Fisetin Inhibits Cell Proliferation through the Induction of G0/G1 Phase Arrest and Caspase-3-Mediated Apoptosis in Mouse Leukemia Cells.
Abstract Fisetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, is found in common fruits and vegetables and has been shown to induce cytotoxic effects in many human cancer cell lines. No information has shown that fisetin induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in mouse leukemia WEHI-3 cells. We found that fisetin decreased total viable cells through G0/G1 phase arrest and induced sub-G1 phase (apoptosis). We have confirmed fisetin induced cell apoptosis by the formation of DNA fragmentation and induction of apoptotic cell death. Results indicated that fisetin induced intracellular Ca 2+ increase but decreased the ROS product...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 16, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Tsai YH, Lin JJ, Ma YS, Peng SF, Huang AC, Huang YP, Fan MJ, Lien JC, Chung JG Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Amentoflavone Effectively Blocked the Tumor Progression of Glioblastoma via Suppression of ERK/NF- κ B Signaling Pathway.
In this study, we also used ERK inhibitor and NF- κ B inhibitor (QNZ) to confirm whether the beneficial result of amentoflavone on glioblastoma was mainly regulated by blockage of ERK/NF- κ B signaling. In summary, ERK/NF- κ B signaling pathway has a role in the inhibition of tumor growth by amentoflavone in glioblastoma. PMID: 31096773 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 16, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Hsu FT, Chiang IT, Kuo YC, Hsia TC, Lin CC, Liu YC, Chung JG Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

β-Lapachone Regulates Obesity through Modulating Thermogenesis in Brown Adipose Tissue and Adipocytes: Role of AMPK Signaling Pathway.
In this study, we explored the effect of β-Lapachone (βL), a compound obtained from the bark of the lapacho tree, against obesity. In vivo administration of βL into either high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL6 mice and genetically obese Lepr -∕- mice prevented body weight gain, which was associated with tissue weight loss of white adipose tissue (WAT). In addition, βL elevated thermogenic proteins including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and mitochondrial count in BAT and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). βL also induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylat...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 16, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Kwak HJ, Jeong MY, Um JY, Park J Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Potential of Fatty Oils from Traditional Chinese Medicine in Cancer Therapy: A Review for Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Clinical Studies.
Abstract Cancer management is a worldwide challenge. In addition to effective cancer therapies like chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, treatment based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and combined TCM with western medicine has gradually gained attention in Oriental countries. One potential TCM approach using extracted fatty oils, containing fatty acids which are important active ingredients with a variety of pharmacological activities, makes significant contributions to cancer treatment. The strategies of treating cancer with the fatty oils of TCM were classified into "Fuzheng", which usually a...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 16, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Huang Y, Zhu J, Lin X, Hong Y, Feng Y, Shen L Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Berberine Alone or Combined with Statins for the Treatment of Hyperlipidemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials.
Abstract To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of berberine for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, six electronic literature databases including SinoMed, CNKI, WanFang Data, PubMed, Embase and The Cochrane Library were searched to collect clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of berberine alone or combined with statins for the treatment of hyperlipidemia from the inception to 8 March 2018. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included RCTs. Then, meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 11 RCTs involving 1386 ...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 16, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Zhang LS, Zhang JH, Feng R, Jin XY, Yang FW, Ji ZC, Zhao MY, Zhang MY, Zhang BL, Li XM Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Proliferation and Migration of Lung Cancer Could be Inhibited by Oxymatrine through the Regulation for miR-520/VEGF.
Abstract Recent evidence suggests that Oxymatrine (OMT) has excellent effects in anticancer. The mechanism, however, remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the potential mechanism of OMT against cancer. The differential expression of miRNA was screened by miRNA array. The expression of miRNA-520 and VEGF in lung cancer was assayed by real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The direct interaction between miRNA-520 and VEGF was assayed by luciferase activity assay and their roles in lung cancer proliferation, invasion and migration were analyzed in vivo and in vitro. We fo...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 15, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Zhou W, Wu Y, Pan M, Liu D, Liu B Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Immunostimulating and Antimetastatic Effects of Polysaccharides Purified from Ginseng Berry.
Abstract Ginseng root has been used in traditional oriental medicine for the enhancement of immune system function. The immunostimulatory effects of ginseng berry polysaccharides, however, remain unclear. Effects of polysaccharides from ginseng berry on the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and inhibition of tumors are reported. A crude polysaccharide was isolated from ginseng berry as a ginseng berry polysaccharide portion (GBPP) and was further fractionated using gel filtration chromatography to obtain the three polysaccharide fractions GBPP-I, -II and -III. GBPP-I consisted of mainly galactose (46.9%) and...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 15, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Lee DY, Park CW, Lee SJ, Park HR, Seo DB, Park JY, Park J, Shin KS Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

American Ginseng and Asian Ginseng Intervention in Diet-Induced Obese Mice: Metabolomics Reveals Distinct Metabolic Profiles.
Abstract American ginseng and Asian ginseng, which occupy prominent positions in the list of best-selling natural products in the West and East, are suitable for different indications in the traditional pharmacological uses. Currently, the effects of American ginseng and Asian ginseng in the protection against metabolic dysfunction and the differences between them are still unknown. Herein, an untargeted metabolomics based on liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) was determined. The serum metabolomics and dynamic feces metabolomics revealed significant metabolic distinctio...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 15, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Zhang WS, Pan A, Yang L, Cai YY, Liu BL, Li P, Qi LW, Li J, Liu Q Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Emerging Role of Chinese Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Pancreatic Fibrosis.
Abstract Pancreatic fibrosis is the main pathologic characteristic in chronic pancreatitis (CP), a common disease that arises from surgery. Pancreatitis is caused by various etiologies, but the mechanism of fibrosis is not completely understood. Existing clinical approaches mainly focus on mitigating the symptoms and therefore do not cure the phenomena. In recent years, there has been a heightened interest in the use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHMs) in the prevention and cure of CP as expressed by increasing numbers of clinical and experimental research. Despite early cell culture and animal models, CHMs are able...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 15, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Liu C, Li S, Zhang Q, Guo F, Tong M, Martinez MFYM, Wang HH, Zhao Y, Shang D Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Honokiol Induces Autophagic Apoptosis in Neuroblastoma Cells through a P53-Dependent Pathway.
In this study, we further evaluated if exposure to honokiol for short periods could induce autophagy and subsequent apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells and possible mechanisms. Exposure of neuroblastoma neuro-2a cells to honokiol for 24 h induced morphological shrinkage and cell death. As to the mechanisms, honokiol consecutively induced cytochrome c release from mitochondria, caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation and cell apoptosis. Separately, honokiol time-dependently augmented the proportion of autophagic cells and the ratio of light chain 3 (LC3)-II/LC3-I. Pretreatment of neuro-2a cells with 3-methyladenine, an inhibit...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 15, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Lin MC, Lee YW, Tseng YY, Lin YW, Chen JT, Liu SH, Chen RM Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases with Bioactive Components of Tripterygium wilfordii.
Abstract Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. (TWHF), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis in China. Recently, studies have demonstrated that the bioactive components of TWHF have effective therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Multiple Sclerosis. In this paper, we summarize the research progress of triptolide and celastrol (the two major TWHF components) as well as their analogues in the treatment of neurodege...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 15, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Li J, Hao J Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

The Role of Chinese Medicine in Health Maintenance and Disease Prevention: Application of Constitution Theory.
Abstract Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has guided health maintenance and disease treatment for thousands of years and has been widely used in many countries around the world. TCM regards each individual as unique so all corresponding therapeutic and preventive approaches in TCM are personalized. Personalized medicine, also referred to as precision medicine, is an emerging medical paradigm that points toward a new direction for future medical development. TCM constitution studies the holistic body condition, which is affected by both inborn and acquired factors. Body constitution lays the foundation for diseas...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 25, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Li L, Yao H, Wang J, Li Y, Wang Q Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Cardamonin Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and Alters Apoptosis Associated Gene Expression in WEHI-3 Mouse Leukemia Cells.
Abstract Cardamonin, the chalcone class, is one of the natural components from the spicy herbaceous plant (Alpinia conchigera Griff) and has anticancer activities in many human cancer cell lines. There is, however, no information to show that cardamonin induces cell apoptosis and alters apoptosis associated gene expressions in mouse leukemia cells. Thus, we investigated the effects of cardamonin on the apoptotic cell death and associated gene expression in mouse leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vitro. Results indicated that cardamonin decreased total viable cell number via induced cell morphological changes and apoptotic ...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 25, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Liao NC, Shih YL, Chou JS, Chen KW, Chen YL, Lee MH, Peng SF, Leu SJ, Chung JG Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Metabonomics Study on the Hepatoprotective Effect of Panax notoginseng Leaf Saponins Using UPLC/Q-TOF-MS Analysis.
In this study, a metabonomic approach based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS) was developed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of LPNS on alcoholic fatty liver and elucidate the interaction mechanisms. Results showed that the ethanol-induced metabolic perturbations were restored after treatment with LPNS. Furthermore, 12 potential biomarkers (11 upregulated and 1 downregulated) were identified by V-plot and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis. Changes in the levels of these metabolites indicated that glyceroph...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 23, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Liu F, Wang M, Wang Y, Cao Y, Sun Z, Chen M, Tian X, Wan J, Huang C Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Scutellaria Radix Promotes Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells via Induction of AMPK-Dependent Autophagy.
In this study, we investigated the apoptotic and autophagic effect of SR in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the leading cause of cancer-associated death. Treatment of SR in two NSCLC cell lines, H358 and H2087 cells resulted in suppressed cell viability. Western blot assays showed increased expressions of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), cleaved-caspase 3 and cleaved-Poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), key factors of apoptosis. Co-treatment of SR with a caspase inhibitor Z-VAD led to nullification of the antiproliferative effect, suggesting the role of apoptosis in the action mechanism of SR. Further experiments reveal...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 11, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Kim HI, Hong SH, Ku JM, Lim YS, Lee SJ, Song J, Kim TY, Cheon C, Ko SG Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Curcumin Promotes Connexin 43 Degradation and Temozolomide-Induced Apoptosis in Glioblastoma Cells.
Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most commonly occurring tumor in the cerebral hemispheres. Currently, temozolomide (TMZ), an alkylating agent that induces DNA strand breaks, is considered the frontline chemotherapeutic agent for GBM. Despite its frontline status, GBM patients commonly exhibit resistance to TMZ treatment. We have recently established and characterized TMZ-resistant human glioma cells. The aim of this study is to investigate whether curcumin modulates cell apoptosis through the alternation of the connexin 43 (Cx43) protein level in TMZ-resistant GBM. Overexpression of Cx43, but not ATP-binding ca...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 11, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Huang BR, Tsai CH, Chen CC, Way TD, Kao JY, Liu YS, Lin HY, Lai SW, Lu DY Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Thymoquinone Attenuates Acetaminophen Overdose-Induced Acute Liver Injury and Inflammation Via Regulation of JNK and AMPK Signaling Pathway.
Abstract Thymoquinone (TQ) is a main aromatic component of Nigella sativa L. seeds or Agastache rugosa (Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Kuntze. The protective mechanism of TQ against acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen (APAP), however, remains unclear. We aimed to investigated the hepato-protective mechanism of TQ on the development of APAP-induced acute liver injury. Male kunming mice were pretreated with TQ or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) before a single APAP injection. Human Chang liver cells were incubated with TQ, SP600125 or AICAR in presence of APAP for 24 h. TQ pretreatment reduced levels of serum aminotransferas...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 11, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Cui BW, Bai T, Yang Y, Zhang Y, Jiang M, Yang HX, Wu M, Liu J, Qiao CY, Zhan ZY, Wu YL, Kang DZ, Lian LH, Nan JX Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

β-Pentagalloyl-Glucose Sabotages Pancreatic Cancer Cells and Ameliorates Cachexia in Tumor-Bearing Mice.
In conclusion, β -PGG combats pancreatic cancer cells and cures cancer cachexia. PMID: 30966770 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 9, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Yang J, Wang F, Chen X, Qiu S, Cui L, Hu L Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Acupuncture Inhibits the Increase in Alpha-Synuclein by Modulating SGK1 in an MPTP Induced Parkinsonism Mouse Model.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease, is caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). It is characterized by the formation of intracytoplasmic Lewy bodies that are primarily composed of the protein alpha-synuclein ( α -syn) along with dystrophic neurites. Acupuncture stimulation results in an enhanced survival of dopaminergic neurons in the SN in parkinsonism animal models. We investigated the role of acupuncture in inhibiting the increase in α -syn expression that is related with dopaminergic cell loss in the SN in a chronic 1-methyl-4-...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 9, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Yeo S, Lim S Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Luteolin: A Natural Flavonoid Enhances the Survival of HUVECs against Oxidative Stress by Modulating AMPK/PKC Pathway.
In this study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pre-treated with luteolin followed by hydrogen peroxide induction (H2O2). Our results showed that luteolin protected against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and ameliorated ROS and superoxide generation. In addition, we found that luteolin treatment inhibited the H2O2-induced membrane assembly of NADPH oxidase subunits, which was further confirmed by specifically inhibiting NADPH oxidase using DPI treatment. Furthermore, pAMPK protein expression was enhanced and p-PKC isoforms were significantly down-regulated by luteolin treatment in a dose-dependent manner...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 9, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Ou HC, Pandey S, Hung MY, Huang SH, Hsu PT, Day CH, Pai P, Padma Viswanadha V, Kuo WW, Huang CY Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Aloin Reduces HMGB1-Mediated Septic Responses and Improves Survival in Septic Mice by Activation of the SIRT1 and PI3K/Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Axis.
Abstract High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is recognized as a late mediator of sepsis, and the inhibition of HMGB1 release and recovery of vascular barrier integrity have emerged as attractive therapeutic strategies for the management of sepsis. We tested the hypothesis that aloin induces sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1, which inhibit HMGB1 release in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells, thereby inhibiting HMGB1-induced hyperpermeability and increasing the survival of septic mice. Aloin was administered after LPS or HMGB1 challenge, and the antiseptic activity of aloin was determined from measure...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 9, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Yang S, Lee W, Lee BS, Lee C, Park EK, Ku SK, Bae JS Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of Neuroprotective Efficacy and Safety of DL-3-N-Butylphthalide in Ischemic Stroke.
Abstract DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is widely used as a neuroprotective drug for ischemic stroke in China. There is, however, no established evidence on its efficacy and safety for patients with ischemic stroke. We, therefore, conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Major databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials that assessed the efficacy and safety of NBP on ischemic stroke, reporting outcomes among patients treated with NBP alone or combined with standard anti-ischemic stroke drugs vs. standard anti-ischemic stroke drugs. Continuous data were validated, extracted and synthesized...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 9, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Xu ZQ, Zhou Y, Shao BZ, Zhang JJ, Liu C Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

ERRATUM: Gypenosides Ameliorate Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Fibrosis by Inhibiting the Differentiation of Hepatic Progenitor Cells into Myofibroblasts.
PMID: 30966775 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 9, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chen J, Li X, Hu Y, Liu W, Zhou Q, Zhang H, Mu Y, Liu P Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Carnosine Suppresses Human Colorectal Cell Migration and Intravasation by Regulating EMT and MMP Expression.
We examined HCT-116 cell migratory and intravasive abilities and expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated molecules and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) after carnosine treatment. The results showed that both migration and invasion were inhibited in cells treated with carnosine. We found significant decreases in Twist-1 protein levels and increases in E-cadherin protein levels in HCT-116 cells after carnosine exposure. Although plasminogen activator (uPA) and MMP-9 mRNA and protein levels were decreased, TIMP-1 mRNA and protein levels were increased. Furthermore, the cytosolic levels of phosphorylat...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 27, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Hsieh SL, Hsieh S, Lai PY, Wang JJ, Li CC, Wu CC Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Lonicera japonica Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Mice: Molecular Mechanisms of Action.
This study aims to observe the protection of the water extract of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (FL) from carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis in mice. Liver fibrosis was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of 2 ml/kg CCl4 twice a week for 4 weeks. FL's attenuation of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice was evidenced by the results of Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining, liver hydroxyproline content and serum amount of collagen IV. FL reduced hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation and reversed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in mice treated with CCl4. FL also alleviated liver ...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 14, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Miao H, Zhang Y, Huang Z, Lu B, Ji L Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Cafestol Activates Nuclear Factor Erythroid-2 Related Factor 2 and Inhibits Urotensin II-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy.
Abstract Through population-based studies, associations have been found between coffee drinking and numerous health benefits, including a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Active ingredients in coffee have therefore received considerable attention from researchers. A wide variety of effects have been attributed to cafestol, one of the major compounds in coffee beans. Because cardiac hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, this study examined whether cafestol inhibits urotensin II (U-II)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were exposed only to U-II (1 nM...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 14, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Hao WR, Sung LC, Chen CC, Hong HJ, Liu JC, Chen JJ Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

A Randomized Clinical Efficacy Trial of Red Yeast Rice (Monascus pilosus) Against Hyperlipidemia.
This study aims at examining the efficacy of monacolin K-rich and Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)-rich RYR (Monascus pilosus) with regards to treating hyperlipidemia in a randomized control, double-blind clinical trial. In the research, we assigned 50 eligible subjects to monacolin K-rich RYR, GABA-rich RYR and placebo groups ( n=16 , 17, 17, respectively). The concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL, TG and blood biochemical data were evaluated at different phases: before applying (visit 1), after 1-month (visit 2), 2-month (visit 3), 3-month (visit 4) of providing the intervention and 1-month after ending the test food (visit 5)...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 14, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Wang TJ, Lien AS, Chen JL, Lin CH, Yang YS, Yang SH Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties of Eucommia ulmoides: A Review.
Abstract Eucommia ulmoides Oliver, a single species of Eucommia genus belonging to the Eucommiaceae family, is an endemic in China and has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for nearly two thousand years. Records from different historical periods highlight E. ulmoides and its officinal botanical parts, usefulness in adaptation to disease and its central role in Chinese medicine theory. There are also historical collection documents for minorities in China. Tearing the leaves, bark and fruit produces strands of latex; a description of E. ulmoides's morphological features is recorded in this paper. This revie...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 11, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Wang CY, Tang L, He JW, Li J, Wang YZ Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Preventive Effect of Bupleurum chinense on Nasal Inflammation via Suppressing T Helper Type 2, Eosinophil and Mast Cell Activation.
In this study, we investigated the anti-allergic and anti-inflammation effects of B. chinense extract (BCE) in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) mouse model. Oral administration of BCE in a dose-independent manner regulated the balance of Th1/Th2/Treg cell differentiation in AR mice. Accordingly, BCE attenuated the expression of Th2-related cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in nasal lavage fluid (NALF) and nasal tissue and up-regulated the secretion of Th1/Treg cells including IL-10, IL-12 and IFN- γ . Also, BCE inhibited the formation and migration of eosinophils to the nasal mucosa and NALF, as...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 7, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Bui TT, Piao CH, Hyeon E, Fan Y, Choi DW, Jung SY, Jang BH, Shin HS, Song CH, Chai OH Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Ligustroflavone, an Active Compound from Ligustrum lucidum, on Diabetes-Induced Osteoporosis in Mice: A Potential Candidate as Calcium-Sensing Receptor Antagonist.
This study aimed to explore the potency of ligustroflavone as a CaSR antagonist and its protective effects against diabetic osteoporosis in mice. LF interacted well with the allosteric site of CaSR shown by molecular docking analysis, increased PTH release of primary parathyroid gland cells and suppressed extracellular calcium influx in HEK-293 cells. The serum level of PTH attained peak value at 2 h and maintained high during the period of 1 h and 3 h than that before treatment in mice after a single dose of LF. Treatment of diabetic mice with LF inhibited the decrease in calcium level of serum and bone and the enhancemen...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 5, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Feng R, Ding F, Mi XH, Liu SF, Jiang AL, Liu BH, Lian Y, Shi Q, Wang YJ, Zhang Y Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Sageretia thea Inhibits Inflammation through Suppression of NF- κ B and MAPK and Activation of Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathways in RAW264.7 Cells.
Sageretia thea Inhibits Inflammation through Suppression of NF- κ B and MAPK and Activation of Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathways in RAW264.7 Cells. Am J Chin Med. 2019 Mar 05;:1-19 Authors: Kim HN, Park GH, Park SB, Kim JD, Eo HJ, Son HJ, Song JH, Jeong JB Abstract Sageretia thea (S. thea) commonly known as Chinese sweet plum or Chinese bird plum has been used for treating hepatitis and fevers in Korea and China. S. thea has been reported to exert anti-oxidant, anticancer and anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity. However, there is little study on the anti-inflammatory activity of S. thea. Thus,...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 5, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Kim HN, Park GH, Park SB, Kim JD, Eo HJ, Son HJ, Song JH, Jeong JB Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Berberine Suppresses RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation by Inhibiting c-Fos and NFATc1 Expression.
Abstract Osteoporosis is a common disorder of bone remodeling, marked by excessive osteoclast formation. Recent studies indicated that berberine (BBR) is a potential natural drug for the treatment of various bone diseases. However, it still needs to be further studied for the treatment of osteoporosis. The current study investigated the inhibitory effects of BBR on receptor activator of nuclear factor- κ B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Cell-based assays were performed using osteoclasts generated in cultures of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) treated wit...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 4, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Han SY, Kim YK Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Physical and Psychological Health Outcomes of Qigong Exercise in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Abstract Physical limitations, depression and anxiety are prevalent among older adults. Mild to moderate exercise can promote physical and psychological health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Qigong, a type of Chinese traditional medicine exercise, has demonstrated beneficial effects on physical ability and mental health in adults with chronic conditions. The purpose of this review was to systematically assess the effects of Qigong exercise on physical and psychological health outcomes in older adults. A total of 1282 older adults aged 62 to 83 years with depressive symptoms, frailty or chronic medical il...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 4, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chang PS, Knobf T, Oh B, Funk M Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Dioscin, a Steroidal Saponin Isolated from Dioscorea nipponica, Attenuates Collagen-Induced Arthritis by Inhibiting Th17 Cell Response.
Abstract Dioscin, a steroidal saponin isolated from Dioscorea nipponica Makino, has previously been shown to possess antiarthritic effects. However, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. Herein, we investigated the therapeutic effects of dioscin on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice and related mechanism. Cytokine production in CII-specific immune responses were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); Th17 cell-related gene expression, including IL-17A, ROR γτ and IL-23p19, were detected by qPCR analysis; Surface marker, T regulatory (Treg) cells and intracellular cytokine...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 4, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Cao YJ, Xu Y, Liu B, Zheng X, Wu J, Zhang Y, Li XS, Qi Y, Sun YM, Wen WB, Hou L, Wan CP Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Serotonin and its Derivatives, N-Feruloylserotonin and N-(p-Coumaroyl) Serotonin, Against Cisplatin-Induced Renal Damage in Mice.
This study examined whether serotonin and two of its derivatives, N -feruloylserotonin and N -( p -coumaroyl) serotonin, have a renoprotective effect in a mouse model of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. Cisplatin (20 mg/kg body weight) was administered by intraperitoneal injection to male BALB/c mice that had received oral serotonin, N -feruloylserotonin or N -( p -coumaroyl) serotonin (7.5 mg/kg body weight per day) during the preceding 2 days. At 3 days after the cisplatin injection, serum and renal biochemical factors, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis-related protein expression were evaluated, and hist...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 4, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Park CH, Lee AY, Kim JH, Seong SH, Cho EJ, Choi JS, Kim MJ, Yang S, Yokozawa T, Shin YS Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Clinopodium chinense Attenuates Palmitic Acid-Induced Vascular Endothelial Inflammation and Insulin Resistance through TLR4-Mediated NF- κ B and MAPK Pathways.
Clinopodium chinense Attenuates Palmitic Acid-Induced Vascular Endothelial Inflammation and Insulin Resistance through TLR4-Mediated NF- κ B and MAPK Pathways. Am J Chin Med. 2019;47(1):97-117 Authors: Shi X, Wang S, Luan H, Tuerhong D, Lin Y, Liang J, Xiong Y, Rui L, Wu F Abstract Elevated palmitic acid (PA) levels are associated with the development of inflammation, insulin resistance (IR) and endothelial dysfunction. Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Kuntze has been shown to lower blood glucose and attenuate high glucose-induced vascular endothelial cells injury. In the present study we invest...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - February 20, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Shi X, Wang S, Luan H, Tuerhong D, Lin Y, Liang J, Xiong Y, Rui L, Wu F Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Casticin Promotes Immune Responses, Enhances Macrophage and NK Cell Activities, and Increases Survival Rates of Leukemia BALB/c Mice.
Abstract Casticin, derived from Fructus Viticis, has anticancer properties in many human cancer cells, however, there is no report to show that casticin promotes immune responses and affects the survival rate of leukemia mice in vivo. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of casticin on immune responses and the survival rate of WEHI-3 cells generated in leukemia mice in vivo. Animals were divided into six groups: normal control mice, leukemia control mice, mice treated with ATRA (all-trans retinoic acid), and casticin (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg) treated mice. All animals were treated for 14 days and then ...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 10, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Lai KC, Lu HF, Chen KB, Hsueh SC, Chung JG, Huang WW, Chen CC, Shang HS Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Suppressive Effects of Ginsenoside Rh1 on HMGB1-Mediated Septic Responses.
We examined the effects of ginsenoside Rh1 on HMGB1-mediated septic responses and survival rate in a mouse model of sepsis. Ginsenoside-Rh1 was administered after the HMGB1 challenge. The antiseptic activity of ginsenoside Rh1 was determined by measuring the permeability, leukocyte adhesion and migration, activation of pro-inflammatory proteins in HMGB1-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mice, and the survival rate in a sepsis mouse model. Ginsenoside Rh1 significantly reduced HMGB1 release in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated HUVECs. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rh1 suppressed the production of tum...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 10, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Lee W, Cho SH, Kim JE, Lee C, Lee JH, Baek MC, Song GY, Bae JS Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Targeting Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway with Traditional Chinese Medicine for Treatment of Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3.
This study may have therapeutic implication in polyQ-mediated disorders. PMID: 30612452 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 7, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chen IC, Chang CN, Chen WL, Lin TH, Chao CY, Lin CH, Lin HY, Cheng ML, Chiang MC, Lin JY, Wu YR, Lee-Chen GJ, Chen CM Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Anticolitic Effect of Viscum coloratum through Suppression of Mast Cell Activation.
In conclusion, VCE exerts anticolitic action through inhibiting the activation of mast cells. Therefore, VCE may be useful as a phytomedicine or functional food for inflammatory bowel disease. PMID: 30612453 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 7, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Yoo JM, Park KI, Ma JY Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Bufalin Induces Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells through Mitochondrial ROS and TRAIL Pathways.
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bufalin on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma NPC-TW 076 cells in vitro. Bufalin is a cardiotonic steroid and a key active ingredient of the Chinese medicine ChanSu. The extracts of Chansu are used for various cancer treatments in China. In the present study, bufalin induced cell morphological changes, decreased total cell viability and induced G2/M phase arrest of cell cycle in NPC-TW 076 cells. Results also indicated that bufalin induced chromatin condensation (cell apoptosis) and DNA damage by DAPI staining and comet assay, respectively. The induced a...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 7, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Su EY, Chu YL, Chueh FS, Ma YS, Peng SF, Huang WW, Liao CL, Huang AC, Chung JG Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

A Guideline for Randomized Controlled Trials of Acupuncture.
Abstract Guidelines for clinical trials of acupuncture are scarce, particularly in their guidance on choosing an adequate control in an acupuncture trial. This guideline was developed to address the research methodology for clinical research in acupuncture which contains the essential elements to be considered in the design, preparation and reporting of an acupuncture RCT. Particularly, investigators focused on the control design because of the unique feature of acupuncture. As one size does not fit all, one single design cannot answer all research questions. Therefore, we recommend that the clinical questions be ...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 7, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chen H, Yang M, Ning Z, Lam WL, Zhao YK, Yeung WF, Ng BF, Ziea ET, Lao L Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Ferulic Acid Exerts Anti-apoptotic Effects against Ischemic Injury by Activating HSP70/Bcl-2- and HSP70/Autophagy-Mediated Signaling after Permanent Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.
This study assessed the anti-apoptotic effects of the administration of ferulic acid (FrA) in rats 30 min before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by 3 d of ischemia and the involvement of 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70)-mediated signaling in the penumbral cortex. Our results demonstrated that FrA pretreatment at doses of 80 mg/kg (FrA-80 mg) and 100 mg/kg (FrA-100 mg) effectively ameliorated neurological functions and reduced the numbers of cytochrome c-, cleaved caspase-3-, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in the penumbral cortex 3 d after ischemia. ...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 7, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Cheng CY, Kao ST, Lee YC Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Puerarin Reduces Blood Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats by Targeting eNOS.
Abstract Puerarin is an isoflavonoid isolated from the root of Pueraria lobata (Gegen in Chinese) that has been widely used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in China. Here, we investigated the hypotensive effects and mechanisms of puerarin in spontaneously hypertensive rats. The qPCR array technique was used to determine the expression of hypertension-related genes. Then, the differentially expressed genes were analyzed using the STRING database. The systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of rats decreased after the administration of puerarin for nine weeks. Puerarin, but not losa...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 7, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Shi W, Yuan R, Chen X, Xin Q, Wang Y, Shang X, Cong W, Chen K Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

In Vitro and In Vivo Protective Effects of Flavonoid-Enriched Lotus Seedpod Extract on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Hepatic Inflammation.
Abstract Endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays an important role in the acceleration of hepatic inflammation. Natural medicinal plants that can prevent inflammation by targeting LPS have potential therapeutic clinical application. The aim of the study is to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of lotus seedpod extract (LSE), used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine with hemostasis function and for eliminating bruise, on the LPS-induced hepatic inflammation and its underlying molecular mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, LSE and its purified compound (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) dose-dependently inhib...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 7, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Tseng HC, Tsai PM, Chou YH, Lee YC, Lin HH, Chen JH Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Rhein, An Anthraquinone Drug, Suppresses the NLRP3 Inflammasome and Macrophage Activation in Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Inflammation.
This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of rhein on gouty arthritis. Rhein within the physiological levels of humans showed no toxicity on the cell viability and differentiation, but significantly decreased the production of IL-1 β , TNF- α and caspase-1 protease in urate crystal-activated macrophages. Compared to medium controls, rhein at the therapeutic concentration (2.5 μ g/mL) effectively inhibited IL-1 β production by 47% ( P=0.002 ). Rhein did not affect the mRNA levels of CASP1, NLRP3 and ASC, but suppressed the protein expression and enzyme activity of caspase-1. Immunofluores...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 7, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chang WC, Chu MT, Hsu CY, Wu YJ, Lee JY, Chen TJ, Chung WH, Chen DY, Hung SI Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Total Glycosides of Peony Protects Against Inflammatory Bowel Disease by Regulating IL-23/IL-17 Axis and Th17/Treg Balance.
Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of autoimmune diseases, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, characterized by nonspecific inflammation in the gut. Total glycoside of peony (TGP) has been widely used for treatment of autoimmune diseases because of its pharmacological effects. However, it is lack of depth in whether TGP regulate T helper 17 cell (Th17) / T regulatory cell (Treg) immune balance or interleukin 23 (IL-23) / IL-17 axis to achieve the goal of treating IBD. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TGP on experimental colitis mice and the related mech...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 7, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Li Q, Shan Q, Sang X, Zhu R, Chen X, Cao G Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

High-Throughput Electrophysiology Screen Revealed Cardiotoxicity of Strychnine by Selectively Targeting hERG Channel.
This study established and applied an integrated platform anchored on automatic patch clamp system to screen and evaluate a collection of CHM extracts, compositions and monomeric compounds for in vitro cardiac toxicity. Of 1036 CHM samples screened, 2.79% significantly inhibited hERG channel activity. Among them, Strychnine was identified for the first time as a potent hERG inhibitor with an IC 50 of 6.65±1.04μ M in comparison to that of Dofetilide at 1.80±0.24μ M and Quinidine at 7.42±0.54μ M. Langendorff-perfusion experiments confirmed that strychnine increased QT interphase from 71.69&plusm...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - December 14, 2018 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Wang T, Chen X, Yu J, Du Q, Zhu J, Yang M, Wu H, Wang M, Zhu Y Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Polydatin Attenuates Atherosclerosis in ApoE - ∕- Mice through PBEF Mediated Reduction of Cholesterol Deposition.
In conclusion, Polydatin relieves atherosclerosis injury in ApoE -∕- mice, mainly through down-regulation of PBEF and inhibition of PBEF-inducing cholesterol deposits in macrophages. PMID: 30537866 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - December 11, 2018 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Huang Z, Tian G, Cheng S, Zhao D, Zhang Y, Jia Y, Zhou F Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Management of Diabetes Mellitus with Puerarin, a Natural Isoflavone From Pueraria lobata.
Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become one of the most challenging public health problems globally. The increasing prevalence and mortality rates call for more effective therapeutic agents, especially for DM complications. Traditional herbs have a long clinical application history for DM treatment. Puerarin is a natural isoflavone from Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi which has been consumed both as a functional food and herb in Eastern Asia countries. Documented data has shown that puerarin has cardio-protective, neuroprotective, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and many other effects. In this review, we will su...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - December 10, 2018 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chen X, Yu J, Shi J Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research