Stability Assessment of Intracranial Aneurysms Using Machine Learning Based on Clinical and Morphological Features
AbstractMachine learning (ML) as a novel approach could help clinicians address the challenge of accurate stability assessment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs). We developed multiple ML models for IA stability assessment and compare their performances. We enrolled 1897 consecutive patients with unstable (n = 528) and stable (n = 1539) IAs. Thirteen patient-specific clinical features and eighteen aneurysm morphological features were extracted to generate support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), and feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) models. The discriminatory performa...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - October 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Adding Antiplatelets to Oral Anticoagulants in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke with Atrial Fibrillation and Concomitant Large Artery Steno-Occlusion
In conclusion, OAC + AP might increase the risk of 3-month outcome ev ents compared with OAC alone in patients with AIS with AF and concomitant LASO. However, the effect of additional AP to OAC might differ according to LASO type. (Source: Translational Stroke Research)
Source: Translational Stroke Research - October 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: the Last Decade
AbstractAneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) affects six to nine people per 100,000 per year, has a 35% mortality, and leaves many  with lasting disabilities, often related to cognitive dysfunction. Clinical decision rules and more sensitive computed tomography (CT) have made the diagnosis of SAH easier, but physicians must maintain a high index of suspicion. The management of these patients is based on a limited number of ran domized clinical trials (RCTs). Early repair of the ruptured aneurysm by endovascular coiling or neurosurgical clipping is essential, and coiling is superior to clipping in cases amenable to...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - October 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Uric Acid and Gluconic Acid as Predictors of Hyperglycemia and Cytotoxic Injury after Stroke
AbstractHyperglycemia is a feature of worse brain injury after acute ischemic stroke, but the underlying metabolic changes and the link to cytotoxic brain injury are not fully understood. In this observational study, we applied regression and machine learning classification analyses to identify metabolites associated with hyperglycemia and a neuroimaging proxy for cytotoxic brain injury. Metabolomics and lipidomics were carried out using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in admission plasma samples from 381 patients presenting with an acute stroke. Glucose was measured by a central clinical laboratory, and a s...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - October 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Combination of Polyethylene Glycol-Conjugated Urokinase Nanogels and Urokinase for Acute Ischemic Stroke Therapeutic Implications
AbstractTissue reperfusion is a serious therapeutic strategy of ischemic stroke in addition to recanalization. In this work, we aimed to establish new urokinase-based therapeutics in order to dissolve large vessel thrombus together with microthrombi for stroke implications. Formulations consisted of free urokinase (UK), polyethylene glycol –crosslinked urokinase nanogel (PEG-UK), and a 1:1 mixture of UK and PEG-UK (PEG-UK+UK) were tested both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments confirmed the pH-dependent release of PEG-UK in the PEG-UK+UK formulation. It was activated at pH 6.50, an environmental pH in th...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - October 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Disruptions of Anaerobic Gut Bacteria Are Associated with Stroke and Post-stroke Infection: a Prospective Case –Control Study
AbstractIn recent years, preclinical studies have illustrated the potential role of intestinal bacterial composition in the risk of stroke and post-stroke infections. The results of these studies suggest that bacteria capable of producing volatile metabolites, including trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and butyrate, play opposing, yet important roles in the cascade of events leading to stroke. However, no large-scale studies have been undertaken to determine the abundance of these bacterial communities in stroke patients and to assess the impact of disrupted compositions of the intestinal microbiota on patient outcomes. In th...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - October 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Correction to: Activation of Sigma-1 Receptor Enhanced Pericyte Survival Via the Interplay between Apoptosis and Autophagy: Implications for Blood –Brain Barrier Integrity in Stroke
In the original publication of this article, the representative western blot images of β-actin in Fig. 3e was presented repeatedly in Fig. 7b due to the same set of samples isolated from tissue of WT and σ-1R KO treated with pMCAO. (Source: Translational Stroke Research)
Source: Translational Stroke Research - October 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Folic Acid Deficiency Enhances the Tyr705 and Ser727 Phosphorylation of Mitochondrial STAT3 in In Vivo and In Vitro Models of Ischemic Stroke
AbstractIschemic stroke remains one of the most common causes of death and disability worldwide. The stroke patients with an inadequate intake of folic acid tend to have increased brain injury and poorer prognosis. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the harmful effects of folic acid deficiency (FD) in ischemic stroke is still elusive. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis that mitochondrial localized STAT3 (mitoSTAT3) expression may be involved in the process of neuronal damage induced by FD in in vivo and in vitro models of ischemic stroke. Our results exhibited that FD increased infarct size and aggravated the da...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - October 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Motor Recovery in Subacute Ischemic Stroke: a Randomized Clinical Trial
AbstractWhile preclinical stroke studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promote recovery, few randomized controlled trials (RCT) have assessed cell therapy in humans. In this RCT, we assessed the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of intravenous autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs in subacute stroke. ISIS-HERMES was a single-center, open-label RCT, with a 2-year follow-up. We enrolled patients aged 18 –70 years less than 2 weeks following moderate-severe ischemic carotid stroke. Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive intravenous MSCs or not. Primary outcomes assessed feasibility and safety. S...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - September 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Predictors of Successful First-Pass Thrombectomy with a Balloon Guide Catheter: Results of a Decision Tree Analysis
AbstractComplete recanalization after a single retrieval maneuver is an interventional goal in acute ischemic stroke and an independent factor for good clinical outcome. Anatomical biomarkers for predicting clot removal difficulties have not been comprehensively analyzed and await unused. We retrospectively evaluated 200 consecutive patients who suffered acute stroke and occlusion of the anterior circulation and were treated with mechanical thrombectomy through a balloon guide catheter (BGC). The primary objective was to evaluate the influence of carotid tortuosity and BGC positioning on the one-pass Modified Thrombolysis ...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - September 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Predictors and Outcomes of Neurological Deterioration in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Results from the TICH-2 Randomized Controlled Trial
AbstractNeurological deterioration is common after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We aimed to identify the predictors and effects of neurological deterioration and whether tranexamic acid reduced the risk of neurological deterioration. Data from the Tranexamic acid in IntraCerebral Hemorrhage-2 (TICH-2) randomized controlled trial were analyzed. Neurological deterioration was defined as an increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) of ≥ 4 or a decline in Glasgow Coma Scale of ≥ 2. Neurological deterioration was considered to be early if it started ≤ 48 h and late if c...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - September 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Iodinated Contrast Agents Reduce the Efficacy of Intravenous Recombinant Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients: a Multicenter Cohort Study
This study aimed to investigate whether the application of iodinated contrast agents before intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) reduces the efficacy in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. To determine whether the application of iodinated contrast agents before intravenous rt-PA reduces the efficacy in AIS patients. We analyzed our prospectively collected data of consecutive AIS patients receiving IV rt-PA treatment in the MISSION CHINA study. Clinical outcome at 3  months was assessed with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score and dichotomized into good outcome (0–2) and poor outcome ...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - September 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Influences Hippocampal Subfield Atrophy in Mild Cognitive Impairment
AbstractTo investigate patterns of hippocampal subfield atrophy among patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, stratified by severity of small vessel disease (SVD) and corresponding associations with cognitive domains. One hundred seventy-six MCI subjects (mean age  = 65.56 years, SD = 8.77) underwent neuropsychological assessments and magnetic resonance imaging. SVD was rated 0 (no SVD), 1 (mild SVD) and 2 (moderate to severe SVD) based on load of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and lacunes. Demographics, cerebrovascular risk factors, grey and wh ite matter volumes and hippoca...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - September 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Deferoxamine Treatment Prevents Post-Stroke Vasoregression and Neurovascular Unit Remodeling Leading to Improved Functional Outcomes in Type 2 Male Diabetic Rats: Role of Endothelial Ferroptosis
This study aimed to determine the impact of iron chelation with deferoxamine (DFX) on (1) cerebral vascularization patterns and (2) functional outcomes after stroke in control and diabetic rats. After 8  weeks of type 2 diabetes induced by a combination of high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin, male control and diabetic animals were subjected to thromboembolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and randomized to vehicle, DFX, or tPA/DFX and followed for 14 days with behavioral tests. Vas cular indices (vascular volume and surface area), neurovascular remodeling (AQP4 polarity), and microglia activation w...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - August 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

TREM-1 Exacerbates Neuroinflammatory Injury via NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated Pyroptosis in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
In conclusion, our results revealed the critical role of TREM-1 in neuroinflammation following SAH, suggesting that TREM-1 inhibition might be a potential therapeutic approach for SAH. (Source: Translational Stroke Research)
Source: Translational Stroke Research - August 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neurogenesis After Stroke: A Therapeutic Perspective
AbstractStroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Yet therapeutic strategies available to treat stroke are very limited. There is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutics that can effectively facilitate functional recovery. The injury that results from stroke is known to induce neurogenesis in penumbra of the infarct region. There is considerable interest in harnessing this response for therapeutic purposes. This review summarizes what is currently known about stroke-induced neurogenesis and the factors that have been identified to regulate it. Additionally, some key studies in this field have been hig...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Safety of Early Administration of Apixaban on Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Acute Large Vessel Occlusion
AbstractEarly administration of direct oral anticoagulants in patients with acute large vessel occlusion (LVO) and nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is a concern, as endovascular therapy (EVT) became highly utilized. We conducted a historical and prospective multicenter registry at 38 centers in Japan from July 2016 to February 2018. Patients aged ≥ 20 years with NVAF and acute LVO or stenosis who received apixaban within 14 days from onset were included. We compared patients who received apixaban
Source: Translational Stroke Research - August 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Left Atrial Appendage Closure for Patients with Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy and Atrial Fibrillation: the LAA-CAA Cohort
AbstractAnticoagulation increases the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), so the management of stroke-risk in patients with both atrial fibrillation (AF) and CAA is controversial. Advances in left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) techniques provide a stroke-risk-reduction option which avoids long-term oral anticoagulation (OAC). We aimed to evaluate the safety of this intervention in patients with CAA. This is an observational cohort study of patients with severe CAA (with or without ICH) and AF who were treated with LAA closure. The Watchman ™ and Amulet® LAA...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - August 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

SUMO1 Deficiency Exacerbates Neurological and Cardiac Dysfunction after Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Aged Mice
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that SUMO1 deficiency leads to worse brain and heart dysfunction after ICH and SUMO1 plays a key role in regulating brain-heart interaction after ICH in aged mice. Aged (18 –20 months) female SUMO1 null (SUMO1−/−) mice and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6  J mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8/group): (1) WT-sham group, (2) SUMO1−/−-sham group, (3) WT-ICH group, and (4) SUMO1−/−-ICH group. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography. Neurological and cognitive functional tests were performed. Mice were sacri...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - August 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

IRF5 Signaling in Phagocytes Is Detrimental to Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy
AbstractImmune responses to neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) exacerbate brain injury. Phagocytes, including microglia, play a central role in the immune response, but how the activation of phagocytes is regulated remains elusive. Previously, we have reported that interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) signaling is closely correlated with a pro-inflammatory microglial phenotype in adult mice after stroke. The present study investigated IRF5 ’s regulatory role in post-HIE inflammation. Male IRF5 conditional knockout (CKO) and IRF5fl/fl postnatal day 10 (P10) pups were subjected to the Rice –Vannucci ...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - August 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Associations of Blood Pressure and Carotid Flow Velocity with Brain Volume and Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in a Community-Based Population
AbstractCerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a common finding on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We previously demonstrated that high blood pressure (BP) and low carotid flow velocity were associated with cerebrovascular disease. However, their associations with brain volume and CSVD remain to be determined. A total of 721 adults ( ≥ 50 years) from the community-based I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study were included. Flow velocities at the common (CCA) and internal carotid artery (ICA), including peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end-diastolic velocity (EDV), were measured with Doppler ultrasound. We f...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - July 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Multi-Model Pipeline for Translational Intracerebral Haemorrhage Research
AbstractApart from acute and chronic blood pressure lowering, we have no specific medications to prevent intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) or improve outcomes once bleeding has occurred. One reason for this may be related to particular limitations associated with the current pre-clinical models of ICH, leading to a failure to translate into the clinic. It would seem that a breakdown in the ‘drug development pipeline’ currently exists for translational ICH research which needs to be urgently addressed. Here, we review the most commonly used pre-clinical models of ICH and discuss their advantages and disadvantages ...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - July 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Endothelial Progenitor Cells Induce Angiogenesis: a Potential Mechanism Underlying Neovascularization in Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis
AbstractEncephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) is one of the most commonly used indirect vascular reconstruction methods. EDAS aids in the formation of collateral vessels from the extracranial to the intracranial circulation in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD). However, the underlying mechanism of collateral vessel formation is not well understood. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) differentiate to form the vascular endothelial cells and play a very important role in angiogenesis. We designed this prospective clinical trial to investigate the presence of EPCs in patients with MMD and to explore the neovascularization...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - July 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Comparison of Long-Term Outcomes of Endoscopic and Minimally Invasive Catheter Evacuation for the Treatment of Spontaneous Cerebellar Hemorrhage
AbstractRecently, minimally invasive techniques, including endoscopic evacuation and minimally invasive catheter (MIC) evacuation, have been used for the treatment of patients with spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage (SCH). However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effects of these techniques. To explore the long-term outcomes of both surgical techniques in the treatment of SCH. Fifty-two patients with SCH who received endoscopic evacuation or MIC evacuation were retrospectively reviewed. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A mu...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - July 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Carotid Plaque Rupture and Neovascularization by Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging: an Exploratory Study Based on Histopathology
This study aims to comprehensively assess the value of CEUS for the detection of plaque rupture and neovascularization in histologically verified plaques that had been removed from the patients who had undergone carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Fifty-one consecutive subjects (mean age, 67.0  ± 6.5 years; 43 [84.3%] men) scheduled for CEA were recruited. Standard ultrasound and CEUS were performed prior to surgery. Based on the direction of the contrast agents that diffuse within the plaques, plaques were divided as “inside-out” direction (contrast agents diffuse from the arte ry lumen tow...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - June 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Transfer as a Therapeutic Strategy Against Ischemic Stroke
AbstractStroke is a debilitating disease that remains the second leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Despite accumulating knowledge of the disease pathology, treatments for stroke are limited, and clinical translation of the neuroprotective agents has not been a complete success. Accumulating evidence links mitochondrial dysfunction to brain impairments after stroke. Recent studies have implicated the important roles of healthy mitochondria in neuroprotection and neural recovery following ischemic stroke. New and convincing studies have shown that mitochondrial transfer to the damaged cells can help revive cel...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Optimizing Dosing of Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Stroke Recovery
AbstractVagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with rehabilitative training enhances recovery of function in models of stroke and is currently under investigation for use in chronic stroke patients. Dosing is critical in translation of pharmacological therapies, but electrical stimulation therapies often fail to comprehensively explore dosing parameters in preclinical studies. Varying VNS parameters has non-monotonic effects on plasticity in the central nervous system, which may directly impact efficacy for stroke. We sought to optimize stimulation intensity to maximize recovery of motor function in a model of ischemic strok...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - June 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Obesity Drives Delayed Infarct Expansion, Inflammation, and Distinct Gene Networks in a Mouse Stroke Model
AbstractObesity is associated with chronic peripheral inflammation, is a risk factor for stroke, and causes increased infarct sizes. To characterize how obesity increases infarct size, we fed a high-fat diet to wild-type C57BL/6J mice for either 6  weeks or 15 weeks and then induced distal middle cerebral artery strokes. We found that infarct expansion happened late after stroke. There were no differences in cortical neuroinflammation (astrogliosis, microgliosis, or pro-inflammatory cytokines) either prior to or 10 h after stroke, and also no differences in stroke size at 10 h. However, by 3 days a...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - June 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Long-term Outcomes and Risk Factors Related to Hydrocephalus After Intracerebral Hemorrhage
AbstractHydrocephalus after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common and treatable complication. However, the long-term outcomes and factors for predicting hydrocephalus have seldom been studied. The goal of this study was to determine the long-term outcomes and analyze the risk factors of hydrocephalus after ICH. A consecutive series of 1342 patients with ICH were reviewed from 2010 to 2016 to identify significant risk factors for hydrocephalus. Patients with a first-ever ICH without any prior diagnosis of hydrocephalus after ICH were followed up for survival status and cause of death. Risk factors for hydrocephalus wer...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - June 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Crossed Cerebellar Diaschisis Indicates Hemodynamic Compromise in Ischemic Stroke Patients
AbstractCrossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in internal carotid artery (ICA) stroke refers to attenuated blood flow and energy metabolism in the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere. CCD is associated with an interruption of cerebro-cerebellar tracts, but the precise mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that in patients with ICA occlusions, CCD might indicate severe hemodynamic impairment in addition to tissue damage. Duplex sonography and clinical data from stroke patients with unilateral ICAO who underwent blood oxygen-level-dependent MRI cerebrovascular reserve (BOLD-CVR) assessment were analysed. The presence of CCD (e...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - June 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Translational Intracerebral Hemorrhage Research: Has Current Neuroprotection Research ARRIVEd at a Standard for Experimental Design and Reporting?
AbstractOne major aim of preclinical intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) research is to develop and test potential neuroprotectants. Published guidelines for experimental design and reporting stress the importance of clearly and completely reporting results and methodological details to ensure reproducibility and maximize information availability. The current review has two objectives: first, to characterize current ICH neuroprotection research and, second, to analyze aspects of translational design in preclinical ICH studies. Translational design is the adoption and reporting of experimental design characteristics that are tho...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - June 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Adenosine A 2A Receptors in Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Attenuate Cognitive Impairment in Mice After Chronic Hypoperfusion White Matter Injury
AbstractThe mechanism of cognitive dysfunction caused by ischemic white matter lesions is unclear. To explore the effect and mechanism of different cell-derived adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) in cognitive impairment caused by chronic hypoperfusion white matter lesions (CHWMLs), we destroyed the bone marrow hematopoietic capacity of the recipient mice using radiation irradiation followed by establishing the selectively inactivated or reconstituted A2AR models with the transplanting bone marrow from global A2AR gene knockout or wild-type mice into wild-type or gene knockout mice, respectively. Then Morris Water Maze (MWM), EL...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - May 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

COVID-19-Related Stroke
AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic is associated with neurological symptoms and complications including stroke. There is hypercoagulability associated with COVID-19 that is likely a “sepsis-induced coagulopathy” and may predispose to stroke. The SARS-CoV-2 virus binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) present on brain endothelial and smooth muscle cells. ACE2 is a key part of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and a counterbalance to angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE1) and angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is proinflammatory, is vasoconstrictive, and promotes organ damage. Depletion of ACE2 by SARS-CoV-2 may...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - May 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Phosphodiesterase 10A Inhibition Leads to Brain Region-Specific Recovery Based on Stroke Type
AbstractStroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Recovery of function after stroke involves signaling events that are mediated by cAMP and cGMP pathways, such as axonal sprouting, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. cAMP and cGMP are degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which are differentially expressed in brain regions. PDE10A is highly expressed in the basal ganglia/striatum. We tested a novel PDE10A inhibitor (TAK-063) for its effects on functional recovery. Stroke was produced in mice in the cortex or the striatum. Behavioral recovery was measured to 9  weeks. Tissue outcome measures included analysi...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - May 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

p5 Peptide-Loaded Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Neurological Recovery After Focal Cerebral Ischemia in a Rat Model
In conclusion, administration of hADMSC-loaded p5 peptide to post-stroke rats created conditions that supported survival of drug-loaded hADMSCs after cerebral ischemia, suggesting its therapeutic potential in patients with stroke. (Source: Translational Stroke Research)
Source: Translational Stroke Research - May 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Correction to: A Reproducible New Model of Focal Ischemic Injury in the Marmoset Monkey: MRI and Behavioural Follow-Up
There was a mistake in affiliation 1. Affiliation 1 should read (ToNIC, Toulouse NeuroImaging Center, Universit é de Toulouse, Inserm, UPS, Toulouse, France) (Source: Translational Stroke Research)
Source: Translational Stroke Research - May 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Neural Progenitor Cells ––a Preclinical Evaluation for Stroke Treatment in Mice
AbstractStem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) enhance neurological recovery in preclinical stroke models by secreting extracellular vesicles (EVs). Since previous reports have focused on the application of MSC-EVs only, the role of the most suitable host cell for EV enrichment and preclinical stroke treatment remains elusive. The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of EVs derived from neural progenitor cells (NPCs) following experimental stroke. Using the PEG technique, EVs were enriched and characterized by electron microscopy, proteomics, rt-PCR, nanosight tracking analysis, and Western b...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - May 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Low Serum Uric Acid Levels Promote Hypertensive Intracerebral Hemorrhage by Disrupting the Smooth Muscle Cell-Elastin Contractile Unit and Upregulating the Erk1/2-MMP Axis
In this study, we confirmed the association between low SUA levels and the risk for recurrence of ICH and for cardiac-cerebral vascular mortality in hypertensive patients. To determine the mechanism by which low SUA effects ICH pathogenesis, we developed the first low SUA mouse model and conducted transcriptome profiling of the cerebrovasculature of ICH mice. When combining these assessments with pathological morphology, we found that low SUA levels led to ICH in mice with angiotensin II (Ang II) –induced hypertension and aggravated the pathological progression of ICH. In vitro, our results showed that p-Erk1/2-MMP a...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - April 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Pre-Intervention 4-Item Scale for Predicting Poor Outcome Despite Successful Recanalization in Basilar Artery Occlusion
AbstractPoor outcome despite successful recanalization is a relatively common occurrence after endovascular therapy (EVT) in acute intracranial large vessel occlusion. We aimed to develop a simple pre-intervention scale with readily available indicators for predicting the 90-day poor outcome in acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) patients with successful recanalization after EVT. A prospectively registered consecutive cohort of acute BAO patients treated with EVT in a tertiary stroke center during a 6-year period was reviewed. Poor outcome despite successful recanalization was defined as a 90-day mRS of>  3 desp...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - April 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

“ Incidence and Clinico-Radiological Correlations of Early Arterial Reocclusion After Successful Thrombectomy in Acute Ischemic Stroke”
AbstractAbout half of acute stroke patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy (MT) do not show clinical improvement despite successful recanalization. Early arterial reocclusion (EAR) may be one of the causes that explain this phenomenon. We aimed to analyze the incidence and clinico-radiological correlations of EAR after successful MT. A consecutive series of patients treated with MT between 2010 and 2018 at a single-center included in a prospective registry was retrospectively reviewed. Specific inclusion criteria for the analysis were (1) successful recanalization after MT and (2) availability of pretreatment CT perf...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - April 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Predicting Functional Outcome Based on Linked Data After Acute Ischemic Stroke: S-SMART Score
AbstractPrediction of outcome after stroke may help clinicians provide effective management and plan long-term care. We aimed to develop and validate a score for predicting good functional outcome available for hospitals after ischemic stroke using linked data. A total of 22,005 patients with acute ischemic stroke from the Clinical Research Center for Stroke Registry between July 2007 and December 2014 were included in the derivation group. We assessed functional outcomes using a modified Rankin scale (mRS) score at 3  months after ischemic stroke. We identified predictors related to good 3-month outcome (mRS score&th...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - April 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Responses to “Letter to Quantitative Angiographic Hemodynamic Evaluation After Revascularization Surgery for Moyamoya Disease”
(Source: Translational Stroke Research)
Source: Translational Stroke Research - April 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Implication of MicroRNA503 in Brain Endothelial Cell Function and Ischemic Stroke
AbstractThe role of miR-503 in brain endothelium and ischemic stroke (IS) remains unclear. We aimed to study the relationship between plasma miR-503 and the onset time, severity, subtypes, and von Willebrand Factor (vWF) level in IS patients and to investigate the roles and underlying mechanisms of miR-503 in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mice and cultured cerebral vascular endothelial cells (ECs). In MCAO mice, the effects of plasma from acute severe IS patients (ASS) with or without miR-503 antagomir on brain and ECs damage were determined. In cultured human ECs, the effects of miR-503 overexpression or knockdo...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - April 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Perlecan Domain-V Enhances Neurogenic Brain Repair After Stroke in Mice
AbstractThe extracellular matrix fragment perlecan domain V is neuroprotective and functionally restorative following experimental stroke. As neurogenesis is an important component of chronic post-stroke repair, and previous studies have implicated perlecan in developmental neurogenesis, we hypothesized that domain V could have a broad therapeutic window by enhancing neurogenesis after stroke. We demonstrated that domain V is chronically increased in the brains of human stroke patients, suggesting that it is present during post-stroke neurogenic periods. Furthermore, perlecan deficient mice had significantly less neuroblas...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - April 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Reproducible New Model of Focal Ischemic Injury in the Marmoset Monkey: MRI and Behavioural Follow-Up
We describe a new method to induce focal brain damage targeting the motor cortex to study damage to the descending motor tracts in the non-human primate. Stereotaxic injection of malonate into the primary motor cortex produced a focal lesion in middle-aged marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Assessment of sensorimotor function using a neurological scale and testing of forelimb dexterity and strength lasted a minimum of 12  weeks. Lesion evolution was followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 24 h, 1 week, 4 and 12 weeks post-injury and before sacrifice for immunohistochemistry. Our model produced consistent les...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - April 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Elevated miR-9 in Cerebrospinal Fluid Is Associated with Poor Functional Outcome After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
This study evaluated microRNA (miRNA) changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and their association with the occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and poor functional outcome after SAH. Forty-three selected miRNAs were measured in daily CSF samples from a discovery cohort of SAH patients admitted to Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark, and compared with neurologically healthy patients. Findings were validated in CSF from a replication cohort of SAH patients admitted to Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. The CSF levels of miRNA over time were compared with the occurrence of DCI, and functional outco...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - April 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Endogenous Regulatory T Cells Promote M2 Macrophage Phenotype in Diabetic Stroke as Visualized by Optical Imaging
AbstractRegulatory T cells (Tregs) play an immunosuppressive role in various diseases, yet their function remains controversial in stroke and obscure in diabetic stroke. In the present study, Tregs were found downregulated in the peripheral blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) stroke models and patients compared with controls. In ischemic stroke mice (both T2DM and wild type), endogenous Tregs boosted by CD28SA increased CD206+ M2 macrophage/microglia cells, decreased infarct volumes, and improved neurological recovery. Our results demonstrated the potential of boosting Tregs for treating T2DM stroke. Furthermore, we u...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - April 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Knockdown of Arginyl-tRNA Synthetase Attenuates Ischemia-Induced Cerebral Cortex Injury in Rats After Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion
AbstractSome researchers have previously shown that RNAi knockdown of arginyl-tRNA synthetase (ArgRS) before or after a hypoxic injury can rescue animals from death, based on the model organism,C. elegans. However, there has been no study on the application of arginyl-tRNA synthetase knockdown in treating mammalian ischemic stroke, and its potential mechanism and effect on ischemic brain damage are still unknown. Here, we focused on the Rars gene, which encodes an arginyl-tRNA synthetase, and examined the effects of Rars knockdown in a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats. To achieve this aim, adult mal...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - March 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cell Death Pathways in Ischemic Stroke and Targeted Pharmacotherapy
AbstractIschemic stroke is one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality, affecting millions of people across the globe. Cell injury in the infarct region is an inevitable consequence of focal cerebral ischemia. Subsequent reperfusion exacerbates the harmful effect and increases the infarct volume. These cellular injuries follow either a regulated pathway involving tightly structured signaling cascades and molecularly defined effector mechanisms or a non-regulated pathway, also known as accidental cell death, where the process is biologically uncontrolled. Classical cell death pathways are long established and w...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Relation of Retinal Oxygen Measures to Electrophysiology and Survival Indicators after Permanent, Incomplete Ischemia in Rats
AbstractStudies in experimental ischemia models by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) have reported reduced retinal electrophysiological function, coupled with inner retinal degeneration and gliosis. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that long-term (up to 14  days) BCCAO impairs oxygen delivery (DO2), which affects oxygen metabolism (MO2) and extraction fraction (OEF), electrophysiological function, morphology, and biochemical pathways. Twenty-one rats underwent BCCAO (N = 12) or sham surgery (N = 9) and were evaluated in separate groups after 3, 7, or ...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - March 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research