Neurological Instability in Ischemic Stroke: Relation with Outcome, Latency Time, and Molecular Markers
AbstractThe National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) is commonly used to evaluate stroke neurological deficits and to predict the patient ’s outcome. Neurological instability (NI), defined as the variation of the NIHSS in the first 48 h, is a simple clinical metric that reflects dynamic changes in the area of the brain affected by the ischemia. We hypothesize that NI may represent areas of cerebral instability known as penumbra, wh ich could expand or reduce brain injury and its associated neurological sequels. In this work, our aim was to analyze the association of NI with the functional outcome at 3&...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - June 24, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Characterization of CB2 Receptor Expression in Peripheral Blood Monocytes of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients
AbstractBoth preclinical and clinical evidence supports the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the pathobiology of cerebral ischemia. Selective cannabinoid-2 (CB2) receptor agonists exert significant neuroprotection in animal models of focal brain ischemia through a robust anti-inflammatory effect, involving both resident and peripheral immune cells. Nevertheless, no definitive studies demonstrating the relevance of CB2 receptors in human stroke exist.Using rtPCR and flow cytometry assays, we investigated CB2 receptor expression in circulating monocytes from 26 acute ischemic stroke patients and 16 age-matched he...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - June 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A New Angiographic Collateral Grading System for Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion Treated with Endovascular Therapy
AbstractPoor clinical outcomes despite endovascular therapy (EVT) are common in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO). We aimed to develop a new angiographic collateral grading system for predicting 90-day functional outcomes of acute BAO after EVT. A prospectively registered consecutive cohort of acute BAO patients treated with EVT in our center during a 6-year period was reviewed. The angiographic collateral grading system for BAO (ACGS-BAO) included 4 grades for poor (grade 1 –2), intermediate (grade 3), and good (grade 4) collateral statuses. First, the independent association of ACGS-BAO with 90-day...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - June 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Quantitative Corticospinal Tract Assessment in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage
AbstractIntracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) prognostication during the acute phase is often subjective among physicians and often affects treatment decisions. The present study explores objective imaging parameters using quantitative corticospinal tract (CST) fiber reconstruction during the acute phase of ICH and correlates these parameters with functional outcome and patient recovery. We prospectively enrolled nonsurgical spontaneous supratentorial ICH patients and obtained an MRI scan on day 5  ± 1. Q-space diffeomorphic reconstruction was performed using DSI Studio, and quantitative anisotropy (QA) was c...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - June 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A System for Continuous Pre- to Post-reperfusion Intra-carotid Cold Infusion for Selective Brain Hypothermia in Rodent StrokeModels
AbstractIntra-carotid cold infusion (ICCI) appears as a promising method for hypothermia-mediated brain protection from ischemic stroke. Recent clinical pilot studies indicate easy implementation of ICCI into endovascular acute ischemic stroke treatment. Current rodent ICCI-in-stroke models limit ICCI to the post-reperfusion phase. To establish a method for continuous ICCI over the duration of intra-ischemia to post-reperfusion in rodent stroke models, a novel system was developed. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were included. Intraluminal filament method was used for transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). N...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - June 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Unruptured Giant Intracranial Aneurysms: Risk Factors for Mortality and Long-Term Outcome
This study aims to investigate the long-term outcomes of unruptured giant intracranial aneurysms (GIAs) with different treatment modalities and to analyze the factors affecting prognosis. We performed a retrospective medical record review of patients with unruptured GIAs treated at our institution from 2011 to 2018. Prognosis was compared to the best medical treatment without intervention (conservative treatment, CT) and surgical (ST) or endovascular (ET) treatment. Risk factors for mortality were investigated. A total of 276 patients were included in this study. Patients received CT in 16.3%, ST in 30.1%, and ET in 53.6% ...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - June 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Wogonin Accelerates Hematoma Clearance and Improves Neurological Outcome via the PPAR- γ Pathway After Intracerebral Hemorrhage
In conclusion, our data suggest that wogonin facilitates hematoma clearance and neurobehavioral recovery by targeting PPAR-γ. (Source: Translational Stroke Research)
Source: Translational Stroke Research - June 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Correction to: Phosphodiesterase 10A Inhibition Leads to Brain Region-Specific Recovery Based on Stroke Type
The original version of this article was revised due to retrospective Open Access. (Source: Translational Stroke Research)
Source: Translational Stroke Research - June 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Correction to: Safety of Early Administration of Apixaban on Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Acute Large Vessel Occlusion
There was an error in Fig.  2d. The correct Fig. 2d is shown below. (Source: Translational Stroke Research)
Source: Translational Stroke Research - June 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Relationship of Morphological-Hemodynamic Characteristics, Inflammation, and Remodeling of Aneurysm Wall in Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms
AbstractAneurysm wall remodeling (AWR) is an important pathological characteristic in aneurysm wall, which was characterized by abnormal histological structure and inflammation infiltration. In the present study, the aim is to determine the relationships of morphological-hemodynamic characteristics, inflammation, and AWR in intracranial aneurysms (IAs), as well as the pathological basis of morphological-hemodynamic predictors to achieve IA development. For this end, 113 unruptured IAs were prospectively collected from 110 cases. In addition, patient-specific computational fluid dynamics and geometry were adopted to determi...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - June 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Natural Killer Cells Are Present in Rag1 −/− Mice and Promote Tissue Damage During the Acute Phase of Ischemic Stroke
AbstractRag1−/− mice, lacking functional B and T cells, have been extensively used as an adoptive transfer model to evaluate neuroinflammation in stroke research. However, it remains unknown whether natural killer (NK) cell development and functions are altered in Rag1−/− mice as well. This connection has been rarely discussed in previous studies but might have important implications for data interpretation. In contrast, the NOD-Rag1nullIL2rgnull (NRG) mouse model is devoid of NK cells and might therefore eliminate this potential shortcoming. Here, we compare immune-cell frequencies as well as pheno...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - June 8, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Acute T2*-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Detectable Cerebral Thrombosis in a Rat Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
AbstractSubarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality, particularly within the first 72  h after aneurysm rupture. We recently found ultra-early cerebral thrombosis, detectable on T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in a mouse SAH model at 4 h after onset. The current study examined whether such changes also occur in rat at 24 h after SAH, the vessels involved, whether the degree of thrombosis varied with SAH severity and brain injury, and if it differed between male and female rats. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to an endovascular perforation SAH m...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - June 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Zebrafish as a Model for In-Depth Mechanistic Study for Stroke
AbstractStroke is one of the world ’s leading causes of death and disability, posing enormous burden to the society. However, the pathogenesis and mechanisms that underlie brain injury and brain repair remain largely unknown. There’s an unmet need of in-depth mechanistic research in this field. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a powerful tool in brain science research mainly due to its small size and transparent body, high genome synteny with human, and similar nervous system structures. It can be used to establish both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke models easily and effectively through different ways. After the es...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - May 29, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Extracellular Vesicle Application as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy for Ischemic Stroke
AbstractIschemic stroke (IS) accounts for most of the cases of stroke onset, and due to short therapeutic time window for thrombolysis and numerous limited treatment measures and contraindications, lots of patients cannot receive satisfying therapeutic effects resulting in high disability and mortality worldly. In recent years, extracellular vesicles (EVs), as nanosized membrane-structured vesicles secreted from almost all cells, especially from stem/progenitor cells, have been reported to exert significant beneficial effects on IS from multiple approaches and notably ameliorate neurological outcome. Moreover, based on nan...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - May 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Vascular Sema3E-Plexin-D1 Signaling Reactivation Promotes Post-stroke Recovery through VEGF Downregulation in Mice
In this study, using a mouse model of transient brain infarction, we aimed to investigate whether Sema3E-Plexin-D1 signaling was involved in cerebrovascular remodeling after ischemic injury. We found that ischemic damage rapidly inducedSema3e expression in the neurons of peri-infarct regions, followed by Plexin-D1 upregulation in remodeling vessels. Interestingly, Plexin-D1 reemergence was concurrent with brain vessels entering an active angiogenic process. In line with this,Plxnd1 ablation worsened neurological deficits, infarct volume, neuronal survival rate, and blood flow recovery. Furthermore, reduced and abnormal vas...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - May 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Galectin-1 Contributes to Vascular Remodeling and Blood Flow Recovery After Cerebral Ischemia in Mice
AbstractGalectin-1 is found in the vasculature and has been confirmed to promote angiogenesis in several cancer models. Furthermore, galectin-1 has been demonstrated to improve the recovery of cerebral ischemia. However, whether vascular remodeling contributes to this improvement is still unknown. In the present study, photochemical cerebral ischemia was induced in both galectin-1-treated (2  μg/day,i.c.v, 3  days) and galectin-1 knockout mice. Laser speckle imaging and immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that circulation and vascular remodeling in the ischemic cortex were improved by galectin-1 treatment ...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - May 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Carbonyl Reductase 1 Attenuates Ischemic Brain Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation
This study aims to observe the expression and role of carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), an NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase with specificity for carbonyl compounds such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), in the brain after ischemic injury and to investigate the influence of CBR1 on ischemia-induced neuroinflammation. CBR1 expresses in the neurons, astrocyte, and microglia in the normal brain. The expression of CBR1 decreased in the ischemic regions following cerebral ischemia, and also reduced in primary neurons after OGD (oxygen-glucose deprivation); however, the expression of CBR1 significantly increased in microglia in the ischemic ...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - May 8, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Hypocapnia Induced by Hyperventilation with Indocyanine Green Kinetics Detects the Effect of Staged Carotid Angioplasty to Avoid Hyperperfusion in Patients with Impaired Cerebral Hemodynamic Reserve
AbstractCerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a serious complication following carotid artery stenting (CAS). Staged angioplasty (AP) could potentially prevent CHS and hyperperfusion phenomenon (HPP) after revascularization. However, methods for measuring the effects of staged AP on cerebral hemodynamic reserve have not been established. Here, we evaluated whether indocyanine green kinetics and near-infrared spectroscopy (ICG-NIRS) with hypocapnia induced by hyperventilation can detect the effects of staged AP on hemodynamic reserve to prevent CHS after CAS. Participants comprised 44 patients at high risk of CHS, whose...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - May 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Electrophilic and Drug-Induced Stimulation of NOTCH3 N-terminal Fragment Oligomerization in Cerebrovascular Pathology
AbstractSmall vessel disease is a prevalent age-related condition linked to increased risk of dementia and stroke. We investigate the most commonly inherited form, CADASIL, caused by cysteine-involving mutations inNOTCH3. Recent studies highlight accumulation of NOTCH3 N-terminal fragmentation product (NTF) in disease. In vitro, NTF is capable of both spontaneous and catecholamine-enhanced cysteine-mediated oligomerization. Despite well-characterized genetic influence on CADASIL, environmental effects, including medication usage, on disease remain unclear. We studied effects of assorted electrophilic compounds and drugs on...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - May 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Targeted Temperature Management at 36  °C Shows Therapeutic Effectiveness via Alteration of Microglial Activation and Polarization After Ischemic Stroke
AbstractIschemic injury leads to cell death and inflammatory responses after stroke. Microglia especially play a crucial role in this brain inflammation. Targeted temperature management (TTM) at 33  °C has shown neuroprotective effects against many acute ischemic injuries. However, it has also shown some adverse effects in preclinical studies. Therefore, we explored the neuroprotective effect of TTM at 36 °C in the ischemic brain. To confirm the neuroprotective effects of hypothermia, mice were subjected to a permanent stroke and then treated with one of the TTM paradigms at 33 and 36 °C. For com...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - April 24, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Delayed Recanalization —How Late Is Not Too Late?
AbstractStroke has become the second most prevalent cause of mortality in the world. Currently, the treatment of ischemic stroke is based on thrombolytic and thrombectomy therapy shortly after the ischemic event ( ≤ 4.5 h for thrombolytic strategies; ≤ 6 h for thrombectomy strategies). However, the majority of patients are unable to receive prompt treatment, particularly in undeveloped countries. Alternative solutions are lacking for those patients that miss the optimal window of opportunity for tre atment. Recently, new developments in imaging techniques and intravascular interventional devic...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - April 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Diabetes Mellitus/Poststroke Hyperglycemia: a Detrimental Factor for tPA Thrombolytic Stroke Therapy
AbstractIntravenous administration of tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV tPA) therapy has long been considered a mainstay in ischemic stroke management. However, patients respond to IV tPA therapy unequally with some subsets of patients having worsened outcomes after treatment. In particular, diabetes mellitus (DM) is recognized as a clinically important vascular comorbidity that leads to lower recanalization rates and increased risks of hemorrhagic transformation (HT). In this short-review, we summarize the recent advances in understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in post-IV tPA worsening of outcome in dia...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - April 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Role of Thrombin in Brain Injury After Hemorrhagic and Ischemic Stroke
AbstractThrombin is increased in the brain after hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke primarily due to the prothrombin entry from blood either with a hemorrhage or following blood-brain barrier disruption. Increasing evidence indicates that thrombin and its receptors (protease-activated receptors (PARs)) play a major role in brain pathology following ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke (including intracerebral, intraventricular, and subarachnoid hemorrhage). Thrombin and PARs affect brain injury via multiple mechanisms that can be detrimental or protective. The cleavage of prothrombin into thrombin is the key step of hemostasis and...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - April 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Microglial Responses to Brain Injury and Disease: Functional Diversity and New Opportunities
This article reviews recent advances in our knowledge of microglia with emphases on molecular mediators of phenotype shifts and functional diversity. We describe microglia-targeted therapeutic opportunities, including pharmacologic modulation of phenotype and repopulation of the brain with fresh microglia. With the advent of powerful new tools, research on microglia has recently accelerated in pace and may translate into potential therapeutics against brain injury and neurological disease. (Source: Translational Stroke Research)
Source: Translational Stroke Research - April 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neutrophil Extracellular Traps may be a Potential Target for Treating Early Brain Injury in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
In conclusion, NETs promoted neuroinflammation after SAH, while pharmacological inhibition of PAD4-NETs could reduce the inflammatory damage caused by SAH. These results supported the idea that NETs might be potential therapeutic targets for SAH. (Source: Translational Stroke Research)
Source: Translational Stroke Research - April 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prediction of Outcome After Endovascular Embolectomy in Anterior Circulation Stroke Using Biomarkers
In this study, we investigated the use of the brain damage biomarkers tau, NFL, NSE, GFAp, and S100B to understand the progression of nervous tissue damage and their relationship to outcome in such stroke after endovascular treatment. Blood samples were taken from 90 patients pre-treatment and 2 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 3 months after endovascular treatment. Stroke-related neurological deficit was estimated using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission and at 24 h. Neurological outcome was evaluated at 3 months. After stroke, tau, NFL, GFAp and S100B increased in a time dependent manner, while NSE...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - March 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Calcium/Calmodulin –Dependent Protein Kinase II in Cerebrovascular Diseases
AbstractCerebrovascular disease is the most common life-threatening and debilitating condition that often leads to stroke. The multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a key Ca2+ sensor and an important signaling protein in a variety of biological systems within the brain, heart, and vasculature. In the brain, past stroke-related studies have been mainly focused on the role of CaMKII in ischemic stroke in neurons and established CaMKII as a major mediator of neuronal cell death induced by glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress following ischemic stroke. However, with growing underst...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - March 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Ifenprodil Improves Long-Term Neurologic Deficits Through Antagonizing Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
AbstractExcessive glutamate leading to excitotoxicity worsens brain damage after SAH and contributes to long-term neurological deficits. The drug ifenprodil is a non-competitive antagonist of GluN1-GluN2B N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, which mediates excitotoxic damage in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glutamate level within 48  h was significantly elevated in aSAH patients who later developed poor outcome. In rat SAH model, ifenprodil can improve long-term sensorimotor and spatial learning deficits. Ifenprodil attenuates experimental SAH-induced neuronal death of basal cortex a...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - March 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Increased Renal Dysfunction, Apoptosis, and Fibrogenesis Through Sympathetic Hyperactivity After Focal Cerebral Infarction
In this study, we investigated whether sympathetic hyperactivity can cause the development of renal dysfunction, apoptosis, and fibrogenesis after focal cerebral infarction. To determine the renal consequences of focal cerebral ischemia, we subjected a mice model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and examined systolic blood pressure, heart rate, renal structure and function, serum catecholamine, and cortisol levels, and the expression of active caspase-3 bcl-2, bax, and phosphorylated p38 MAPK after 8 weeks. We also analyzed the relationship between insular cortex infarction and acute kidney injury (AKI...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - March 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Novel Mouse Model for Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis
This study is aimed at developing a novel murine model suitable and relevant for evaluating injury patterns during CVST and studying its clinical aspects. CVST was achieved in C57BL/6J mice by autologous clot injection into the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) combined with bilateral ligation of external jugular veins. Clot was preparedex vivo using thrombin before injection. On days 1 and 7 after CVST, SSS occlusion and associated-parenchymal lesions were monitored using different modalities:in vivo real-time intravital microscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and immuno-histology. In addition, mice were subjected to a ...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - March 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Mitochondrial Transfer: a Therapeutic Approach for Ischemic Stroke
AbstractStroke is the leading cause of death and adult disability worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the hallmarks of stroke-induced neuronal death, and maintaining mitochondrial function is essential in cell survival and neurological progress following ischemic stroke. Stem cell-mediated mitochondrial transfer represents an emerging therapeutic approach for ischemic stroke. Accumulating evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can directly transfer healthy mitochondria to damaged cells, and rescue mitochondrial damage-provoked tissue degeneration. This review summarizes the research on MSCs-mediate...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - March 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Cognitive Impairment Induced by Cerebral Microhemorrhage
AbstractIt has been suggested that cerebral microhemorrhages (CMHs) could be involved in cognitive decline. However, little is known about the sex-dependency of this effect. Using a multimodal approach combining behavioral tests, in vivo imaging, biochemistry, and molecular biology, we studied the cortical and hippocampal impact of a CMH in male and female mice (C57BL/6J) 6  weeks post-induction using a collagenase-induced model. Our work shows for the first time that a single cortical CMH exerts sex-specific effects on cognition. It notably induced visuospatial memory impairment in males only. This sex difference mig...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - March 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Optogenetic Stimulation Reduces Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression After Stroke
AbstractPost-stroke optogenetic stimulation has been shown to enhance neurovascular coupling and functional recovery. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has been implicated as a key regulator of the neurovascular response in acute stroke; however, its role in subacute recovery remains unclear. We investigated the expression of nNOS in stroke mice undergoing optogenetic stimulation of the contralesional lateral cerebellar nucleus (cLCN). We also examined the effects of nNOS inhibition on functional recovery using a pharmacological inhibitor targeting nNOS. Optogenetically stimulated stroke mice demonstrated significant i...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - March 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Analysis of Treatment Outcome After Endovascular Treatment in Different Pathological Subtypes of Basilar Artery Occlusion: a Single Center Experience
AbstractThe current study aimed to evaluate whether patients with different pathologic subtypes of basilar artery occlusion (BAO) stroke could affect the clinical outcome after receiving endovascular treatment(EVT). A total of 187 consecutive patients with acute BAO receiving endovascular treatment (EVT) from January 2012 to July 2018 at the Beijing Tiantan Hospital were recruited in this study. The patients were categorized into three groups: embolism without vertebral artery (VA) steno-occlusion (group 1), in situ atherosclerotic thrombosis (group 2), and embolism from tandem VA steno-occlusion (group 3). Among the 187 p...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - March 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Carotid Endarterectomy and Stenting in a Chinese Population: Safety Outcome of the Revascularization of Extracranial Carotid Artery Stenosis Trial
AbstractCarotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) have been well-established as two effective treatment modalities for carotid artery stenosis, while their clinical outcomes in real-world China are still unknown due to lack of nationwide trials. We aimed to evaluate the safety outcome profile of CEA and CAS in Chinese patients with carotid artery stenosis. The Revascularization of Extracranial Carotid Artery Stenosis trial was a multicentre, prospective cohort study of CEA or CAS in treating patients with carotid artery stenosis. We included symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with carotid artery sten...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - March 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous rtPA in Ischemic Strokes Due to Small-Vessel Occlusion: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
AbstractIntravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (iv-rtPA) has been routinely used to treat ischemic stroke for 25  years, following large clinical trials. However, there are few prospective studies on the efficacy and safety of this therapy in strokes attributed to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). We evaluated functional outcome (modified Rankin scale, mRS) and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) u sing all available data on the effects of iv-rtPA in SVD-related ischemic stroke (defined either using neuroimaging, clinical features, or both). Using fixed-effect and random-effects models, we cal...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - February 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Ten Years and Counting: a Celebration of the 10th Anniversary of Translational Stroke Research
(Source: Translational Stroke Research)
Source: Translational Stroke Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

White Matter Free Water is a Composite Marker of Cerebral Small Vessel Degeneration
AbstractTo investigate the association between white matter free water (FW) and common imaging markers of cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVD) in two groups of subjects with different clinical status. One hundred and forty-four community subjects (mean age 60.5) and 84 CSVD subjects (mean age 61.2) were retrospectively included in the present study. All subjects received multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging and clinical assessments. The association between white matter FW and common CSVD imaging markers, including white matter hyperintensities (WMH), dilated perivascular space (PVS), lacunes, and microbleeds, were asses...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - February 25, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neurovascular Units and Neural-Glia Networks in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: from Mechanisms to Translation
AbstractIntracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the most lethal type of stroke, often leads to poor outcomes in the clinic. Due to the complex mechanisms and cell –cell crosstalk during ICH, the neurovascular unit (NVU) was proposed to serve as a promising therapeutic target for ICH research. This review aims to summarize the development of pathophysiological shifts in the NVU and neural–glia networks after ICH. In addition, potential targets for ICH ther apy are discussed in this review. Beyond cerebral blood flow, the NVU also plays an important role in protecting neurons, maintaining central nervous system (CNS) hom...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - February 24, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Key Regulator of Necroptosis, RIP1 Kinase, Contributes to the Formation of Astrogliosis and Glial Scar in Ischemic Stroke
AbstractNecroptosis initiation relies on the receptor-interacting protein 1 kinase (RIP1K). We recently reported that genetic and pharmacological inhibition of RIP1K produces protection against ischemic stroke-induced astrocytic injury. However, the role of RIP1K in ischemic stroke-induced formation of astrogliosis and glial scar remains unknown. Here, in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) rat model and an oxygen and glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/Re)-induced astrocytic injury model, we show that RIP1K was significantly elevated in the reactive astrocytes. Knockdown of RIP1K or delayed adminis...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - February 24, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

CYP2C19 Loss-of-Function Associated with First-Time Ischemic Stroke in Non-surgical Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis During Clopidogrel Therapy
This study measures effect ofCYP2C19 genotype on ischemic stroke risk during clopidogrel therapy for asymptomatic, extracranial carotid stenosis patients. Using deidentified electronic health records, patients were selected for retrospective cohort using administrative code for carotid stenosis, availability ofCYP2C19 genotype result, clopidogrel exposure, and established patient care. Patients with intracranial atherosclerosis, aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, prior ischemic stroke, or observation time
Source: Translational Stroke Research - February 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Short-term glycemic variability and hemorrhagic transformation after successful endovascular thrombectomy
ConclusionsTime-related GV during the first 36 h after successful ERT has a stronger correlation with sICH and poor functional outcomes compared to any GV parameters. This suggests that maintaining stable glucose may be an important factor in the prevention of sICH after undergoing successful ERT. (Source: Translational Stroke Research)
Source: Translational Stroke Research - February 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Imaging-Based Outcome Prediction of Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage
AbstractWe hypothesized that imaging-only-based machine learning algorithms can analyze non-enhanced CT scans of patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This retrospective multicenter cohort study analyzed 520 non-enhanced CT scans and clinical data of patients with acute spontaneous ICH. Clinical outcome at hospital discharge was dichotomized into good outcome and poor outcome using different modified Rankin Scale (mRS) cut-off values. Predictive performance of a random forest machine learning approach based on filter- and texture-derived high-end image features was evaluated for differentiation of functional ...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - February 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Inhibition of Dectin-1 Ameliorates Neuroinflammation by Regulating Microglia/Macrophage Phenotype After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice
In conclusion, our data suggest that Dectin-1 is involved in the microglia/macrophage polarization and functional recovery after ICH, and that this mechanism, at least in part, may contribute to the involvement of the Syk/Car d9/NF-kB pathway. (Source: Translational Stroke Research)
Source: Translational Stroke Research - February 4, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mechanical Thrombectomy in Nonagenarians: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
AbstractThis systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize the current literature on mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in nonagenarians and to provide updated clinical evidence of its feasibility, effectiveness, and safety in nonagenarians. PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials and observational studies that reported the clinical outcomes of nonagenarians with acute ischemic stroke after undergoing mechanical thrombectomy. Risk of bias was assessed using different scales.I2 statistic was used to evaluate the heterogeneity of the results, while m...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - February 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Immune Cell Infiltration into the Brain After Ischemic Stroke in Humans Compared to Mice and Rats: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
AbstractAlthough several studies have suggested that anti-inflammatory strategies reduce secondary infarct growth in animal stroke models, clinical studies have not yet demonstrated a clear benefit of immune modulation in patients. Potential reasons include systematic differences of post-ischemic neuroinflammation between humans and rodents. We here performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize and compare the spatial and temporal distribution of immune cell infiltration in human and rodent stroke. Data on spatiotemporal distribution of immune cells (T cells, macrophages, and neutrophils) and infarct volume ...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - January 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinical Value of 3D-Printed Navigation Technology Combined with Neuroendoscopy for Intracerebral Hemorrhage
In conclusion, 3D-printed navigation technology used for the neuroendoscopic hematoma removal is a more reliable and less invasive approach in the treatment of IC H. This technique has great application prospects and deserves promotion in the future clinical practice. (Source: Translational Stroke Research)
Source: Translational Stroke Research - January 25, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Endoplasmic Reticulum Interaction Supports Energy Production and Redox Homeostasis in Mitochondria Released from Astrocytes
In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms that underlie mitochondria secretion, redox status, and functional regulation in the extracellular environment. Exposure of rat primary astrocytes to NAD or cADPR elicited an increase in mitochondrial calcium through ryanodine receptor (RyR) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Importantly, CD38 stimulation with NAD accelerated ATP production along with increasing glutathione reductase (GR) and dipicolinic acid (DPA) in intracellular mitochondria. When RyR was blocked by Dantrolene, all effects were clearly diminished. Mitochondrial functional assay showed that these ac...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - January 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Review of Translational Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Human and Rodent Experimental Models of Small Vessel Disease
AbstractCerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a major health burden, yet the pathophysiology remains poorly understood with no effective treatment. Since much of SVD develops silently and insidiously, non-invasive neuroimaging such as MRI is fundamental to detecting and understanding SVD in humans. Several relevant SVD rodent models are established for which MRI can monitor in vivo changes over time prior to histological examination. Here, we critically review the MRI methods pertaining to salient rodent models and evaluate synergies with human SVD MRI methods. We found few relevant publications, but argue there is consid...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - January 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

TRPM7 Mediates Neuronal Cell Death Upstream of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II and Calcineurin Mechanism in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury
In this study, we employed a mouse model of hypoxic-ischemic brain cell death which mimics the pathophysiology of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). HIE is a major public health issue and an important cause of neonatal deaths worldwide; however, the available treatments for HIE remain limited. Its survivors face life-long neurological challenges including mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy and seizure disorders, motor impairments, and visual and auditory impairments. Through a proteomic analysis, we identified calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and phosphatase calcineurin as potential med...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - January 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research