R. Zwart, N. Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N. Beerens
Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
China's agriculture ministry said on Thursday it had found a new case of highly pathogenic H5N6 avian flu in a flock of about 150 wild swans in the western Xinjiang region.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
AbstractPrevious studies of fetal death with maternal influenza have been inconsistent. We explored the effect of maternal influenza-like illness (ILI) in pregnancy on the risk of fetal death, distinguishing between diagnoses during regular influenza seasons and the 2009/2010 pandemic and between trimesters of ILI. We used birth records from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway to identify fetal deaths after the first trimester in singleton pregnancies (2006 –2013). The Norwegian Directorate of Health provided dates of clinical influenza diagnoses by primary-health-care providers, whereas dates of laboratory-confirme...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
In this study, we establish an infection model in which four-week-old SPF chickens are infected with ALV-J strain CHN06, after which the host immune response is detected. We found that the expression of two antiviral interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) (Mx1 and IFIT5) were increased in ALV-J infected peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). A significant CD8+ T cell response induced by ALV-J appeared as early as seven days post-infection (DPI), and humoral immunity starting from 21 DPI differed greatly in the time scale of induction level. Meanwhile, the ALV-J viremia was significantly decreased before antibody production at 14 ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus were first identified in the spring of 2013 in China,1 causing more human infections than any other avian influenza A virus.2 As of July 1, 2019, a total of 1568 laboratory-confirmed human cases, including 616 deaths, have been reported to the World Health Organization (WHO), primarily from China.3,4 During 2016-2017, A(H7N9) virus spread among poultry across China, and 30 out of 34 provinces reported human infections.5 Moreover, A(H7N9) virus strains continue to evolve and have diverged into two main lineages, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) lineages.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
In conclusion, the two-tubes-per-one-sample approach was more reliable to control the false negative results in H5 RT-RPA assay.
Source: Molecular and Cellular Probes - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
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