Antidiabetic Effects and Mechanisms of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and its Phenolic Components.
Abstract Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine disease result from absolute or relative insulin secretion deficiency, insulin resistance, or both, and has become a major and growing public healthy menace worldwide. Currently, clinical antidiabetic drugs still have some limitations in efficacy and safety such as gastrointestinal side effects, hypoglycemia, or weight gain. Rosmarinus officinalis is an aromatic evergreen shrub used as a food additive and medicine, which has been extensively used to treat hyperglycemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetic wounds. A great deal of pharmacological research sho...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - October 6, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Bao TQ, Li Y, Qu C, Zheng ZG, Yang H, Li P Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Lipophilic Extract  and Tanshinone IIA Derived from Salvia miltiorrhiza Attenuate Uric Acid Nephropathy through Suppressing Oxidative Stress-Activated MAPK Pathways.
This study investigates the uricosuric and nephroprotective effects of the ethyl acetate extract of S. miltiorrhiza (EASM) and tanshinone IIA (a major component of S. miltiorrhiza, Tan-IIA) on UAN and explores the underlying molecular mechanism. Both EASM and Tan-IIA significantly decreased serum uric acid (SUA), serum creatinine (SCR), urine uric acid (UUA), and increased urine creatinine (UCR), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in experimental UAN mice. In adenine and potassium oxonate-induced mice, EASM and Tan-IIA treatment alleviated renal dysfunction and downregulated the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - September 15, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Zhang XW, Zhou M, An L, Zhang P, Li P, Chen J Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Rb1 Ameliorates Age-Related Myocardial Dysfunction by Regulating the NF-[Formula: see text]B Signaling Pathway.
Abstract Age-related myocardial dysfunction is a very large healthcare burden. Here, we aimed to investigate whether ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) improves age-related myocardial dysfunction and to identify the relevant molecular mechanism. Young mice and aged mice were injected with Rb1 or vehicle for 3 months. Then, their cardiac function was inspected by transthoracic echocardiography. Serum and myocardium tissue were collected from all mice for histological or molecular expression analyses, including aging-related proteins, markers relevant to fibrosis and inflammation, and markers indicating the activation of the nuc...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - September 13, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Ke SY, Liu DH, Wu L, Yu XG, Wang M, Shi GY, Wen RH, Zhou B, Hao BS, Liu Y, Zhu JM, Qian XX Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Astragalus Polysaccharide (PG2) Suppresses Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Aggressiveness of Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells.
In this study, we explored the effects of PG2 in lung adenocarcinoma A549 and CL1-2 cells and investigated its anticancer activity, and the results were validated in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Although PG2 did not inhibit the growth of these cells, it dose-dependently suppressed their migration and invasion, accompanied by reduced vimentin and AXL and induced epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) expression. Regarding the underlying molecular mechanism, PG2 treatment reduced the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine that promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and aggre...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - September 13, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Liao CH, Yong CY, Lai GM, Chow JM, Cheng CF, Fang CL, Lin PC, Chang CL, Zheng YM, Chuang SE, Whang-Peng J, Yao CJ Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Traditional Chinese Medicine as Potential Therapy for COVID-19.
Abstract In December 2019, a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, causing the disease COVID-19, spread from Wuhan throughout China and has infected people over 200 countries. Thus far, more than 3,400,000 cases and 240,000 deaths have occurred worldwide, and the coronavirus pandemic continues to grip the globe. While numbers of cases in China have been steadying, the number of infections outside China is increasing at a worrying pace. We face an urgent need to control the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic, which is currently expanding to a global pandemic. Efforts have focused on testing antiviral drugs and vaccines, but t...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - September 9, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Li S, Liu C, Guo F, Taleb SJ, Tong M, Shang D Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Corni Fructus as a Natural Resource Can Treat Type 2 Diabetes by Regulating Gut Microbiota.
Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the development of metabolic diseases, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The nutrient-rich resource Cornus Fructus (CF) showed curative effects on diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanism underlying its hyperglycemic activity remains obscure. Herein, the antidiabetic potential of four extracts from CF, including saponin (CTS), iridoid glycoside (CIG), tannin (CT), and alcohol extract (CCA) was evaluated in vivo. The results showed that all four extracts could increase the body weight, decrease the blood glucose levels, a...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - September 9, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Niu D, An S, Chen X, Bi H, Zhang Q, Wang T, Han B, Zhang H, Kang J Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Combination of Scutellaria baicalensis and Metformin Ameliorates Diet-Induced Metabolic Dysregulation in Mice via the Gut-Liver-Brain Axis.
Abstract Scutellaria baicalensis (SB), a herbal medicine, is commonly used to treat metabolic diseases, while Metformin (MF) is a widely used drug for type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether co-treatment of SB with MF could produce a potential therapeutic effect on high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD)-induced metabolic dysregulation. First, we optimized the dose of SB (100, 200, 400, and 800[Formula: see text]mg/kg) with MF (200[Formula: see text]mg/kg) in HFFD-induced C57BL6J mice. Next, the optimized dose of SB (400[Formula: see text]mg/kg) was co-administered with MF (50, 100, an...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - September 9, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Ansari A, Bose S, Lim SK, Wang JH, Choi YH, Kim H Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Panax notoginseng for Cerebral Ischemia: A Systematic Review.
In conclusion, P. notoginseng may treat cerebrovascular diseases through multiple pharmacological effects, and the most critical ones need further investigation. PMID: 32907361 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - September 9, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Yang F, Ma Q, Matsabisa MG, Chabalala H, Braga FC, Tang M Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Application of Chinese Medicine in the Management of Critical Conditions: A Review on Sepsis.
Abstract Critical care medicine is a medical specialty engaging the diagnosis and treatment of critically ill patients who have or are likely to have life-threatening organ failure. Sepsis, a life-threatening condition that arises when the body responds to infection, is currently the major cause of death in intensive care units (ICU). Although progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology of sepsis, many drawbacks in sepsis treatment remains unresolved. For example, antimicrobial resistance, controversial of glucocorticoids use, prolonged duration of ICU care and the subsequent high cost of the treat...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - September 9, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Fan TT, Cheng BL, Fang XM, Chen YC, Su F Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Natural Product Luteolin Rescues THAP-Induced Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction through HNF4α Pathway.
In conclusion, our study discovered that luteolin improved [Formula: see text]-cell function and disclosed the underlying mechanism of luteolin on [Formula: see text]-cell, suggesting luteolin is a promising agent against pancreatic dysfunction. PMID: 32907363 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - September 9, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Wu W, He S, Shen Y, Zhang J, Wan Y, Tang X, Liu S, Yao X Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Targeted Modulation of FAK/PI3K/PDK1/AKT and FAK/p53 Pathways by Cucurbitacin B for the Antiproliferation Effect Against Human Cholangiocarcinoma Cells.
This study aimed to investigate the antiproliferative property of cucurbitacin B on KKU-100 CCA cells. The determination of underlying molecular mechanisms was also carried out. The results revealed that cucurbitacin B suppressed growth and replicative ability to form colonies of CCA cells, suggesting the antiproliferative effect of this compound against the cells. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that the interfering effect of cucurbitacin B on the CCA cell cycle at the G2/M phase was accountable for its antiproliferation property. Accompanied with cell cycle disruption, cucurbitacin B altered the expression of protei...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - September 9, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Klungsaeng S, Kukongviriyapan V, Prawan A, Kongpetch S, Senggunprai L Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) Extension for Chinese Herbal Medicines 2020 (PRISMA-CHM 2020).
Abstract Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM) are the most common interventions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), typically administered as either single herbs or formulas. Systematic reviews (SRs) are essential references for evaluating the efficacy and safety of CHM treatments accurately and reliably. Unfortunately, the reporting quality of SRs with CHM is not optimal, especially the reporting of CHM interventions and the rationale of why these interventions were selected. To address this problem, a group of TCM clinical experts, methodologists, epidemiologists, and editors has developed a PRISMA extension for CH...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - September 9, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Zhang X, Tan R, Lam WC, Yao L, Wang X, Cheng CW, Liu F, Chan JC, Aixinjueluo Q, Lau CT, Chen Y, Yang K, Wu T, Lyu A, Bian Z Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

4-Acetylantrocamol LT3, a New Ubiquinone from Antrodia cinnamomea, Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cell Growth by Targeting YAP/TAZ, mTOR, and WNT/ β-Catenin Signaling.
In this study, the molecular mechanisms of 4AALT3 on hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC) were investigated. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 cells were treated with concentrations of 4AALT3. Cell viability, colony formation, and the underlying mechanisms were then analyzed by CCK-8, colony formation, qPCR, and Western blotting assays. We found that 4AALT3 significantly decreased cell viability and colony formation in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, 4AALT3 significantly decreased protein levels of cyclin B, E1, D1, and D3, thereby facilitating cell cycle arrest. In addition, 4AALT3 significantly suppres...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chen YL, Yen IC, Lin KT, Lai FY, Lee SY Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

MLL3 Induced by Luteolin Causes Apoptosis in Tamoxifen-Resistant Breast Cancer Cells through H3K4 Monomethylation and Suppression of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway.
This study demonstrated that luteolin inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis of tamoxifen-resistant ER-positive breast cancer cells. Luteolin also causes cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and decreases mitochondrial membrane potential. Besides, luteolin reduces the levels of activated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. The combination treatment of luteolin and PI3K, AKT, or mTOR inhibitors synergistically increases apoptosis in tamoxifen-resistant ER-positive breast cancer cells. Ras gene family (K-Ras, H-Ras, and N-Ras), an activator of PI3K, was transcriptionally repressed by luteolin via induction of tumor sup...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Wu HT, Liu YE, Hsu KW, Wang YF, Chan YC, Chen Y, Chen DR Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Inhibition of Inflammatory Responses by Centella asiatica via Suppression of IRAK1-TAK1 in Mouse Macrophages.
Abstract Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (C. asiatica) has been widely treated for inflammation-related diseases in China for thousands of years. While C. asiatica showed relevant effects as traditional medicine, the mechanism of C. asiatica suppressing inflammation has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, this study was conducted to reveal the anti-inflammatory mechanism of methanol fraction from C. asiatica (MCA) at the molecular level in murine macrophages. Levels of inflammation-related mediators were observed with treatment of MCA. MCA significantly suppressed nitric oxide production and iNOS expression i...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Cho YC, Vuong HL, Ha J, Lee S, Park J, Wibow AE, Cho S Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Achillea millefolium on Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice.
This study evaluates the anti-AD activity of 50% ethanol-extracted AM in murine macrophage Raw 264.7 cells, in tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interferon-gamma (TNF-[Formula: see text]/IFN-[Formula: see text])-stimulated human immortal keratinocyte HaCaT cells in vitro, and in Biostir-AD-treated NC/Nga mice in vivo. The results showed that AM significantly downregulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as INOS, COX-2, and interleukin (IL)-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated Raw 264.7 cells. The mRNA expressions of INOS, COX-2, and IL-6 decreased by 76.1%, 69.3%, and 31.8%, respectively. Overexpression of chemok...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Ngo HTT, Hwang E, Kang H, Park B, Seo SA, Yi TH Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

[Formula: see text], a Rare Protopanaxatriol-Type Ginsenoside Fraction from Black Ginseng, Suppresses Inflammatory Gene iNOS via the Iinhibition of p-STAT-1 and NF-[Formula: see text]B.
In conclusion, these findings indicate that [Formula: see text] has a critical anti-inflammatory effect due to its ability to regulate iNOS via the inhibition of p-STAT-1 and NF-[Formula: see text]B, and thus it may be suitable for the treatment of inflammatory disease. PMID: 32668967 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Jeong SY, Kim JE, Song GY, Bae JS Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Andrographis paniculata Improves Insulin Resistance in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice and TNF α-Treated 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.
Andrographis paniculata Improves Insulin Resistance in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice and TNFα-Treated 3T3-L1 Adipocytes. Am J Chin Med. 2020;48(5):1073-1090 Authors: Chen CC, Lii CK, Lin YH, Shie PH, Yang YC, Huang CS, Chen HW Abstract Pro-inflammatory cytokines interfere with blood glucose homeostasis, which leads to hyperglycemia. Andrographis paniculata (AP) has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory activity and to reduce blood glucose levels in diabetes. The two major bioactive diterpenoids in AP, andrographolide (AND) and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (deAND), have potent ant...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chen CC, Lii CK, Lin YH, Shie PH, Yang YC, Huang CS, Chen HW Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Potential Targets for Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review of Qing-Fei-Pai-Du-Tang and Its Major Herbs.
Abstract COVID-19 has been declared a pandemic by WHO on March 11, 2020. No specific treatment and vaccine with documented safety and efficacy for the disease have been established. Hence it is of utmost importance to identify more therapeutics such as Chinese medicine formulae to meet the urgent need. Qing Fei Pai Du Tang (QFPDT), a Chinese medicine formula consisting of 21 herbs from five classical formulae has been reported to be efficacious on COVID-19 in 10 provinces in mainland China. QFPDT could prevent the progression from mild cases and shorten the average duration of symptoms and hospital stay. It has be...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Zhong LLD, Lam WC, Yang W, Chan KW, Sze SCW, Miao J, Yung KKL, Bian Z, Wong VT Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis and Treatment Strategies for COVID-19 Based on "The Diagnosis and Treatment Program for Coronavirus Disease-2019" from Chinese Authority.
Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis and Treatment Strategies for COVID-19 Based on "The Diagnosis and Treatment Program for Coronavirus Disease-2019" from Chinese Authority. Am J Chin Med. 2020;48(5):1035-1049 Authors: Zhao ZH, Zhou Y, Li WH, Huang QS, Tang ZH, Li H Abstract In December 2019, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) broke out in Wuhan and other places. Seven versions of the Diagnosis and Treatment Program for Coronavirus Disease-2019 successively issued by the Chinese government have designated traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a necessary medical strategy. Bas...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Zhao ZH, Zhou Y, Li WH, Huang QS, Tang ZH, Li H Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Tricetin Suppresses Migration and Presenilin-1 Expression of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma through Akt/GSK-3 β Pathway.
Tricetin Suppresses Migration and Presenilin-1 Expression of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma through Akt/GSK-3β Pathway. Am J Chin Med. 2020;48(5):1203-1220 Authors: Ho HY, Lin FC, Chen PN, Chen MK, Hsin CH, Yang SF, Lin CW Abstract Lymph node migration results in poor prognoses for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Tricetin, a flavonoid derivative, regulates tumorigenesis activity through its antiproliferative and antimetastatic properties. However, the molecular mechanism of tricetin affecting the migration and invasion of NPC cells remains poorly understood. In this paper, we examined the anti...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Ho HY, Lin FC, Chen PN, Chen MK, Hsin CH, Yang SF, Lin CW Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Cryptotanshinone-Induced p53-Dependent Sensitization of Colon Cancer Cells to Apoptotic Drive by Regulation of Calpain and Calcium Homeostasis.
In this study, the anticancer potential of cryptotanshinone in combination with calpain inhibitor had been investigated in colon cancer cells and tumor xenograft. Cryptotanshinone elicited an initial endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress response, whereas prolonged stress would result in the promotion of apoptosis. It was then discovered that cryptotanshinone could cause rapid and sustained increase in cytosolic calcium in colon cancer cells accompanied by early GRP78 overexpression, which could be attenuated by pre-treatment of the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM. Cryptotanshinone also facilitated an early increase in calpain activ...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Wang Y, Zhang Z, Auyeung KK, Cho CH, Yung KK, Ko JK Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Gastrodin Pretreatment Protects Liver Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway.
Abstract Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury remains the major cause of liver damage post-liver surgery or transplantation. Diminishing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses is a powerful channel to reduce the rate of morbidity and mortality. Gastrodin (GSTD), a bioactive compound extracted from the traditional Chinese herbal agent with a long history of clinical application in nervous system diseases, is suggested to possess anti-oxidative effects on liver diseases, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the therapeutic potential of GSTD in liver IR injury remains unclear. In this paper, we...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Yuan B, Huang H, Qu S, Zhang H, Lin J, Jin L, Yang S, Zeng Z Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Rare Ginsenoside 20(R)-Rg3 Inhibits D-Galactose-Induced Liver and Kidney Injury by Regulating Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis.
Abstract Oxidative stress is considered as a major factor in aging and exacerbates aging process through a variety of molecular mechanisms. D-galactose, a normal reducing sugar with high dose can cause the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or stimulate free radical production indirectly by the formation of advanced glycation end products in tissues, finally resulting in oxidative stress. 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 (20(R)-Rg3), a major and representative component isolated from red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A Meyer), has been shown to observably have an anti-oxidative effect. We thereby investigated the benef...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Li W, Wang JQ, Zhou YD, Hou JG, Liu Y, Wang YP, Gong XJ, Lin XH, Jiang S, Wang Z Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Proanthocyanidins: Components, Pharmacokinetics and Biomedical Properties.
Abstract Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are a group of polyphenols enriched in plant and human food. In recent decades, epidemiological studies have upheld the direct relationship between PA consumption and health benefits; therefore, studies on PAs have become a research hotspot. Although the oral bioavailability of PAs is quite low, pharmacokinetics data revealed that some small molecules and colonic microbial metabolites of PAs could be absorbed and exert their health beneficial effects. The pharmacological effects of PAs mainly include anti-oxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, cardiovascular protect...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - June 17, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Zeng YX, Wang S, Wei L, Cui YY, Chen YH Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Tetramethylpyrazine Attenuated Sevoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity by Enhancing Autophagy through GPR50/CREB Pathway in SH-SY5Y Cells.
Abstract Tetramethylpyrazine has shown neuroprotective and axonal outgrowth-promoting effects and can improve cognitive deficit in a rat model of chronic hypoperfusion. However, the role of tetramethylpyrazine in sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity is still vague. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of tetramethylpyrazine on sevoflurane-induced autophagy, apoptosis, and the expression of BACE1 and A[Formula: see text] in SH-SY5Y cells. We measured the expression levels of the apoptosis protein markers Bax and Bcl-2, autophagy protein markers Atg5 and LC3-II, BACE1, and A[Form...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 30, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Xu L, Shen J, Dai S, Sun L, Chen X Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Lancemaside A Isolated from the Root of Codonopsis lanceolata Inhibits Ovarian Cancer Cell Invasion via the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Mediated p38 Pathway.
This study aimed to investigate the antimetastatic effects of lancemaside A, a major triterpenoid saponin, isolated from the roots of C. lanceolata, in human ovarian cancer cells. Lancemaside A significantly suppressed the migration and invasion and the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and -9 in ovarian cancer A2780 and SKOV3 cells. Treatment with lancemaside A generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ovarian cancer cells. However, treatment with anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly negated the anti-invasive activity of lancemaside A. Additionally, lancemaside A activated p38 MAP kinase, w...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 29, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Ahn JH, Jang DS, Choi JH Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Intra-Pancreatic Insulin Nourishes Cancer Cells: Do Insulin-Receptor Antagonists such as PGG and EGCG Play a Role?
In conclusion, intra-pancreatic insulin nourishes pancreatic cancer cells and helps the cells resist IR/IGF1R antagonism. PMID: 32468825 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 28, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Hu L, Chen X, Qiu S, Yang J, Liu H, Zhang J, Zhang D, Wang F Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Variations of Oral Microbiome in Chronic Insomnia Patients with Different Tongue Features.
Abstract Chronic insomnia is a disease which brings intense mental pain and disturbing complications to patients worldwide. The oral microbiome exhibits a mechanistic influence on human health. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the oral microbial diversity in insomnia. Tongue diagnosis has been considered a critical basic procedure in insomnia therapeutic decision-making in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Hence, it is significant to elucidate the various oral microbiome differences in chronic insomnia patients with different tongue features. In this paper, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing and bioinformati...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Liu M, Wang X, Wu F, Dai N, Chen M, Yu J, Guan J, Li F Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Rb2 Ameliorates LPS-Induced Inflammation and ER Stress in HUVECs and THP-1 Cells via the AMPK-Mediated Pathway.
In this study, the expression of inflammation and ER stress markers was determined using a Western blotting method. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF[Formula: see text]) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in culture media were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and apoptosis was evaluated by a cell viability assay and a caspase-3 activity measurement kit. We found that exposure of HUVECs and THP-1 monocytes to Rb2 attenuated inflammation and ER stress, resulting in amelioration of apoptosis and THP-1 cell adhesion to HUVECs under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) condition. Increased ...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 20, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Sun JL, Abd El-Aty AM, Jeong JH, Jung TW Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

The Application of Fermentation Technology in Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Review.
Abstract In Chinese medicine, fermentation is a highly important processing technology whereby medicinal herbs are fermented under appropriate temperature, humidity, and moisture conditions by means of the action of microorganisms to enhance their original characteristics and/or produce new effects. This expands the scope of such medicines and helps them to meet the stringent demands of clinical application. Since ancient times, Chinese medicine has been made into Yaoqu to reduce its toxicity and increase its efficiency. Modern fermentation technologies have been developed on the basis of traditional fermentation ...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 20, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Li L, Wang L, Fan W, Jiang Y, Zhang C, Li J, Peng W, Wu C Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Chrysanthemum indicum L.: A Comprehensive Review of its Botany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology.
Abstract Chrysanthemum indicum L. (C. indicum L.), a member of the Compositae family, is a perennial plant that has been used as a traditional medicine for more than 2000 years in China and is widely used for the treatment of Pemphigus, swelling, pain, and scrofula. To date, more than 190 chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from this plant, including flavonoids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and phenolic acids. Numerous modern studies have shown that extracts or monomeric compounds from C. indicum L. have several pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory anti-oxidation, antipathogen...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 20, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Shao Y, Sun Y, Li D, Chen Y Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Preventive Effects of Gardenia jasminoides on Cerulein-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis.
Abstract Our previous report revealed that Gardenia jasminoides (GJ) has protective effects against acute pancreatitis. So, we examined whether aqueous extract of GJ has anti-inflammation and antifibrotic effects even against cerulein-induced chronic pancreatitis (CP). CP was induced in mice by an intraperitoneal injection of a stable cholecystokinin (CCK) analogue, cerulein, six times a day, four days per week for three weeks. GJ extract (0.1 or 1[Formula: see text]g/kg) or saline (control group) were intraperitoneally injected 1[Formula: see text]h before first cerulein injection. After three weeks of stimulatio...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 20, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Choi JW, Jeong JH, Jo IJ, Kim DG, Shin JY, Kim MJ, Choi BM, Shin YK, Song HJ, Bae GS, Park SJ Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Adjuvant Efficacy of Natural Herbal Medicine on COVID-19: A Retrospective Matched Case-Control Study.
This study aimed to evaluate the adjuvant efficacy of Natural Herbal Medicine (NHM) combined with Western medicine in the treatment of COVID-19. We performed a retrospective, 1:1 matched, case-control study of the first cohort of hospitalized COVID-19-confirmed cases (January 17, 2020 to January 28, 2020). A total of 22 of the 36 confirmed patients were included in this study, split into two groups of 11: the NHM group (NHM combined standard Western medicine treatment) and control group (standard Western medicine treatment alone). All patients received appropriate supportive care and regular clinical and laboratory monitor...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 15, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Zhang HT, Huang MX, Liu X, Zheng XC, Li XH, Chen GQ, Xia JY, Hong ZS Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Acupuncture for Pain Management: Molecular Mechanisms of Action.
Abstract Acupuncture reduces pain by activating specific areas called acupoints on the patient's body. When these acupoints are fully activated, sensations of soreness, numbness, fullness, or heaviness called De qi or Te qi are felt by clinicians and patients. There are two kinds of acupuncture, manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA). Compared with non-acupoints, acupoints are easily activated on the basis of their special composition of blood vessels, mast cells, and nerve fibers that mediate the acupuncture signals. In the spinal cord, EA can inhibit glial cell activation by down-regulating the chemokine...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 15, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chen T, Zhang WW, Chu YX, Wang YQ Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

A Review of Medicinal Plants in Cardiovascular Disorders: Benefits and Risks.
Abstract Many cultivated and wild plants are used for the management of various diseases, specifically renal and hepatic diseases and those of the immune and cardiovascular systems. In China, medicinal plants from ancient to modern history have been used in patients with angina pectoris, congestive heart failure (CHF), systolic hypertension, arrhythmia, and venous insufficiency for centuries. The latest increase in the fame of natural products and alternative medicine has revived interest in conventional remedies that have been consumed in the management of CVD. The cardio-protective properties of the various...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 1, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Naveed M, Majeed F, Taleb A, Zubair HM, Shumzaid M, Farooq MA, Baig MMFA, Abbas M, Saeed M, Changxing L Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Cinobufagin Triggers Defects in Spindle Formation and Cap-Dependent Translation in Liver Cancer Cells by Inhibiting the AURKA-mTOR-eIF4E Axis.
Abstract Cinobufagin is a Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) inhibitor with excellent anticancer effects to prolong the survival of patients. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the underlying mechanism of the anticancer effects of cinobufagin using overexpression or inhibition of aurora kinase A (AURKA) signaling. First, high expression of Na+/K+-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (ATP1A1) and AURAK resulted in increased malignant transformation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients using the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) data and tissue samples. After treatment with cinobufagin, we successfully screened 202, 249, and 335 cha...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 30, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Jin X, Wang J, Zou S, Xu R, Cao J, Zhang Y, Guo J, Wen X, Deng S, Zheng Y, Zhu Y, Wang F, Xu Z Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Ginkgo biloba in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Abstract Ginkgo biloba and its extract have been suggested to have a neuroprotective role in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba use in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We searched seven databases for randomized controlled studies examining the use of Ginkgo biloba in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Relevant studies were retrieved, screened, and data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety outcomes of Ginkgo biloba. We subsequently assessed the certainty of e...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 30, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chong PZ, Ng HY, Tai JT, Lee SWH Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Muscone Ameliorates LPS-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors and Inhibits Neuroinflammation in Prefrontal Cortex of Mice.
This study revealed that muscone could ameliorate LPS-induced depressive-like behaviors by repressing neuroinflammation in the prefrontal cortex of mice caused by its suppression on microglia activation and production of inflammatory cytokines via acting on TLR4 pathway and RAS cascade. PMID: 32345030 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 29, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: He MC, Shi Z, Qin M, Sha NN, Li Y, Liao DF, Lin FH, Shu B, Sun YL, Yuan TF, Wang YJ, Zhang Y Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

The Role of Th17/Treg Axis in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Intervention on Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases: A Systematic Review.
Abstract The Th17/Treg axis plays a crucial role in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) and might represent an interesting drug target of treatment strategy for these diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests a role for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the modulation of Th17/Treg axis, but a comprehensive overview which summarizes this field hitherto is lacked. This paper performs a systematic literature review of the regulatory effects of TCM on the imbalance of Th17/Treg axis and its potential mechanisms. In addition, the frequency analysis and network pharmacology for the collected TCM herbs from c...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 29, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Xu YY, Wang DM, Liang HS, Liu ZH, Li JX, Wang MJ, Chen XM, Balak DMW, Radstake TRDJ, Huang RY, Lu CJ Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Partitioned Extracts of Bauhinia championii Induce G0/G1 Phase Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells.
This study aims to investigate the mechanism of anticancer activity of the extracts from B. championii (BC). BC was fractionated with a series of organic solvents, including n-hexane (H), ethyl acetate (EA), 1-butanol (B), and water (W). We first investigated the effects of BC-H, BC-EA, BC-B and BC-W partitioned fraction on cell viability. In HCT 116 colon cancer cell lines, BC-EA showed the highest inhibition of cell viability and changed the morphology of cells. With dose- and time-dependent manners, BC-EA inhibited the proliferation of HCT 116 cells by inducing apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest of cell cycle. To determin...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 29, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chen YF, Lee AS, Chen WY, Lin CH, Kuo CL, Chung JG Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Becoming a Faithful Defender: Traditional Chinese Medicine against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Abstract The outbreak caused by COVID-19 is causing a major challenge to clinical management and a worldwide threat to public health. So far, there is no specific anti-coronavirus therapy approved for the treatment of COVID-19. Recently, as the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is widely acknowledged, it has been brought to a crucial status by the public, governments, and World Health Organization (WHO). For a better popularization of TCM, governments have made several advances in regulations and policies for treatment and measures of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP). Therefore, on the bas...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 29, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Zhang L, Yu J, Zhou Y, Shen M, Sun L Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

BST204, a Rg3 and Rh2 Enriched Ginseng Extract, Upregulates Myotube Formation and Mitochondrial Function in TNF- α-Induced Atrophic Myotubes.
In this study, we have examined the effects and underlying mechanisms of BST204 on myotube formation and myotube atrophy induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). BST204 promotes myogenic differentiation and multinucleated myotube formation through Akt activation. BST204 prevents myotube atrophy induced by TNF-α through the activation of Akt/mTOR signaling and down-regulation of muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases, MuRF1, and Atrogin-1. Furthermore, BST204 treatment in atrophic myotubes suppresses mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and regulates mitochondrial transcription factors such...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 24, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Lee SJ, Im M, Park SK, Kim JY, So EY, Liang OD, Kang JS, Bae GU Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Cassia tora Seed Improves Pancreatic Mitochondrial Function Leading to Recovery of Glucose Metabolism.
In this study, well-known effective compounds extracted from Cassia tora using 70% ethanol were administered to a high-fat diet (HFD) fed mouse to examine the effects of Cassia tora ethanolic extracts (CSEE) on mitochondrial dysfunction in the pancreas. Furthermore, we examined how CSEE regulates the basal mechanism of insulin secretion through mitochondrial functions. Our experimental data suggest that pancreatic mitochondrial metabolism in HFD mice is enhanced to compensate for constrained glucose consumption. HFD-fed mice treated with CSEE showed improved pancreatic mitochondrial functions resulting in alleviation of in...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 24, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Ko E, Um MY, Choi M, Han T, Kim IH, Shin S Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Cinobufacini Inhibits Colon Cancer Invasion and Metastasis via Suppressing Wnt/ β-Catenin Signaling Pathway and EMT.
In this study, we investigated the function and mechanism of Cinobufacini on colon cancer invasion and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo studies. Human colon cancer cells were cultured. CCK assay was used to detect the effect of Cinobufacini on colon cancer cells proliferation. The invasion and migration abilities were observed by transwell assays, and the expression of invasion and migration related genes MMP2, MMP9, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) relate genes were observed by Western blot assays. An orthotopic xenograft model in nude mice was established using colon cancer HCT116 cells, and the functio...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 24, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Wang J, Cai H, Liu Q, Xia Y, Xing L, Zuo Q, Zhang Y, Chen C, Xu K, Yin P, Chen T Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Corosolic Acid Attenuates Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Inflammatory Response via AMPK/SREBPs and NF- κB/MAPK Signaling Pathways.
In this study, effects of CA on the hepatic lipid accumulation were examined using HepG2 cells and tyloxapol (TY)-induced hyperlipidemia ICR mice. CA significantly inhibited hepatic lipid accumulation via inhibition of SREBPs, and its target genes FAS, SCD1, and HMGCR transcription in HepG2 cells. These effects were mediated through activation of AMPK, and these effects were all abolished in the presence of compound C (CC, an AMPK inhibitor). In addition, CA clearly alleviated serum ALT, AST, TG, TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and obviousl...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 24, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Zhang JX, Feng WJ, Liu GC, Ma QQ, Li HL, Gao XY, Liu HZ, Piao GC, Yuan HD Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Naringin Induces Lysosomal Permeabilization and Autophagy Cell Death in AGS Gastric Cancer Cells.
Abstract Autophagy is a process of active programmed cell death, where a dying cell induces autophagosomes and subsequently regulated by degradative machinery. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism behind induction of autophagic cell death by Naringin flavonoid in AGS cancer cells. Growth inhibition of AGS cells showed downregulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling by Naringin treatment. Transmission electron microscopy observation showed swollen mitochondria and lysosome near peri-nuclear zone fused with autophagic vacuoles. Rapamycin pre-treatment with Naringin showed significant decrease in mTOR pho...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 24, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Raha S, Kim SM, Lee HJ, Yumnam S, Saralamma VV, Ha SE, Lee WS, Kim GS Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Traditional Chinese Medicine for Alzheimer's Disease and Other Cognitive Impairment: A Review.
Abstract Cognitive impairment (CI) refers to the dysfunction of memory, language, visual space, execution, calculation, understanding, and judgment in one or more aspects. With global aging, CI will become prevalent worldwide. At present, there is no effective cure for CI. However, Nobel laureate Tu Youyou's research on artemisinin has inspired Chinese researchers to focus on traditional Chinese herbs (TCHs) for the treatment of CI. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has led to a theory for an independent CI system. The pathogenesis of such impairment involves deficiency, phlegm, and stagnation and involves a rang...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 24, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Pei H, Ma L, Cao Y, Wang F, Li Z, Liu N, Liu M, Wei Y, Li H Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Magnoliae Flos Essential Oil as an Immunosuppressant in Dendritic Cell Activation and Contact Hypersensitivity Responses.
In this study, Magnoliae Flos essential oil (MFEO) decreased the production of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12p70 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated DCs. It also suppressed the surface markers MHC II, CD80, and CD86 in LPS-stimulated DCs. Animal models demonstrated that the 2,4-Dinitro-1-fluorobenzene (DNFB) inducing a contact hypersensitivity response was inhibited following treatment with MFEO. In addition, MFEO inhibited the infiltration of T cells in the ears of DNFB-induced mice. To explore its bioactive compounds, the components of MFEO were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectromet...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 17, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chen CH, Chen HC, Chang WT, Lee MS, Liu YC, Lin MK Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

COVID-19: An Update on the Epidemiological, Clinical, Preventive and Therapeutic Evidence and Guidelines of Integrative Chinese-Western Medicine for the Management of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease.
Abstract As of 22 February 2020, more than 77662 cases of confirmed COVID-19 have been documented globally with over 2360 deaths. Common presentations of confirmed cases include fever, fatigue, dry cough, upper airway congestion, sputum production, shortness of breath, myalgia/arthralgia with lymphopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, elevated C-reactive protein, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase. The reported severe/critical case ratio is approximately 7-10% and median time to intensive care admission is 9.5-10.5 days with mortality of around 1-2% varied geographically. Similar to outbreaks of other newly identifi...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 13, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chan KW, Wong VT, Tang SCW Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research