Resolution of ulcerative colitis
AbstractUlcerative colitis designates an idiopathic chronic inflammatory bowel disease leading to bloody diarrhea and inflammatory alterations mostly restricted to the large intestine. Many studies continue to unravel important aspects of its etiopathogenesis, and recent pharmaceutical developments broaden the arsenal of therapeutic opportunity. In this review, we delve into the cellular and molecular determinants of successful resolution of ulcerative colitis, describing novel insights in each of the phases of mucosal healing starting from damaging insults to the mucosa, epithelial restitution, and its adaption to inflamm...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - July 5, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Inflammation and type 2 diabetes: from basic science to treatment
(Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - June 25, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The role of inflammation in diabetic eye disease
AbstractMounting evidence suggests that immunological mechanisms play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME). Upregulation of cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators leading to persistent low-grade inflammation is believed to actively contribute to the DR-associated damage to the retinal vasculature, inducing breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier, subsequent macular edema formation, and promotion of retinal neovascularization. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the biological  processes providing an inflammatory basis for DR and DME. In ...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - June 7, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Chronic low-grade inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome: is there a (patho)-physiological role for interleukin-1?
AbstractThe polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Its main characteristics are the ovarian overproduction of androgens and ovulatory dysfunction which lead to severe symptoms such as hirsutism, acne, insulin resistance, and infertility. Despite the frequency and disease burden of PCOS, its underlying causes remain unknown, and no causal therapeutic options are available. In recent years, several studies have shown that women with PCOS present with chronic low-grade inflammation indicating an overactivity of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1). We show...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - May 28, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The role of interleukin-6 in glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism
AbstractLow-grade inflammation is recognized as an important factor in the development and progression of a multitude of diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The potential of using antibody-based therapies that neutralize key players of low-grade inflammation has gained scientific momentum as a novel therapeutic strategy in metabolic diseases. As interleukin-6 (IL-6) is traditionally considered a key pro-inflammatory factor, the potential of expanding the use of anti-IL-6 therapies to metabolic diseases is intriguing. However, IL-6 is a molecule of a very pleiotropic nature that regulates...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - May 17, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Transcriptional control of macrophage polarisation in type 2 diabetes
AbstractType-2 diabetes (T2D) is considered today as an inflammatory disease. Inflammatory processes in T2D are orchestrated by macrophage activation in different organs. Macrophages undergo classical M1 pro-inflammatory or alternative M2 anti-inflammatory activation in response to tissue microenvironmental signals. These subsets of macrophages are characterised by their expression of cell surface markers, secreted cytokines and chemokines. Transcriptional regulation is central to the polarisation of macrophages, and several major pathways have been described as essential to promote the expression of specific genes, which ...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - May 2, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Pathogenicity of acquired immunity in human diseases
(Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Correction to: The pathogenicity of Th17 cells in autoimmune diseases
Unfortunately, an error occurred in the following passus of the article. The word “receptor” was missing in the sentence “Because T cells do not express GM-CSF receptor [41], GM-CSF affects non-T cells.” (Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - April 29, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

T cell pathology in skin inflammation
AbstractForming the outer body barrier, our skin is permanently exposed to pathogens and environmental hazards. Therefore, skin diseases are among the most common disorders. In many of them, the immune system plays a crucial pathogenetic role. For didactic and therapeutic reasons, classification of such immune-mediated skin diseases according to the underlying dominant immune mechanism rather than to their clinical manifestation appears to be reasonable. Immune-mediated skin diseases may be mediated mainly by T cells, by the humoral immune system, or by uncontrolled unspecific inflammation. According to the involved T cell...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - April 26, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Impact of bariatric surgery on type 2 diabetes: contribution of inflammation and gut microbiome?
AbstractObesity is a chronic low-grade inflammatory disease (both at the systemic and adipose tissue level) that continues to rise worldwide. It is associated with an abundance of comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Bariatric surgery, which induces modifications of the intestinal tract, is to date the most successful treatment for obesity. Its use has dramatically increased in number as it enables both weight reduction and metabolic improvements, with 60% of patients even achieving diabetes remission. Several mechanisms are actually demonstrated to be involved in those clinical improvements. Importantly, both o...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - April 25, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Treatment of type 2 diabetes by targeting interleukin-1: a meta-analysis of 2921 patients
AbstractWith obesity and type 2 diabetes prevalence steadily increasing and no effective means in sight to support the population in obtaining and maintaining stable weight loss, there is an imminent need for pharmacological therapy to treat and prevent type 2 diabetes. Current anti-diabetic treatment is symptomatic, and very few drugs have both a strong preclinical rationale and clinical proof-of-principle as therapies targeting pathogenic processes in type 2 diabetes. The emerging appreciation of low-grade inflammation as a significant cause of insulin resistance and beta cell failure warrants exploring anti-inflammatory...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - April 25, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The role of invariant T cells in inflammation of the skin and airways
AbstractInvariant and semi-invariant T cells are emerging as important regulators of host environment interactions at barrier tissues such as the airway and skin. In contrast to conventional T cells, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express T cell receptors of very limited diversity. iNKT and MAIT cells recognise antigens presented by the MHC class 1-like monomorphic molecules CD1d and MR1, respectively. Both iNKT cells and MAIT cells have been identified in the skin and airways and can rapidly produce cytokines after activation. Numerous studies have implicated iNKT c...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - April 15, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Islet inflammation in type 2 diabetes
AbstractMetabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes are associated with meta-inflammation. β-Cell failure is a major component of the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. It is now well established that increased numbers of innate immune cells, cytokines, and chemokines have detrimental effects on islets in these chronic conditions. Recently, evidence emerged which points to initially adapti ve and restorative functions of inflammatory factors and immune cells in metabolism. In the following review, we provide an overview on the features of islet inflammation in diabetes and models of prediabetes. We separately emphasize...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - April 15, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

CD8 + T cell exhaustion
AbstractCD8+ T cells are important for the protective immunity against intracellular pathogens and tumor. In the case of chronic infection or cancer, CD8+ T cells are exposed to persistent antigen and/or inflammatory signals. This excessive amount of signals often leads CD8+ T cells to gradual deterioration of T cell function, a state called “exhaustion.” Exhausted T cells are characterized by progressive loss of effector functions (cytokine production and killing function), expression of multiple inhibitory receptors (such as PD-1 and LAG3), dysregulated metabolism, poor memory recall response, and homeostatic...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - April 15, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The immunopathology of lung fibrosis: amphiregulin-producing pathogenic memory T helper-2 cells control the airway fibrotic responses by inducing eosinophils to secrete osteopontin
AbstractFibrosis is defined as excessive deposition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the parenchyma of various organs, and sometimes leads to irreversible organ malfunction such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a fatal disorder of the lung. Chronic inflammatory stimuli induce fibrotic responses in various organs. Various immune cells, including T helper (Th) cells in the lung, protect the host from different harmful particles, including pathogenic microorganisms. However, the dysregulation of the function of these immune cells in the lung sometimes causes inflammatory diseases, such as lung fibrosis. In this rev...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - April 9, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Regulation of T cell differentiation and function by epigenetic modification enzymes
AbstractPeripheral naive CD4+ and CD8+ cells are developed in the thymus and proliferate and differentiate into various specialized T cell subsets upon activation by peptide-major histocompatibility complexes in periphery to execute different functions during immune responses. Cytokines, transcription factors, and a large number of intracellular molecules have been shown to affect T cell development, activation, and function. In addition, epigenetic modifications, such as histone modification and DNA methylation, regulate T cell biology. The epigenetic modifications are regulated by a range of DNA methyltransferases, DNA d...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - April 8, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Role of innate immune cells in metabolism: from physiology to type 2 diabetes
Discussion will tackle pending questions and future perspectives in the field of immunometabolism. (Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - April 5, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Treg cells in autoimmunity: from identification to Treg-based therapies
AbstractRegulatory (Treg) cells are key regulators of inflammation and important for immune tolerance and homeostasis. A major progress has been made in the identification and classification of Treg cells. Due to technological advances, we have gained deep insights in the epigenetic regulation of Treg cells. The use of fate reporter mice allowed addressing the functional consequences of loss of Foxp3 expression. Depending on the environment Treg cells gain effector functions upon loss of Foxp3 expression. However, the traditional view that Treg cells become necessarily pathogenic by gaining effector functions was challenge...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - April 5, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

A new therapeutic target: the CD69-Myl9 system in immune responses
AbstractCD69 is an activation marker on leukocytes. Early studies showed that the CD69+ cells were detected in the lung of patients with asthmatic and eosinophilic pneumonia, suggesting that CD69 might play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of such inflammatory diseases, rather than simply being an activation marker. Intensive studies using mouse models have since clarified that CD69 is a functional molecule regulating the immune responses. We discovered that Myosin light chain 9, 12a, 12b (Myl9/12) are ligands for CD69 and that platelet-derived Myl9 forms a net-like structure (Myl9 nets) that is strongly detected inside b...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - April 5, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The pathogenicity of Th17 cells in autoimmune diseases
AbstractIL-17-producing T helper (Th17) cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Targeting the effector cytokines IL-17 and GM-CSF secreted by autoimmune Th17 cells has been shown to be effective for the treatment of the diseases. Understanding a molecular basis of Th17 differentiation and effector functions is therefore critical for the regulation of the pathogenicity of tissue Th17 cells in chronic inflammation. Here, we discuss the roles of proinflammatory cytokines and environmental stimuli in the control of Th17 differentiation and chronic tissue inflammation by path...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - March 19, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Epigenetic regulation of T helper cells and intestinal pathogenicity
AbstractInflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are characterized by relapsing and remitting chronic intestinal inflammation. Previous studies have demonstrated the contributions of genetic background, environmental factors (food, microbiota, use of antibiotics), and host immunity in the development of IBDs. More than 200 genes have been shown to influence IBD susceptibility, most of which are involved in immunity. The vertebrate immune system comprises a complex network of innate and adaptive immune cells that protect the host from infection and cancer. Dysregulation of the mutualistic relationship between the immune system an...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - March 19, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Subclinical inflammation and depressive symptoms in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes
AbstractDepression is a frequent comorbidity of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Depression and diabetes are linked by a bidirectional relationship, but the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Experimental, observational and intervention studies showed that inflammatory processes contribute to the development of depression in animal models and humans. Given the high risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with the double burden of diabetes and depression, this review provides an overview of epidemiological studies that addressed the relationship between biomarkers of inflammation an...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 18, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Sex differences in immunity
(Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 11, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Correction to: Potential importance of B cells in aging and aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases
The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes. Two references were given incorrectly (under number 40 and 41). (Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - January 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Sex differences in vaccine-induced humoral immunity
AbstractVaccines are among the most impactful public health interventions, preventing millions of new infections and deaths annually worldwide. However, emerging data suggest that vaccines may not protect all populations equally. Specifically, studies analyzing variation in vaccine-induced immunity have pointed to the critical impact of genetics, the environment, nutrition, the microbiome, and sex in influencing vaccine responsiveness. The significant contribution of sex to modulating vaccine-induced immunity has gained attention over the last years. Specifically, females typically develop higher antibody responses and exp...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - December 13, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Sexual dimorphism in hepatitis B and C and hepatocellular carcinoma
AbstractThe incidence of viral hepatitis B or C (HBV/HCV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma is higher in male compared to female populations, showing a faster disease progression and results in a worse overall survival. Indeed, women are in general better protected from viral infections and show a lower risk of death from malignant cancer in comparison to men. Females mount stronger innate and adaptive immune responses than males, and therefore, most of the autoimmune diseases occur predominantly in females. Next to occupational and/or behavioral factors, cellular and molecular differences between the two sexes contri...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - November 29, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Homage to Mechnikov – the phagocytic system: past and present
(Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - November 1, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Developing combination strategies using PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors to treat cancer
AbstractMore than 3000 clinical trials are evaluating the clinical activity of the PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors as monotherapies and in combinations with other cancer therapies [1]. The PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors are remarkable for their clinical activities in shrinking tumors across a wide range of tumor types, in causing durable responses, and in their tolerability. These attributes position them as favorable agents in clinical combinations. Historically, approaches to cancer therapy combinations focused on agents with orthogonal activities to avoid shared resistance mechanisms and shared toxicities. Although CTLA-4/PD-1 c...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 29, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Sex differences in tuberculosis
AbstractTuberculosis is the most prevalent bacterial infectious disease in humans and the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, ranking above HIV/AIDS. The causative agent,Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is carried by an estimated two billion people globally and claims more than 1.5 million lives each year. Tuberculosis rates are significantly higher in men than in women, reflected by a male-to-female ratio for worldwide case notifications of 1.7. This phenomenon is not new and has been reported in various countries and settings over the last century. However, the reasons for the observed gender bias are not c...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 25, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Off-the-shelf cell therapy with induced pluripotent stem cell-derived natural killer cells
AbstractCell therapy is emerging as a very promising therapeutic modality against cancer, spearheaded by the clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells for B cell malignancies. Currently, FDA-approved CAR-T cell products are based on engineering of autologous T cells harvested from the patient, typically using a central manufacturing facility for gene editing before the product can be delivered to the clinic and infused to the patients. For a broader implementation of advanced cell therapy and to reduce costs, it would be advantageous to use allogeneic “universal” cell therapy products...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 25, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Sexual dimorphism in solid and hematological malignancies
AbstractCancer represents a leading cause of death with continuously increasing incidence worldwide. Many solid cancer types in non-reproductive organs are significantly more frequent and deadly in males compared to females. This sex-biased difference is also present in hematologic malignancies. In this review, we present an overview about sex differences in cancer with a focus on leukemia. We discuss mechanisms potentially underlying the observed sex-biased imbalance in cancer incidence and outcome including sex hormones, sex chromosomes, and immune responses. Besides affecting the pathobiology of cancers, sex differences...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 25, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Sex differences in autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system
AbstractStronger adaptive immune responses in females can be observed in different mammals, resulting in better control of infections compared to males. However, this presumably evolutionary difference likely also drives higher incidence of autoimmune diseases observed in humans. Here, we summarize sex differences in the most common autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and discuss recent advances in the understanding of possible underlying immunological and CNS intrinsic mechanisms. In multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common inflammatory disease of the CNS, but also in rarer conditions, such as neuromye...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 25, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Androgen-dependent immune modulation in parasitic infection
AbstractParasitic infections modulate the immune system of the host, resulting in either immune tolerance or the induction of pro-inflammatory defense mechanisms against the pathogen. In both cases, sex hormones are involved in the regulation of the immune response, as they are present in the systemic circulation and can act on a wide variety of cell types, including immune cells. Men and women have a different milieu of sex hormones, and these hormones play a role in determining immune responses to parasitic infections. Men, who have higher plasma levels of androgens than women, are generally more susceptible to parasitic...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 23, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

A scavenging system against internal pathogens promoted by the circulating protein apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM)
AbstractAn internal system designed to ward off and remove unnecessary or hazardous materials is intrinsic to animals. In addition to exogenous pathogens, a number of self-molecules, such as apoptotic or necrotic dead cells, their debris, and the oxides or peroxides of their cellular components, are recognized as extraneous substances. It is essential to eliminate these internal pathogens as quickly as possible because their accumulation can cause chronic inflammation as well as autoimmune responses, possibly leading to onset or progression of certain diseases. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM, also called CD5L) is a...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 11, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Macrophage-microbe interaction: lessons learned from the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis
AbstractMacrophages, being the cornerstone of the immune system, have adapted the ancient nutrient acquisition mechanism of phagocytosis to engulf various infectious organisms thereby helping to orchestrate an appropriate host response. Phagocytosis refers to the process of internalization and degradation of particulate material, damaged and senescent cells and microorganisms by specialized cells, after which the vesicle containing the ingested particle, the phagosome, matures into acidic phagolysosomes upon fusion with hydrolytic enzyme-containing lysosomes. The destructive power of the macrophage is further exacerbated t...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 10, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Developmental origin and sex-specific risk for infections and immune diseases later in life
AbstractThe intrauterine environment is an important determinant of immunity later in life of the offspring. An altered prenatal immune development can result in a high postnatal risk for infections, chronic immune diseases, and autoimmunity. Many of these immune diseases show a strong sex bias, such as a high incidence of autoimmune diseases and allergies in adult females or a high risk for infections in males. Here, we comprehensively review established pathways and propose novel concepts modulating the risk for such poor immunity during childhood and throughout life. Moreover, we highlight how an adverse fetal environme...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 8, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The microgenderome revealed: sex differences in bidirectional interactions between the microbiota, hormones, immunity and disease susceptibility
AbstractSex differences in immunity are well described in the literature and thought to be mainly driven by sex hormones and sex-linked immune response genes. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is one of the largest immune organs in the body and contains multiple immune cells in the GIT-associated lymphoid tissue, Peyer ’s patches and elsewhere, which together have profound effects on local and systemic inflammation. The GIT is colonised with microbial communities composed of bacteria, fungi and viruses, collectively known as the GIT microbiota. The GIT microbiota drives multiple interactions locally with immune cells ...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 8, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Sex and sex steroids impact influenza pathogenesis across the life course
AbstractMales and females differ in the outcome of influenza A virus (IAV) infections, which depends significantly on age. During a typical seasonal influenza epidemic, young children (
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 8, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Female predisposition to TLR7-driven autoimmunity: gene dosage and the escape from X chromosome inactivation
AbstractWomen develop stronger immune responses than men, with positive effects on the resistance to viral or bacterial infections but magnifying also the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In SLE, the dosage of the endosomal Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is crucial. Murine models have shown that TLR7 overexpression suffices to induce spontaneous lupus-like disease. Conversely, suppressing TLR7 in lupus-prone mice abolishes SLE development. TLR7 is encoded by a gene on the X chromosome gene, denotedTLR7 in humans andTlr7 in the mouse, and expressed in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 1, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Sex-related factors in autoimmune liver diseases
AbstractAutoimmune diseases are a broad range of diseases in which the immune system produces an inappropriate response to self-antigens. This results in inflammation, damage, or dysfunction of tissues and/or organs. Many autoimmune diseases are more common in women and differences between female and male immune and autoimmune responses have been well documented. In general, most of the autoimmune diseases seem to affect more females, although there are exceptions. Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are considered to be autoimmune liver diseases (AILD). T...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 1, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Sexual dimorphism in HIV-1 infection
AbstractSex-specific differences affecting various aspects of HIV-1 infection have been reported, including differences in susceptibility to infection, course of HIV-1 disease, and establishment of viral reservoirs. Once infected, initial plasma levels of HIV-1 viremia in women are lower compared to men while the rates of progression to AIDS are similar. Factors contributing to these sex differences are poorly understood, and range from anatomical differences and differential expression of sex hormones to differences in immune responses, the microbiome and socio-economic discrepancies, all of which may impact HIV-1 acquisi...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 1, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Female predisposition to TLR7-driven autoimmunity: gene dosage and the escape from X chromosome inactivation
AbstractWomen develop stronger immune responses than men, with positive effects on the resistance to viral or bacterial infections but magnifying also the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In SLE, the dosage of the endosomal Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is crucial. Murine models have shown that TLR7 overexpression suffices to induce spontaneous lupus-like disease. Conversely, suppressing TLR7 in lupus-prone mice abolishes SLE development. TLR7 is encoded by a gene on the X chromosome gene, denotedTLR7 in humans andTlr7 in the mouse, and expressed in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 1, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Sex-related factors in autoimmune liver diseases
AbstractAutoimmune diseases are a broad range of diseases in which the immune system produces an inappropriate response to self-antigens. This results in inflammation, damage, or dysfunction of tissues and/or organs. Many autoimmune diseases are more common in women and differences between female and male immune and autoimmune responses have been well documented. In general, most of the autoimmune diseases seem to affect more females, although there are exceptions. Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are considered to be autoimmune liver diseases (AILD). T...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 1, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Sexual dimorphism in HIV-1 infection
AbstractSex-specific differences affecting various aspects of HIV-1 infection have been reported, including differences in susceptibility to infection, course of HIV-1 disease, and establishment of viral reservoirs. Once infected, initial plasma levels of HIV-1 viremia in women are lower compared to men while the rates of progression to AIDS are similar. Factors contributing to these sex differences are poorly understood, and range from anatomical differences and differential expression of sex hormones to differences in immune responses, the microbiome and socio-economic discrepancies, all of which may impact HIV-1 acquisi...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 1, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Anti-cancer immunotherapy: breakthroughs and future strategies
(Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - September 21, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Correction to: Complement in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer ’s disease
The presentation of Fig.  2 was incorrect. (Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - September 21, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Anti-cancer immunotherapy: breakthroughs and future strategies
(Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - September 21, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Correction to: Complement in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer ’s disease
The presentation of Fig.  2 was incorrect. (Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - September 21, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

IgA nephropathy: clearance kinetics of IgA-containing immune complexes
AbstractIgA nephropathy (IgAN) is associated predominantly IgA deposition in the affected glomeruli and has been shown to be the most common glomerular disorder among young people in the world. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism underlying IgAN remains largely unknown, circulating IgA-containing immune complexes (IgA ICs) is considered to play a major role in initiating the development and evolution of the renal disorder. In this review article, we discuss the fundamental mechanisms of clearance kinetics of IgA ICs and related issues, covering the following: (1) role of circulating IgA ICs in the pathogenesis of IgAN ...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - September 14, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research