Tetramethylpyrazine Attenuated Sevoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity by Enhancing Autophagy through GPR50/CREB Pathway in SH-SY5Y Cells.
Abstract Tetramethylpyrazine has shown neuroprotective and axonal outgrowth-promoting effects and can improve cognitive deficit in a rat model of chronic hypoperfusion. However, the role of tetramethylpyrazine in sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity is still vague. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of tetramethylpyrazine on sevoflurane-induced autophagy, apoptosis, and the expression of BACE1 and A[Formula: see text] in SH-SY5Y cells. We measured the expression levels of the apoptosis protein markers Bax and Bcl-2, autophagy protein markers Atg5 and LC3-II, BACE1, and A[Form...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 30, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Xu L, Shen J, Dai S, Sun L, Chen X Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Lancemaside A Isolated from the Root of Codonopsis lanceolata Inhibits Ovarian Cancer Cell Invasion via the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Mediated p38 Pathway.
This study aimed to investigate the antimetastatic effects of lancemaside A, a major triterpenoid saponin, isolated from the roots of C. lanceolata, in human ovarian cancer cells. Lancemaside A significantly suppressed the migration and invasion and the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and -9 in ovarian cancer A2780 and SKOV3 cells. Treatment with lancemaside A generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ovarian cancer cells. However, treatment with anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly negated the anti-invasive activity of lancemaside A. Additionally, lancemaside A activated p38 MAP kinase, w...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 29, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Ahn JH, Jang DS, Choi JH Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Intra-Pancreatic Insulin Nourishes Cancer Cells: Do Insulin-Receptor Antagonists such as PGG and EGCG Play a Role?
In conclusion, intra-pancreatic insulin nourishes pancreatic cancer cells and helps the cells resist IR/IGF1R antagonism. PMID: 32468825 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 28, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Hu L, Chen X, Qiu S, Yang J, Liu H, Zhang J, Zhang D, Wang F Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Variations of Oral Microbiome in Chronic Insomnia Patients with Different Tongue Features.
Abstract Chronic insomnia is a disease which brings intense mental pain and disturbing complications to patients worldwide. The oral microbiome exhibits a mechanistic influence on human health. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the oral microbial diversity in insomnia. Tongue diagnosis has been considered a critical basic procedure in insomnia therapeutic decision-making in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Hence, it is significant to elucidate the various oral microbiome differences in chronic insomnia patients with different tongue features. In this paper, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing and bioinformati...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Liu M, Wang X, Wu F, Dai N, Chen M, Yu J, Guan J, Li F Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Rb2 Ameliorates LPS-Induced Inflammation and ER Stress in HUVECs and THP-1 Cells via the AMPK-Mediated Pathway.
In this study, the expression of inflammation and ER stress markers was determined using a Western blotting method. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF[Formula: see text]) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in culture media were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and apoptosis was evaluated by a cell viability assay and a caspase-3 activity measurement kit. We found that exposure of HUVECs and THP-1 monocytes to Rb2 attenuated inflammation and ER stress, resulting in amelioration of apoptosis and THP-1 cell adhesion to HUVECs under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) condition. Increased ...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 20, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Sun JL, Abd El-Aty AM, Jeong JH, Jung TW Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

The Application of Fermentation Technology in Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Review.
Abstract In Chinese medicine, fermentation is a highly important processing technology whereby medicinal herbs are fermented under appropriate temperature, humidity, and moisture conditions by means of the action of microorganisms to enhance their original characteristics and/or produce new effects. This expands the scope of such medicines and helps them to meet the stringent demands of clinical application. Since ancient times, Chinese medicine has been made into Yaoqu to reduce its toxicity and increase its efficiency. Modern fermentation technologies have been developed on the basis of traditional fermentation ...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 20, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Li L, Wang L, Fan W, Jiang Y, Zhang C, Li J, Peng W, Wu C Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Chrysanthemum indicum L.: A Comprehensive Review of its Botany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology.
Abstract Chrysanthemum indicum L. (C. indicum L.), a member of the Compositae family, is a perennial plant that has been used as a traditional medicine for more than 2000 years in China and is widely used for the treatment of Pemphigus, swelling, pain, and scrofula. To date, more than 190 chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from this plant, including flavonoids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and phenolic acids. Numerous modern studies have shown that extracts or monomeric compounds from C. indicum L. have several pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory anti-oxidation, antipathogen...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 20, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Shao Y, Sun Y, Li D, Chen Y Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Preventive Effects of Gardenia jasminoides on Cerulein-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis.
Abstract Our previous report revealed that Gardenia jasminoides (GJ) has protective effects against acute pancreatitis. So, we examined whether aqueous extract of GJ has anti-inflammation and antifibrotic effects even against cerulein-induced chronic pancreatitis (CP). CP was induced in mice by an intraperitoneal injection of a stable cholecystokinin (CCK) analogue, cerulein, six times a day, four days per week for three weeks. GJ extract (0.1 or 1[Formula: see text]g/kg) or saline (control group) were intraperitoneally injected 1[Formula: see text]h before first cerulein injection. After three weeks of stimulatio...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 20, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Choi JW, Jeong JH, Jo IJ, Kim DG, Shin JY, Kim MJ, Choi BM, Shin YK, Song HJ, Bae GS, Park SJ Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Adjuvant Efficacy of Natural Herbal Medicine on COVID-19: A Retrospective Matched Case-Control Study.
This study aimed to evaluate the adjuvant efficacy of Natural Herbal Medicine (NHM) combined with Western medicine in the treatment of COVID-19. We performed a retrospective, 1:1 matched, case-control study of the first cohort of hospitalized COVID-19-confirmed cases (January 17, 2020 to January 28, 2020). A total of 22 of the 36 confirmed patients were included in this study, split into two groups of 11: the NHM group (NHM combined standard Western medicine treatment) and control group (standard Western medicine treatment alone). All patients received appropriate supportive care and regular clinical and laboratory monitor...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 15, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Zhang HT, Huang MX, Liu X, Zheng XC, Li XH, Chen GQ, Xia JY, Hong ZS Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Acupuncture for Pain Management: Molecular Mechanisms of Action.
Abstract Acupuncture reduces pain by activating specific areas called acupoints on the patient's body. When these acupoints are fully activated, sensations of soreness, numbness, fullness, or heaviness called De qi or Te qi are felt by clinicians and patients. There are two kinds of acupuncture, manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA). Compared with non-acupoints, acupoints are easily activated on the basis of their special composition of blood vessels, mast cells, and nerve fibers that mediate the acupuncture signals. In the spinal cord, EA can inhibit glial cell activation by down-regulating the chemokine...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 15, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chen T, Zhang WW, Chu YX, Wang YQ Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

A Review of Medicinal Plants in Cardiovascular Disorders: Benefits and Risks.
Abstract Many cultivated and wild plants are used for the management of various diseases, specifically renal and hepatic diseases and those of the immune and cardiovascular systems. In China, medicinal plants from ancient to modern history have been used in patients with angina pectoris, congestive heart failure (CHF), systolic hypertension, arrhythmia, and venous insufficiency for centuries. The latest increase in the fame of natural products and alternative medicine has revived interest in conventional remedies that have been consumed in the management of CVD. The cardio-protective properties of the various...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 1, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Naveed M, Majeed F, Taleb A, Zubair HM, Shumzaid M, Farooq MA, Baig MMFA, Abbas M, Saeed M, Changxing L Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Cinobufagin Triggers Defects in Spindle Formation and Cap-Dependent Translation in Liver Cancer Cells by Inhibiting the AURKA-mTOR-eIF4E Axis.
Abstract Cinobufagin is a Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) inhibitor with excellent anticancer effects to prolong the survival of patients. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the underlying mechanism of the anticancer effects of cinobufagin using overexpression or inhibition of aurora kinase A (AURKA) signaling. First, high expression of Na+/K+-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (ATP1A1) and AURAK resulted in increased malignant transformation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients using the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) data and tissue samples. After treatment with cinobufagin, we successfully screened 202, 249, and 335 cha...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 30, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Jin X, Wang J, Zou S, Xu R, Cao J, Zhang Y, Guo J, Wen X, Deng S, Zheng Y, Zhu Y, Wang F, Xu Z Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Ginkgo biloba in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Abstract Ginkgo biloba and its extract have been suggested to have a neuroprotective role in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba use in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We searched seven databases for randomized controlled studies examining the use of Ginkgo biloba in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Relevant studies were retrieved, screened, and data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety outcomes of Ginkgo biloba. We subsequently assessed the certainty of e...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 30, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chong PZ, Ng HY, Tai JT, Lee SWH Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Muscone Ameliorates LPS-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors and Inhibits Neuroinflammation in Prefrontal Cortex of Mice.
This study revealed that muscone could ameliorate LPS-induced depressive-like behaviors by repressing neuroinflammation in the prefrontal cortex of mice caused by its suppression on microglia activation and production of inflammatory cytokines via acting on TLR4 pathway and RAS cascade. PMID: 32345030 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 29, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: He MC, Shi Z, Qin M, Sha NN, Li Y, Liao DF, Lin FH, Shu B, Sun YL, Yuan TF, Wang YJ, Zhang Y Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

The Role of Th17/Treg Axis in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Intervention on Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases: A Systematic Review.
Abstract The Th17/Treg axis plays a crucial role in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) and might represent an interesting drug target of treatment strategy for these diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests a role for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the modulation of Th17/Treg axis, but a comprehensive overview which summarizes this field hitherto is lacked. This paper performs a systematic literature review of the regulatory effects of TCM on the imbalance of Th17/Treg axis and its potential mechanisms. In addition, the frequency analysis and network pharmacology for the collected TCM herbs from c...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 29, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Xu YY, Wang DM, Liang HS, Liu ZH, Li JX, Wang MJ, Chen XM, Balak DMW, Radstake TRDJ, Huang RY, Lu CJ Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Partitioned Extracts of Bauhinia championii Induce G0/G1 Phase Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells.
This study aims to investigate the mechanism of anticancer activity of the extracts from B. championii (BC). BC was fractionated with a series of organic solvents, including n-hexane (H), ethyl acetate (EA), 1-butanol (B), and water (W). We first investigated the effects of BC-H, BC-EA, BC-B and BC-W partitioned fraction on cell viability. In HCT 116 colon cancer cell lines, BC-EA showed the highest inhibition of cell viability and changed the morphology of cells. With dose- and time-dependent manners, BC-EA inhibited the proliferation of HCT 116 cells by inducing apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest of cell cycle. To determin...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 29, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chen YF, Lee AS, Chen WY, Lin CH, Kuo CL, Chung JG Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Becoming a Faithful Defender: Traditional Chinese Medicine against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Abstract The outbreak caused by COVID-19 is causing a major challenge to clinical management and a worldwide threat to public health. So far, there is no specific anti-coronavirus therapy approved for the treatment of COVID-19. Recently, as the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is widely acknowledged, it has been brought to a crucial status by the public, governments, and World Health Organization (WHO). For a better popularization of TCM, governments have made several advances in regulations and policies for treatment and measures of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP). Therefore, on the bas...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 29, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Zhang L, Yu J, Zhou Y, Shen M, Sun L Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

BST204, a Rg3 and Rh2 Enriched Ginseng Extract, Upregulates Myotube Formation and Mitochondrial Function in TNF- α-Induced Atrophic Myotubes.
In this study, we have examined the effects and underlying mechanisms of BST204 on myotube formation and myotube atrophy induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). BST204 promotes myogenic differentiation and multinucleated myotube formation through Akt activation. BST204 prevents myotube atrophy induced by TNF-α through the activation of Akt/mTOR signaling and down-regulation of muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases, MuRF1, and Atrogin-1. Furthermore, BST204 treatment in atrophic myotubes suppresses mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and regulates mitochondrial transcription factors such...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 24, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Lee SJ, Im M, Park SK, Kim JY, So EY, Liang OD, Kang JS, Bae GU Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Cassia tora Seed Improves Pancreatic Mitochondrial Function Leading to Recovery of Glucose Metabolism.
In this study, well-known effective compounds extracted from Cassia tora using 70% ethanol were administered to a high-fat diet (HFD) fed mouse to examine the effects of Cassia tora ethanolic extracts (CSEE) on mitochondrial dysfunction in the pancreas. Furthermore, we examined how CSEE regulates the basal mechanism of insulin secretion through mitochondrial functions. Our experimental data suggest that pancreatic mitochondrial metabolism in HFD mice is enhanced to compensate for constrained glucose consumption. HFD-fed mice treated with CSEE showed improved pancreatic mitochondrial functions resulting in alleviation of in...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 24, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Ko E, Um MY, Choi M, Han T, Kim IH, Shin S Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Cinobufacini Inhibits Colon Cancer Invasion and Metastasis via Suppressing Wnt/ β-Catenin Signaling Pathway and EMT.
In this study, we investigated the function and mechanism of Cinobufacini on colon cancer invasion and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo studies. Human colon cancer cells were cultured. CCK assay was used to detect the effect of Cinobufacini on colon cancer cells proliferation. The invasion and migration abilities were observed by transwell assays, and the expression of invasion and migration related genes MMP2, MMP9, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) relate genes were observed by Western blot assays. An orthotopic xenograft model in nude mice was established using colon cancer HCT116 cells, and the functio...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 24, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Wang J, Cai H, Liu Q, Xia Y, Xing L, Zuo Q, Zhang Y, Chen C, Xu K, Yin P, Chen T Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Corosolic Acid Attenuates Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Inflammatory Response via AMPK/SREBPs and NF- κB/MAPK Signaling Pathways.
In this study, effects of CA on the hepatic lipid accumulation were examined using HepG2 cells and tyloxapol (TY)-induced hyperlipidemia ICR mice. CA significantly inhibited hepatic lipid accumulation via inhibition of SREBPs, and its target genes FAS, SCD1, and HMGCR transcription in HepG2 cells. These effects were mediated through activation of AMPK, and these effects were all abolished in the presence of compound C (CC, an AMPK inhibitor). In addition, CA clearly alleviated serum ALT, AST, TG, TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and obviousl...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 24, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Zhang JX, Feng WJ, Liu GC, Ma QQ, Li HL, Gao XY, Liu HZ, Piao GC, Yuan HD Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Naringin Induces Lysosomal Permeabilization and Autophagy Cell Death in AGS Gastric Cancer Cells.
Abstract Autophagy is a process of active programmed cell death, where a dying cell induces autophagosomes and subsequently regulated by degradative machinery. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism behind induction of autophagic cell death by Naringin flavonoid in AGS cancer cells. Growth inhibition of AGS cells showed downregulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling by Naringin treatment. Transmission electron microscopy observation showed swollen mitochondria and lysosome near peri-nuclear zone fused with autophagic vacuoles. Rapamycin pre-treatment with Naringin showed significant decrease in mTOR pho...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 24, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Raha S, Kim SM, Lee HJ, Yumnam S, Saralamma VV, Ha SE, Lee WS, Kim GS Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Traditional Chinese Medicine for Alzheimer's Disease and Other Cognitive Impairment: A Review.
Abstract Cognitive impairment (CI) refers to the dysfunction of memory, language, visual space, execution, calculation, understanding, and judgment in one or more aspects. With global aging, CI will become prevalent worldwide. At present, there is no effective cure for CI. However, Nobel laureate Tu Youyou's research on artemisinin has inspired Chinese researchers to focus on traditional Chinese herbs (TCHs) for the treatment of CI. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has led to a theory for an independent CI system. The pathogenesis of such impairment involves deficiency, phlegm, and stagnation and involves a rang...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 24, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Pei H, Ma L, Cao Y, Wang F, Li Z, Liu N, Liu M, Wei Y, Li H Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Magnoliae Flos Essential Oil as an Immunosuppressant in Dendritic Cell Activation and Contact Hypersensitivity Responses.
In this study, Magnoliae Flos essential oil (MFEO) decreased the production of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12p70 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated DCs. It also suppressed the surface markers MHC II, CD80, and CD86 in LPS-stimulated DCs. Animal models demonstrated that the 2,4-Dinitro-1-fluorobenzene (DNFB) inducing a contact hypersensitivity response was inhibited following treatment with MFEO. In addition, MFEO inhibited the infiltration of T cells in the ears of DNFB-induced mice. To explore its bioactive compounds, the components of MFEO were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectromet...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - April 17, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chen CH, Chen HC, Chang WT, Lee MS, Liu YC, Lin MK Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

COVID-19: An Update on the Epidemiological, Clinical, Preventive and Therapeutic Evidence and Guidelines of Integrative Chinese-Western Medicine for the Management of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease.
Abstract As of 22 February 2020, more than 77662 cases of confirmed COVID-19 have been documented globally with over 2360 deaths. Common presentations of confirmed cases include fever, fatigue, dry cough, upper airway congestion, sputum production, shortness of breath, myalgia/arthralgia with lymphopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, elevated C-reactive protein, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase. The reported severe/critical case ratio is approximately 7-10% and median time to intensive care admission is 9.5-10.5 days with mortality of around 1-2% varied geographically. Similar to outbreaks of other newly identifi...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 13, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chan KW, Wong VT, Tang SCW Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Archidendron lucidum Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects by Targeting PDK1 in the NF- κB Pathway.
In this study, anti-inflammatory effects of Al-ME were investigated in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis mice by MTT assay, nitric oxide (NO) production assay, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), luciferase reporter assay, and Western blotting. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis identified ethnopharmacological compounds in Al-ME. Al-ME inhibited NO production without cytotoxicity in peritoneal macrophages and RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS or Pam3CSK4. Al-ME downregulated mRNA expression of inflammatory genes (inducible NO synthase (...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 11, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Jo M, Yi YS, Cho JY Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Family Flacourtiaceae: A Class of Important Phytomedicine.
Abstract Flacourtiaceae plants are widely used as folk medicines in traditional medicine systems for its chemical diversity and pharmacological activities. In many different areas, Flacourtiaceae plants are used as traditional medicines for the treatment of ulcers, malaria, rheumatism. The Flacourtiaceae plants contain a very plentiful chemical composition, and phytochemical studies show that the Flacourtiaceae plants contained terpenoids, aromatic glycosides, flavnoids, phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, fatty hydrocarbon, and other compounds. In pharmacological studies, various extract and isolated individual compound...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 11, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Zhang Y, Kong J, Zhang JH, Wang L, Zhang W, Liu B, Jiang YY Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Effects of Chinese and Western Medicine on Patients with Dengue Fever.
Abstract Dengue fever is an important epidemic disease with a high prevalence in tropical and subtropical countries. We aimed to investigate the effects of a treatment integrating traditional Chinese (TCM) and Western medicines on dengue inpatients with warning signs (i.e., group B) according to the World Health Organization dengue classification in this retrospective cohort study of medical records. Inpatients who were treated with conventional Western therapies in the absence or presence of TCM were assigned to the control and treatment groups, respectively. Data were compared using an analysis of variance, gene...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 5, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chen YP, Ho TS, Lee PC, Chang HH, Shieh GS, Lee CI, Hu WL, Hung YC Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Taraxacum officinale Wigg. Attenuates Inflammatory Responses in Murine Microglia through the Nrf2/HO-1 and NF- κB Signaling Pathways.
In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracts of T. officinale (A-TOW) by examining the suppression of proinflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated BV2 and mouse hippocampus. Furthermore, A-TOW also inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB p65 caused by stimulation with LPS. In addition, A-TOW regulates heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression through the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in BV2 cells. The effects of A-TOW on the over-expression of proinflammatory mediators were partially reversed by transfection of the cells with HO-1 siRNA. The...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 5, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Dong L, Dongzhi Z, Jin Y, Kim YC, Lee DS, Huang S, Panichayupakaranant P, Li B Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Chuanxiong (Rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong) Protects Ovariectomized Hyperlipidemic Rats from Bone Loss.
In conclusion, CXE could favor osteoblastogenesis against OS. The ability of CXE to reduce bone loss in HFS-fed OVX rats was associated with its abilities to correct dyslipidemia, and reduce lipid deposition and OS levels. PMID: 32138532 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 5, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Dong XL, Yu WX, Li CM, Zhou LP, Wong MS Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Corydalis saxicola Alkaloids Attenuate Cisplatin-Induced Neuropathic Pain by Reducing Loss of IENF and Blocking TRPV1 Activation.
This study was designed to observe the effects of Corydalis saxicola Bunting total alkaloids (CSBTA) on cisplatin-induced neuropathic pain and to explore its potential mechanisms. In this study, the rats received intraperitoneal injection of 2mg/kg cisplatin twice a week for five weeks. Meanwhile, oral administration of low (30mg/kg)-, medium (60mg/kg)- and high (120mg/kg)-dose CSBTA were given daily for five weeks. By using Von-frey hair, heat radiant and -80∘C cold acetone, we found that CSBTA could obviously relieve cisplatin-induced mechanical, heat, and cold hyperalgesia. It has been verified that cisplatin-induced ...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 5, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Kuai CP, Ju LJ, Hu PP, Huang F Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Anti-Apoptotic Effects of Diosgenin in D-Galactose-Induced Aging Brain.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of diosgenin on the D-galactose-induced cerebral cortical widely dispersed apoptosis. Male 12-week-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control (1mg/kg/day of saline, i.p.), DD0 (150mg/kg/day of D-galactose, i.p.), DD10, and DD50 (D-galactose+10 or 50mg/kg/day of diosgenin orally). After eight weeks, histopathological analysis, positive TUNEL and Western blotting assays were performed on the excised cerebral cortex from all four groups. The TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells, the components of Fas pathway (Fas, FADD, active caspase-8 and active c...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 5, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Cheng SM, Ho YJ, Yu SH, Liu YF, Lin YY, Huang CY, Ou HC, Huang HL, Lee SD Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Research Advances on Acupuncture Analgesia.
Abstract Pain is a widespread and complex symptom which causes serious emotional and social burdens to individuals and society. Most patients with pain rely heavily on over the counter (OTC) and prescription pain killers. However, there would be a number of issues that arise from the use of pain killers, in which safety and addiction are the most critical issues. For traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), pain is a result of the meridians being blocked. This could occur as a symptom of or be caused by various diseases. In this case, the key to relieve pain depends on dredging the meridian or meridians. Acupuncture ha...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 5, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Qiao L, Guo M, Qian J, Xu B, Gu C, Yang Y Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect of Rhodiola crenulata in D-Galactose-Induced Aging Model.
We examined apoptosis in the cortex and hippocampus of three groups of rats based on a terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated deoxy uridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) positive assay. The expression levels of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins in excised brains were analyzed by Western blotting. Our findings indicated that D-galactose caused marked neuronal apoptosis via activation of both extrinsic-dependent and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathways. When compared to the control group, the protein levels of Fas receptor, Fas ligand, Fas-associated death domain (FADD), and activated caspase-8 (Fas...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 5, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chen HI, Ou HC, Chen CY, Yu SH, Cheng SM, Wu XB, Lee SD Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

(-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate Promotes MicroRNA 145 Expression against Myocardial Hypoxic Injury through Dab2/Wnt3a/ β-catenin.
This study demonstrated that EGCG increased miR-145, Wnt3a, and β-catenin expression but attenuated Dab2 expression. Moreover, EGCG ameliorated myocardial ischemia in vivo. The novel suppressive effect was mediated through the miR-145 and Dab2/Wnt3a/β-catenin pathways. PMID: 32138537 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - March 5, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Lin CM, Fang WJ, Wang BW, Pan CM, Chua SK, Hou SW, Shyu KG Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Ginkgo biloba Induces Thrombomodulin Expression and Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Secretion via the Activation of Kr üppel-Like Factor 2 within Endothelial Cells.
This study aimed to investigate whether GbE can activate KLF2 and then induce thrombomodulin (TM) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) secretion to enhance the effects of thrombo-prevention. Different concentrations of GbE were incubated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to evaluate its effect on endothelial cells. We found that KLF2 expression is correlated to the risk of atherosclerosis and venous thromboembolism in clinical practice. In the HUVEC cell model, GbE stimulated the expression of KLF2 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, TM and t-PA secretion increased when the cells were cultured ...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - February 28, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chiu YL, Tsai WC, Wu CH, Wu CH, Cheng CC, Lin WS, Tsai TN, Wu LS Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Effects of Herbal Medicines on Pain Management.
Abstract Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience in many diseases and is often caused by intense or damaging stimuli. Pain negatively affects the quality of life and increases high health expenditures. Drugs with analgesic properties are commonly used to relieve pain, but these Western medications could be overwhelmed by side effects including tolerance and addiction. Herbal medicines may provide alternative measures for pain management. In this review paper, after introduction of Chinese medicine theory and treatment modality, emphasis is placed on the application of Chinese herbs and herbal formul...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - February 16, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Luo Y, Wang CZ, Sawadogo R, Tan T, Yuan CS Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Glycyrrhizic Acid Modulates Apoptosis through Extrinsic/Intrinsic Pathways and Inhibits Protein Kinase B- and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase-Mediated Metastatic Potential in Hepatocellular Carcinoma In Vitro and In Vivo.
Abstract A previous study presented that glycyrrhizic acid as the hepatoprotective agent inhibits total parenteral nutrition-associated acute liver injury in rats. However, the anticancer effect and mechanism of glycyrrhizic acid in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is ambiguous. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of glycyrrhizic acid on apoptosis dysregulation and metastatic potential in HCC in vitro and in vivo. Both SK-Hep1 and Hep3B cells were treated with different concentrations of glycyrrhizic acid for 24 or 48h. SK-Hep1/luc2 tumor-bearing mice were treated with vehicle or gly...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - February 16, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Tsai JJ, Pan PJ, Hsu FT, Chung JG, Chiang IT Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Integrating Network Pharmacology and Experimental Models to Investigate the Efficacy of Coptidis and Scutellaria Containing Huanglian Jiedu Decoction on Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
In conclusion, our study demonstrated the effectiveness of integrating network pharmacology with experimental study for discovery and identification of the major therapeutic diseases and the underlying molecular mechanisms of TCM. PMID: 31964157 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 21, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Huang J, Guo W, Cheung F, Tan HY, Wang N, Feng Y Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

A Review of Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Properties of the Genus Saururus.
Abstract The genus Saururus, belonging to Saururaceae, contains two species, S. cernuus L. and S. chinensis (Lour) Baill. with common utilization in traditional medicine from Asia to North America for the treatment of edema, beriberi, jaundice, leucorrhea, urinary tract infections, hypertension, hepatitis diseases, and tumors. An extensive review of literature was made on traditional uses, phytochemistry, and ethnopharmacology of Saururus using ethno-botanical books, published articles, and electronic databases. The 147 of chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from S. cernuus and S...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 21, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Liu G, Zhao Z, Shen M, Zhao X, Xie J, He X, Li C Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Chinese Medicine She-Xiang-Xin-Tong-Ning, Containing Moschus, Corydalis and Ginseng, Protects from Myocardial Ischemia Injury via Angiogenesis.
This study aimed to investigate pharmacological effects of SXXTN and elucidate the role in angiogenesis on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) rats. We prepared SXXTN to treat the cells to reveal their effects on oxidative stress-damaged cell viability, as well as cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation processes. SXXTN was also used to treat coronary artery ligation-induced acute myocardial ischemia rats to confirm whether it had positive effect on myocardial issues by hematoxylin and eosin (HE), 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and immunohistoche...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 14, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Li J, Cao GY, Zhang XF, Meng ZQ, Gan L, Li JX, Lan XY, Yang CL, Zhang CF Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Koumine Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in IPEC-J2 Cells by Regulating Nrf2/NF- κB Pathway.
Koumine Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in IPEC-J2 Cells by Regulating Nrf2/NF-κB Pathway. Am J Chin Med. 2020 Jan 14;:1-16 Authors: Wu J, Yang CL, Sha YK, Wu Y, Liu ZY, Yuan ZH, Sun ZL Abstract Gelsemium elegans Benth. (G. elegans), a traditional Chinese medicine, has great potential as an effective growth promoter in animals, however, the mechanism of its actin remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of koumine extract from G. elegans against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction in IPEC-J2 cells through alleviat...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 14, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Wu J, Yang CL, Sha YK, Wu Y, Liu ZY, Yuan ZH, Sun ZL Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Rhodiola crenulata Suppresses High Glucose-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression and Inflammatory Responses by Inhibiting ROS-Related HMGB1-TLR4 Signaling in Endothelial Cells.
Abstract Rhodiola crenulata, a popular folk medicine for anti-altitude sickness in Tibet, has been shown to have protective effects against high glucose (HG)-induced endothelial cell dysfunction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). However, its mechanisms of action are unclear. Here, we aimed to examine the effects and the mechanisms of action of Rhodiola crenulata extract (RCE) on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory responses under HG conditions. HUVECs were pretreated with RCE or untreated and then exposed to 33mM glucose medium for 24h. The levels of oxidative stress markers, MMPs, ...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 14, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Huang LY, Yen IC, Tsai WC, Lee SY Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

A Comprehensive Review for Phytochemical, Pharmacological, and Biosynthesis Studies on Glycyrrhiza spp.
Abstract Licorice is extensively applied in food as well as herbal medicine across the world, possessing a substantial share in the global market. It has made great progress in chemical and pharmacological research in recent years. Currently, Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat., and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. were officially used as Gan-Cao according to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Accumulating evidence demonstrated three varieties of licorice have their own special compounds except for two quality markers set by Pharmacopoeia, providing great possibility for better understanding their characteristics,...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 14, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Wang C, Chen L, Xu C, Shi J, Chen S, Tan M, Chen J, Zou L, Chen C, Liu Z, Liu X Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Isoorientin Decreases Cell Migration via Decreasing Functional Activity and Molecular Expression of Proton-Linked Monocarboxylate Transporters in Human Lung Cancer Cells.
Abstract Aggressive tumor cells mainly rely on glycolysis, and further release vast amounts of lactate and protons by monocarboxylate transporter (MCT), which causes a higher intracellular pH (pHi) and acidic extracellular pH. Isoorientin, a principle flavonoid compound extracted from several plant species, shows various pharmacological activities. However, effects of isoorientin on anticancer and MCT await to explore in human lung cancer cells. Human lung cancer tissues were obtained from cancer patients undergoing surgery, while the human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) were bought commercially. Change of pHi w...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 10, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Huang HK, Lee SY, Huang SF, Lin YS, Chao SC, Huang SF, Lee SC, Cheng TH, Loh SH, Tsai YT Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture Relieves Irritable Bowel Syndrome by Regulating IL-18 and Gut Microbial Dysbiosis in a Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid-Induced Post-Inflammatory Animal Model.
This study investigated the effect of EA on IL-18 and gut microbial dysbiosis in one visceral hypersensitive rat models with PI-IBS. A trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced visceral hypersensitivity rat model was developed. EA stimulation was applied to the ST25 and ST36 acupoints. Animals were assessed using abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores to determine the development of colonic visceral hypersensitivity. The 16S rRNA was used to correlate microbial diversity. IL-18 expression in colon was quantified by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. We identified that model rats had an increased visceral...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 10, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Song YF, Pei LX, Chen L, Geng H, Yuan MQ, Xu WL, Wu J, Zhou JY, Sun JH Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Erianin Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells.
Abstract Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. It has a very poor prognosis with over a 5-year survival rate of only 50%. Thus, it is important to identify effective therapeutic interventions against oral cancer. Apoptosis and autophagy have reported genetically regulated in physiology and diseases, which close relationship. Many natural compound study objects anticancer effect have been studied between apoptosis and autophagy relationship. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of erianin on human oral cancer cell proliferation. Results of the st...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 6, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Chen YT, Hsieh MJ, Chen PN, Weng CJ, Yang SF, Lin CW Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Baicalin Inhibits Coxsackievirus B3 Replication by Reducing Cellular Lipid Synthesis.
In conclusion, our results indicated that lipids play an important role in CVB3 replication, and the effect of baicalin against CVB3 was associated with its ability to reduce cellular lipid synthesis to limit autophagosome formation. PMID: 31903780 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - January 6, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Wang MJ, Yang CH, Jin Y, Wan CB, Qian WH, Xing F, Li X, Liu YY Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Nelumbo nucifera Leaves Prevent NMU-Induced Mammary Tumor through Downregulation of Fatty Acid Synthase, Estrogen Receptor- α and Her2 Expression.
In this study, we investigated the role of NLE in the prevention of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)-induced mammary tumor formation. Cotreatment with NLE significantly reduced the NMU-induced tumor incidence, number, and volume. NLE administration significantly repressed the tumor growth and weight of nude mice upon inoculation with BT-474 cancer cells. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that fatty acid synthetase, estrogen receptor (ER)-α, and phosphorylated ER-α were obviously reduced in the cancer part of BT-474 inoculated nude mice upon administration of 2% NLE. Western blot analysis revealed that NLE and ...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - December 18, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Hsu LS, Chang CH, Lee YJ, Wang CJ Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

The Neuroimmune Basis of Acupuncture: Correlation of Cutaneous Mast Cell Distribution with Acupuncture Systems in Human.
Abstract The hypothesis that cutaneous mast cells (MCs) are responsible for skin phenomena in acupuncture was proposed 40 years ago, but very little is known about the correlation of MC distribution with acupuncture systems in human. The aim of this study is to quantify cutaneous mast cells at different body sites and compare them with the distributions of classical acupuncture points and micro-acupuncture systems. Skin biopsies from dermatological practice were evaluated under microscope with H&E or CD117 stains. Dermal MCs were counted and expressed as MCs per high power field. Densities of classical acupunc...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - December 5, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Li YM Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research