Infection-induced epigenetic changes and their impact on the pathogenesis of diseases
(Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - April 1, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Epigenetic lifestyle of Epstein-Barr virus
AbstractEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a model of herpesvirus latency and epigenetic changes. The virus preferentially infects human B-lymphocytes (and also other cell types) but does not turn them straight into virus factories. Instead, it establishes a strictly latent infection in them and concomitantly induces the activation and proliferation of infected B cells. How the virus establishes latency in its target cells is only partially understood, but its latent state has been studied intensively by many. During latency, several copies of the viral genome are maintained as minichromosomes in the nucleus. In latently infected...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - March 30, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Epigenetic control in Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection and associated disease
AbstractKaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of several malignancies of endothelial and B-cell origin. The fact that latently infected tumor cells in these malignancies do not express classical viral oncogenes suggests that pathogenesis of KSHV-associated disease results from multistep processes that, in addition to constitutive viral gene expression, may require accumulation of cellular alterations. Heritable changes of the epigenome have emerged as an important co-factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of many non-viral cancers. Since KSHV encodes a number of factors that directly or i...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - March 26, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Correction to: Lung functional development and asthma trajectories
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The given names and family names of all authors were switched in the original publication. (Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - March 25, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Towards new TB vaccines
AbstractMycobacterium tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death attributed to a single infectious organism. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the standard vaccine againstM. tuberculosis, is thought to prevent only 5% of all vaccine-preventable deaths due to tuberculosis, thus an alternative vaccine is required. One of the principal barriers to vaccine development againstM. tuberculosis is the complexity of the immune response to infection, with uncertainty as to what constitutes an immunological correlate of protection. In this paper, we seek to give an overview of the immunology ofM. tuberculosis infection, and by doi...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - March 18, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Implications of asymptomatic infection for the natural history of selected parasitic tropical diseases
AbstractProgress has been made in the control or elimination of tropical diseases, with a significant reduction of incidence. However, there is a risk of re-emergence if the factors fueling transmission are not dealt with. Although it is essential to understand these underlying factors for each disease, asymptomatic carriers are a common element that may promote resurgence; their impact in terms of proportion in the population and role in transmission needs to be determined. In this paper, we review the current evidence on whether or not to treat asymptomatic carriers given the relevance of their role in the transmission o...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - March 18, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Epigenetic modulation in chronic hepatitis B virus infection
AbstractThe human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small-enveloped DNA virus causing acute and chronic hepatitis. Despite the existence of an effective prophylactic vaccine and the strong capacity of approved antiviral drugs to suppress viral replication, chronic HBV infection (CHB) continues to be a major health burden worldwide. Both the inability of the immune system to resolve CHB and the unique replication strategy employed by HBV, which forms a stable viral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) minichromosome in the hepatocyte nucleus, enable infection persistence. Knowledge of the complex network of interactions that ...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - March 17, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Leishmaniasis immunopathology —impact on design and use of vaccines, diagnostics and drugs
AbstractLeishmaniasis is a disease complex caused by 20 species of protozoan parasites belonging to the genusLeishmania. In humans, it has two main clinical forms, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous or tegumentary leishmaniasis (CL), as well as several other cutaneous manifestations in a minority of cases. In the mammalian hostLeishmania parasites infect different populations of macrophages where they multiply and survive in the phagolysosomal compartment. The progression of both VL and CL depends on the maintenance of a parasite-specific immunosuppressive state based around this host macrophage infection. The compl...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - March 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The immunology of other mycobacteria: M. ulcerans , M. leprae
AbstractMycobacterial pathogens can be categorized into three broad groups:Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex causing tuberculosis,M. leprae andM. lepromatosis causing leprosy, and atypical mycobacteria, or non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), responsible for a wide range of diseases. Among the NTMs,M. ulcerans is responsible for the neglected tropical skin disease Buruli ulcer (BU). Most pathogenic mycobacteria, includingM. leprae, evade effector mechanisms of the humoral immune system by hiding and replicating inside host cells and are furthermore excellent modulators of host immune responses. In contrast,M. ulcerans repl...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 25, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Human unconventional T cells in Plasmodium falciparum infection
AbstractMalaria is an old scourge of humankind and has a large negative impact on the economic development of affected communities. Recent success in malaria control and reduction of mortality seems to have stalled emphasizing that our current intervention tools need to be complemented by malaria vaccines. Different populations of unconventional T cells such as mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and γδ T cells are gaining attention in the field of malaria immunology. Significant advances in our basic understanding of unconventional T cell biology in rodent malar...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 19, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Schistosomiasis —from immunopathology to vaccines
AbstractSchistosomiasis (bilharzia) is a neglected tropical disease caused by trematode worms of the genusSchistosoma. The transmission cycle involves human (or other mammalian) water contact with surface water contaminated by faeces or urine, as well as specific freshwater snails acting as intermediate hosts. The main disease-causing species areS. haematobium,S. mansoni andS. japonicum. According to the World Health Organisation, over 250 million people are infected worldwide, leading to considerable morbidity and the estimated loss of 1.9 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), a likely underestimated figure. Sch...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 19, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Dysbiosis of the gut and lung microbiome has a role in asthma
AbstractWorldwide 300 million children and adults are affected by asthma. The development of asthma is influenced by environmental and other exogenous factors synergizing with genetic predisposition, and shaping the lung microbiome especially during birth and in very early life. The healthy lung microbial composition is characterized by a prevalence of bacteria belonging to the phylaBacteroidetes,Actinobacteria, andFirmicutes. However, viral respiratory infections are associated with an abundance ofProteobacteria with generaHaemophilus andMoraxella in young children and adult asthmatics. This dysbiosis supports the activat...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 18, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Recent findings in the genetics and epigenetics of asthma and allergy
AbstractIn asthma and allergy genetics, a trend towards a few main topics developed over the last 2  years. First, a number of studies have been published recently which focus on overlapping and/or very specific phenotypes: within the allergy spectrum but also reaching beyond, looking for common genetic traits shared between different diseases or disease entities. Secondly, an urgently needed foc us has been put on asthma and allergy genetics in populations genetically different from European ancestry. This acknowledges that the majority of new asthma patients today are not white and asthma is a truly worldwide diseas...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 14, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Epigenetic crosstalk in chronic infection with HIV-1
AbstractHuman immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) replicates through the integration of its viral DNA into the genome of human immune target cells. Chronically infected individuals thus carry a genomic burden of virus-derived sequences that persists through antiretroviral therapy. This burden consists of a small fraction of intact, but transcriptionally silenced, i.e. latent, viral genomes and a dominant fraction of defective sequences. Remarkably, all viral-derived sequences are subject to interaction with host cellular physiology at various levels. In this review, we focus on epigenetic aspects of this interaction. We provi...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Revealing eukaryotic histone-modifying mechanisms through bacterial infection
AbstractIn the long co-evolution of host-pathogen interaction, bacteria have developed sophisticated strategies to manipulate host cell mechanisms and reprogram host transcription. Targeting chromatin, mainly through post-translational modification (PTM) of histone proteins, is one strategy that has been revealed over the last decade. Indeed, histone modifications play a crucial role in regulating transcription during cell type and stimulus specific responses, making them good targets during infection. Therefore, the study of host-pathogen interactions provides breakthroughs in understanding virulence mechanisms, but also ...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 4, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Asthma epidemiology and risk factors
This article will review recent trends in the prevalence of asthma and recent studies that investigate risk factors of asthma. (Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 4, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Modulating local airway immune responses to treat allergic asthma: lessons from experimental models and human studies
AbstractWith asthma affecting over 300 million individuals world-wide and estimated to affect 400 million by 2025, developing effective, long-lasting therapeutics is essential. Allergic asthma, where Th2-type immunity plays a central role, represents 90% of child and 50% of adult asthma cases. Research based largely on animal models of allergic disease have led to the generation of a novel class of drugs, so-called biologicals, that target essential components of Th2-type inflammation. Although highly efficient in subclasses of patients, these biologicals and other existing medication only target the symptomatic stage of a...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 4, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Multiomic immune clockworks of pregnancy
AbstractPreterm birth is the leading cause of mortality in children under the age of five worldwide. Despite major efforts, we still lack the ability to accurately predict and effectively prevent preterm birth. While multiple factors contribute to preterm labor, dysregulations of immunological adaptations required for the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy is at its pathophysiological core. Consequently, a precise understanding of these chronologically paced immune adaptations and of the biological pacemakers that synchronize the pregnancy “immune clock” is a critical first step towards identifying deviations t...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 4, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Preface
(Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 1, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The clever strategies used by intracellular parasites to hijack host gene expression
AbstractIntracellular pathogens need to develop sophisticated mechanisms to survive and thrive in the hostile environment within host cells. Unicellular, eukaryotic parasites from the Apicomplexa phylum have become masters of manipulating their host cells, exploiting signaling, and metabolic pathways to hijack host gene expression to their own advantage. These intracellular parasites have developed a wide range of strategies that affect transcriptional machineries and epigenetic events in the host cell nucleus. In recent years, many laboratories have risen to the challenge of studying the epigenetics of host-pathogen inter...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - January 30, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Lung functional development and asthma trajectories
AbstractEarly life environmental risk factors are associated with chronic respiratory morbidity in child- and adulthood. A possible mechanism for this sustained effect is their influence on early life lung functional growth and development, a susceptible phase of rapid lung growth with increased plasticity. We summarize evidence of hereditary and environmental ante-, peri-, and early postnatal factors on lung functional development, such as air pollution, tobacco exposure, nutrition, intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, early life infections, microbiome, and allergies and their effect on lung functional trajectori...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - January 27, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Role of viruses in asthma
AbstractRespiratory viral infections are the most important triggers of asthma exacerbations. Rhinovirus (RV), the common cold virus, is clearly the most prevalent pathogen constantly circulating in the community. This virus also stands out from other viral factors due to its large diversity (about 170 genotypes), very effective replication, a tendency to create Th2-biased inflammatory environment and association with specific risk genes in people predisposed to asthma development (CDHR3). Decreased interferon responses, disrupted airway epithelial barrier, environmental exposures (including biased airway microbiome), and ...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - January 27, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Omics for the future in asthma
AbstractAsthma is a common, complex, multifaceted disease. It comprises multiple phenotypes, which might benefit from treatment with different types of innovative targeted therapies. Refining these phenotypes and understanding their underlying biological structure would help to apply precision medicine approaches. Using different omics methods, such as (epi)genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, microbiomics, and exposomics, allowed to view and investigate asthma from diverse angles. Technological advancement led to a large increase in the application of omics studies in the asthma field. Although the use of ...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - January 15, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Epigenetic regulation of human papillomavirus transcription in the productive virus life cycle
AbstractHuman papillomaviruses (HPV) are a large family of viruses which contain a circular, double-stranded DNA genome of approximately 8000 base pairs. The viral DNA is chromatinized by the recruitment of cellular histones which are subject to host cell –mediated post-translational epigenetic modification recognized as an important mechanism of virus transcription regulation. The HPV life cycle is dependent on the terminal differentiation of the target cell within epithelia—the keratinocyte. The virus life cycle begins in the undifferentiated b asal compartment of epithelia where the viral chromatin is mainta...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - January 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Role of early life immune regulation in asthma development
AbstractDevelopment of childhood asthma is complex with a strong interaction of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Ultimately, it is critical how the immune system of a child responds to these influences and whether effective strategies for a balanced and healthy immune maturation can be assured. Pregnancy and early childhood are particularly susceptible for exogenous influences due to the developing nature of a child ’s immune system. While endogenous influences such as family history and the genetic background are immutable, epigenetic regulations can be modulated by both heredity and environmental exp...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - December 23, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Resolution in bullous pemphigoid
AbstractPemphigoid diseases are a group of autoimmune blistering skin diseases defined by an immune response against certain components of the dermal-epidermal adhesion complex. They are prototypical, autoantibody-driven, organ-specific diseases with the emergence of inflammatory skin lesions dependent on the recruitment of immune cells, particularly granulocytes, into the skin. During an acute flare of disease, inflammatory skin lesions typically progressing from erythema through urticarial plaques to subepidermal blisters erosions erupt and, finally, completely resolve, thus illustrating that resolution of inflammation i...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - November 15, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Resolution of inflammation during multiple sclerosis
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a frequent autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). There are three clinical forms described: relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), the most common initial presentation (85%) among which, if not treated, about half will transform, into the secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) and the primary progressive MS (PPMS) (15%) that is directly progressive without superimposed clinical relapses. Inflammation is present in all subsets of MS. The relapsing/remitting form could represent itself a particular interest for the study of inflammation resolu...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - November 15, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Resolution of inflammation in arthritis
AbstractRheumatoid arthritis is among the most frequent and severe chronic inflammatory diseases. The disease is characterized by ongoing synovial inflammation, which leads to the destruction of cartilage and bone. In RA, the mechanisms of resolution of inflammation, which are normally intact in the joints, are either suppressed or overruled. Little efforts have been undertaken to understand the mechanisms of resolution of arthritis until recently, when several molecular mechanisms have been identified that determine the chronicity and resolution of inflammation in the joints, respectively. This review describes the key co...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - November 12, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Resolution of neuroinflammation: mechanisms and potential therapeutic option
AbstractThe central nervous system (CNS) is comprised by an elaborate neural network that is under constant surveillance by tissue-intrinsic factors for maintenance of its homeostasis. Invading pathogens or sterile injuries might compromise vitally the CNS integrity and function. A prompt anti-inflammatory response is therefore essential to contain and repair the local tissue damage. Although the origin of the insults might be different, the principles of tissue backlashes, however, share striking similarities. CNS-resident cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, together with peripheral immune cells orchestrate an array ...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - November 8, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Resolution of allergic asthma
AbstractAllergic asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing and bronchoconstriction. Chronic inflammation may finally lead to structural damage followed by airway remodeling. Various studies in recent years contributed to unravel important aspects of the immunopathogenesis of asthma and adapted new pharmaceutical developments. Here, I consider some novel insights into the immunopathogenesis of asthma and the protective and pathogenic roles of some innate and adaptive immune cells as well as the function of soluble mediators such as cytokines. Particular attention will b...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - November 8, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Towards a pro-resolving concept in systemic lupus erythematosus
AbstractSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease with prominent chronic inflammatory aspects. SLE most often affects women (9:1) in childbearing age. The multifactorial nature of the etiopathogenesis of SLE involves a deficient clearance of dead and dying cells. This is supported by the occurrence of autoantibodies directed against autoantigens modified in dying and dead cells (dsDNA, high mobility group box 1 protein, apoptosis-associated chromatin modifications, e.g., histones H3-K27-me3; H2A/H4 AcK8,12,16; and H2B-AcK12) that are deposited in various tissues, including skin, kidneys, joints,...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - November 6, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The resolution of inflammation through omega-3 fatty acids in atherosclerosis, intimal hyperplasia, and vascular calcification
AbstractOmega-3 fatty acids serve as the substrate for the formation of a group of lipid mediators that mediate the resolution of inflammation. The cardiovascular inflammatory response in atherosclerosis and vascular injury is characterized by a failure in the resolution of inflammation, resulting in a chronic inflammatory response. The proresolving lipid mediator resolvin E1 (RvE1) is formed by enzymatic conversion of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and signals resolution of inflammation through its receptor ChemR23. Importantly, the resolution of cardiovascular inflammation is an active, multifactoria...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - November 6, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Resolution of inflammation: from basic concepts to clinical application
(Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - November 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Resolution of acute intestinal graft-versus-host disease
AbstractAllogeneic transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (allo-HCT) represents an increasingly employed therapeutic approach to potentially cure patients suffering from life-threatening malignant and autoimmune disorders. Despite its lifesaving potential, immune-mediated allo-reactivity inherent to the allogeneic transplantation can be observed within up to 50% of all allo-HCT patients regularly resulting in the manifestation of acute and/or chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Mechanistically, especially donor T cells are assumed to chiefly drive inflammation that can occur in virtually all organs, with the ski...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 31, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Resolution of plaque-type psoriasis: what is left behind (and reinitiates the disease)
AbstractPsoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that involves numerous types of immune cells and cytokines resulting in an inflammatory feedback loop and hyperproliferation of the epidermis. A more detailed understanding of the underlying pathophysiology has revolutionized anti-psoriatic treatment and led to the development of various new drugs targeting key inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17A and IL-23. Successfully treated psoriatic lesions often resolve completely, leaving nothing visible to the naked eye. However, such lesions tend to recur within months at the exact same body sites. What is left behind at t...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 31, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

An emerging role for Toll-like receptors at the neuroimmune interface in osteoarthritis
AbstractOsteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic progressive, painful disease of synovial joints, characterized by cartilage degradation, subchondral bone remodeling, osteophyte formation, and synovitis. It is now widely appreciated that the innate immune system, and in particular Toll-like receptors (TLRs), contributes to pathological changes in OA joint tissues. Furthermore, it is now also increasingly recognized that TLR signaling plays a key role in initiating and maintaining pain. Here, we reviewed the literature of the past 5  years with a focus on how TLRs may contribute to joint damage and pain in OA. We discuss biolo...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Osteoclastic microRNAs and their translational potential in skeletal diseases
AbstractSkeleton undergoes constant remodeling process to maintain healthy bone mass. However, in pathological conditions, bone remodeling is deregulated, resulting in unbalanced bone resorption and formation. Abnormal osteoclast formation and activation play a key role in osteolysis, such as in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. As potential therapeutic targets or biomarkers, miRNAs have gained rapidly growing research and clinical attention. miRNA-based therapeutics is recently entering a new era for disease treatment. Such progress is emerging in treatment of skeletal diseases. In this review, we discuss miRNA bioge...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 7, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Resolution of uveitis
AbstractAutoimmune uveitis is a sight-threatening, rare disease, potentially leading to blindness. Uveitis is a synonym for intraocular inflammation, presenting as various clinical phenotypes with different underlying immune responses in patients, whereas different animal models usually represent one certain clinical and immunological type of uveitis due to genetic uniformity and the method of disease induction. T cells recognizing intraocular antigens initiate the disease, recruiting inflammatory cells (granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages) to the eyes, which cause the damage of the tissue. The treatment of uveitis so far ...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 7, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The role of bone cells in immune regulation during the course of infection
AbstractBone homeostasis depends on a balance between osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation. Bone cells are regulated by a variety of biochemical factors, such as hormones and cytokines, as well as various types of physical stress. The immune system affects bone, since such factors are dysregulated under pathologic conditions, including infection. The bone marrow, one of the primary lymphoid organs, provides a special microenvironment that supports the function and differentiation of immune cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Thus, bone cells contribute to immune regulation by modulating immun...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - September 24, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Metabolic reprogramming in osteoclasts
AbstractOsteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells that play an essential role in the remodeling of the bone. Defects in osteoclasts thus result in unbalanced bone remodeling, leading to numerous pathological conditions such as osteoporosis, bone metastasis, and inflammatory bone erosion. Metabolism is any process a cell utilizes to meet its energetic demand for biological functions. Along with signaling pathways and osteoclast-specific gene expression programs, osteoclast differentiation activates metabolic programs. The energy generated from metabolic reprogramming in osteoclasts not only supports the phenotypic changes from m...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - September 24, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Resolution of Crohn ’s disease
AbstractCrohn ’s disease (CD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and represents one of the main inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) forms. The infiltration of immune cells into the mucosa and uncontrolled production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators trigger the c hronic inflammatory reaction in the intestine [1]. The inflammatory setting consists of subsequent events that comprise an induction phase, the peak of inflammation which is subsequently followed by the resolution phase. The induction phase, which represents the first phase of inflammation, is important for th...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - September 24, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Omnipresence of inflammasome activities in inflammatory bone diseases
AbstractThe inflammasomes are intracellular protein complexes that are assembled in response to a variety of perturbations including infections and injuries. Failure of the inflammasomes to rapidly clear the insults or restore tissue homeostasis can result in chronic inflammation. Recurring inflammation is also provoked by mutations that cause the constitutive assembly of the components of these protein platforms. Evidence suggests that chronic inflammation is a shared mechanism in bone loss associated with aging, dysregulated metabolism, autoinflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. Mechanistically, inflammatory mediators pr...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - September 13, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

γδ T cells in rheumatic diseases: from fundamental mechanisms to autoimmunity
AbstractThe innate and adaptive arms of the immune system tightly regulate immune responses in order to maintain homeostasis and host defense. The interaction between those two systems is critical in the activation and suppression of immune responses which if unchecked may lead to chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. γδ T cells are non-conventional lymphocytes, which express T cell receptor (TCR) γδ chains on their surface and straddle between innate and adaptive immunity. Recent advances in of γδ T cell biology have allowed us to expand our understanding of γδ T cell in th...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - September 10, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Molecular determinants for the polarization of macrophage and osteoclast
AbstractEmerging evidence suggest that macrophage and osteoclast are two competing differentiation outcomes from myeloid progenitors. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the polarization of macrophage and osteoclast. These include nuclear receptors/transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), their transcription cofactor PPARγ coactivator 1-β (PGC-1β), metabolic factors such as mitochondrial complex I (CI) component NADH:ubiquinone oxidor...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - September 10, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Osteoimmunology: entwined regulation of integrated systems
(Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - September 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Resolution of ulcerative colitis
AbstractUlcerative colitis designates an idiopathic chronic inflammatory bowel disease leading to bloody diarrhea and inflammatory alterations mostly restricted to the large intestine. Many studies continue to unravel important aspects of its etiopathogenesis, and recent pharmaceutical developments broaden the arsenal of therapeutic opportunity. In this review, we delve into the cellular and molecular determinants of successful resolution of ulcerative colitis, describing novel insights in each of the phases of mucosal healing starting from damaging insults to the mucosa, epithelial restitution, and its adaption to inflamm...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - July 5, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Inflammation and type 2 diabetes: from basic science to treatment
(Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - June 25, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The role of inflammation in diabetic eye disease
AbstractMounting evidence suggests that immunological mechanisms play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME). Upregulation of cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators leading to persistent low-grade inflammation is believed to actively contribute to the DR-associated damage to the retinal vasculature, inducing breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier, subsequent macular edema formation, and promotion of retinal neovascularization. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the biological  processes providing an inflammatory basis for DR and DME. In ...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - June 7, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Chronic low-grade inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome: is there a (patho)-physiological role for interleukin-1?
AbstractThe polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Its main characteristics are the ovarian overproduction of androgens and ovulatory dysfunction which lead to severe symptoms such as hirsutism, acne, insulin resistance, and infertility. Despite the frequency and disease burden of PCOS, its underlying causes remain unknown, and no causal therapeutic options are available. In recent years, several studies have shown that women with PCOS present with chronic low-grade inflammation indicating an overactivity of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1). We show...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - May 28, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The role of interleukin-6 in glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism
AbstractLow-grade inflammation is recognized as an important factor in the development and progression of a multitude of diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The potential of using antibody-based therapies that neutralize key players of low-grade inflammation has gained scientific momentum as a novel therapeutic strategy in metabolic diseases. As interleukin-6 (IL-6) is traditionally considered a key pro-inflammatory factor, the potential of expanding the use of anti-IL-6 therapies to metabolic diseases is intriguing. However, IL-6 is a molecule of a very pleiotropic nature that regulates...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - May 17, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research