Neuro-immune interactions
(Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - December 1, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Inborn errors of thymic stromal cell development and function
AbstractAs the primary site for T cell development, the thymus is responsible for the production and selection of a functional, yet self-tolerant T cell repertoire. This critically depends on thymic stromal cells, derived from the pharyngeal apparatus during embryogenesis. Thymic epithelial cells, mesenchymal and vascular elements together form the unique and highly specialised microenvironment required to support all aspects of thymopoiesis and T cell central tolerance induction. Although rare, inborn errors of thymic stromal cells constitute a clinically important group of conditions because their immunological consequen...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - November 30, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Control of immunity by glucocorticoids in health and disease
AbstractAnimals receive environmental stimuli from neural signals in order to produce hormones that control immune responses. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a group of steroid hormones produced in the adrenal cortex and well-known mediators for the nervous and immune systems. GC secretion is induced by circadian rhythm and stress, and plasma GC levels are high at the active phase of animals and under stress condition. Clinically, GCs are used for allergies, autoimmunity, and chronic inflammation, because they have strong anti-inflammatory effects and induce the apoptosis of lymphocytes. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) acts as a tr...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - November 20, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Adrenergic regulation of immune cell function and inflammation
AbstractThe sympathetic nervous system integrates the functions of multiple organ systems by regulating their autonomic physiological activities. The immune system is regulated both locally and systemically by the neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine secreted by the adrenal gland and local sympathetic neurons. Immune cells respond by activation of adrenergic receptors, primarily the β2-adrenergic receptor, which signal through heterotrimeric G-proteins. Depending upon the cell type, adrenergic signaling regulates a variety of functions in immune cells ranging from cellular migration to cytokine secretion. ...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - November 20, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The untwining of immunosenescence and aging
AbstractFrom a holistic point of view, aging results from the cumulative erosion of the various systems. Among these, the immune system is interconnected to the rest as immune cells are present in all organs and recirculate through bloodstream. Immunosenescence is the term used to define the remodelling of immune changes during aging. Because immune cells —and particularly lymphocytes—can further differentiate after their maturation in response to pathogen recognition, it is therefore unclear when senescence is induced in these cells. Additionally, it is also unclear which signals triggers senescence in immune ...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - November 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Shelter from the cytokine storm: pitfalls and prospects in the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for an elderly population
AbstractThe SARS-CoV-2 pandemic urgently calls for the development of effective preventive tools. COVID-19 hits greatly the elder and more fragile fraction of the population boosting the evergreen issue of the vaccination of older people. The development of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 tailored for the elderly population faces the challenge of the poor immune responsiveness of the older population due to immunosenescence, comorbidities, and pharmacological treatments. Moreover, it is likely that the inflammaging phenotype associated with age could both influence vaccination efficacy and exacerbate the risk of COVID-19-rela...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - November 6, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The contribution of thymic tolerance to central nervous system autoimmunity
AbstractAutoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with high levels of morbidity and economic cost. Research efforts have previously focused on the contribution of the peripheral adaptive and innate immune systems to CNS autoimmunity. However, a failure of thymic negative selection is a necessary step in CNS-reactive T cells escaping into the periphery. Even with defective thymic or peripheral tolerance, the development of CNS inflammation is rare. The reasons underlying this are currently poorly understood. In this review, we examine evidence implicating thymic selection in the pathogenesis of ...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 27, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Brain aging and garbage cleaning
AbstractBrain aging is a complex process involving many functions of our body and described by the interplay of a sleep pattern and changes in the metabolic waste concentration regulated by the microglial function and the glymphatic system. We review the existing modelling approaches to this topic and derive a novel mathematical model to describe the crosstalk between these components within the conceptual framework of inflammaging. Analysis of the model gives insight into the dynamics of garbage concentration and linked microglial senescence process resulting from a normal or disrupted sleep pattern, hence, explaining an ...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Interactions among microbes, the immune system, and the circadian clock
AbstractThe circadian clock couples physiological processes and behaviors to environmental light cycles. This coupling ensures the synchronization of energetically expensive processes to the time of day at which an organism is most active, thus improving overall fitness. Host immunity is an energetically intensive process that requires the coordination of multiple immune cell types to sense, communicate, and respond to a variety of microorganisms. Interestingly the circadian clock entrains immune cell development, function, and trafficking to environmental light cycles. This entrainment results in the variation of host sus...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The complex relationship between Immunosenescence and Inflammaging: Special issue on the New Biomedical Perspectives
(Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - October 1, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Involvement of dopaminergic signaling in the cross talk between the renin-angiotensin system and inflammation
AbstractThe renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a fundamental regulator of blood pressure and has emerged as an important player in the control of inflammatory processes. Accordingly, imbalance on RAS components either systemically or locally might trigger the development of inflammatory disorders by affecting immune cells. At the same time, alterations in the dopaminergic system have been consistently involved in the physiopathology of inflammatory disorders. Accordingly, the interaction between the RAS and the dopaminergic system has been studied in the context of inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS), kidney, a...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - September 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Microbiomes other than the gut: inflammaging and age-related diseases
AbstractDuring the course of evolution, bacteria have developed an intimate relationship with humans colonizing specific body sites at the interface with the body exterior and invaginations such as nose, mouth, lung, gut, vagina, genito-urinary tract, and skin and thus constituting an integrated meta-organism. The final result has been a mutual adaptation and functional integration which confers significant advantages to humans and bacteria. The immune system of the host co-evolved with the microbiota to develop complex mechanisms to recognize and destroy invading microbes, while preserving its own bacteria. Composition an...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - September 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Stress reduction strategies in breast cancer: review of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic based strategies
AbstractBreast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. It is associated with multiple symptoms in both patients and caregivers, such as stress, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, and fatigue. Stress appears to promote cancer progression via activation of the sympathetic nervous system releasing epinephrine and norepinephrine as well as activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis releasing cortisol. These stress hormones have been shown to promote the proliferation of cancer cells. This review focuses on stress-reducing strategies which may decrease cancer progression by abrogating these pathways, wi...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - September 17, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Immunosenescence is both functional/adaptive and dysfunctional/maladaptive
AbstractAlterations in the immune system with aging are considered to underlie many age-related diseases. However, many elderly individuals remain healthy until even a very advanced age. There is also an increase in numbers of centenarians and their apparent fitness. We should therefore change our unilaterally detrimental consideration of age-related immune changes. Recent data taking into consideration the immunobiography concept may allow for meaningful distinctions among various aging trajectories. This implies that the aging immune system has a homeodynamic characteristic balanced between adaptive and maladaptive aspec...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - September 14, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of preterm birth: bidirectional inflammation in mother and fetus
AbstractPreterm birth (PTB) complicates 5 –18% of pregnancies globally and is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Most PTB is spontaneous and idiopathic, with largely undefined causes. To increase understanding of PTB, much research in recent years has focused on using animal models to recapitulate the pathophys iology of PTB. Dysfunctions of maternal immune adaptations have been implicated in a range of pregnancy pathologies, including PTB. A wealth of evidence arising from mouse models as well as human studies is now available to support that PTB results from a breakdown in fetal-maternal...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - September 6, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

From structural modalities in perinatal medicine to the frequency of preterm birth
AbstractPreterm birth is a global health problem that affects 11% of all live births: it remains a significant cause of death and an important cause of long-term loss of human potential among survivors all around the world. In the last decade, many developed countries have seen an increase in the rate of infants born preterm. Various theoretical and practical concepts have been discussed that aim to optimize the perinatal care of preterm infants and their mothers. These include the definition of hospitals with different levels of care, the regionalization of care, the creation of large care units with high case numbers, an...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The pregnancy microbiome and preterm birth
AbstractPreterm birth is a global health concern and continues to contribute to substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality despite advances in obstetric and neonatal care. The underlying aetiology is multi-factorial and remains incompletely understood. In this review, the complex interplay between the vaginal microbiome in pregnancy and its association with preterm birth is discussed in depth. Advances in the study of bacteriology and an improved understanding of the human microbiome have seen an improved awareness of the vaginal microbiota in both health and in disease. (Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Foetal therapies and their influence on preterm birth
AbstractFoetal therapy aims to improve perinatal survival or to prevent severe long-term handicap. Foetal medicine opens a new territory by treating the foetus as a patient. The mother has nothing to gain in terms of health benefits, yet she is inherently also undergoing treatment. In utero foetal interventions can be divided into ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures, fetoscopic procedures and open hysterotomy procedures, which carry an inherent risk of ruptured membranes and preterm birth. In this review, we summarise the conditions that may benefit from foetal therapy and review the current therapies on offer,...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - August 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Novel pathways of inflammation in human fetal membranes associated with preterm birth and preterm pre-labor rupture of the membranes
AbstractSpontaneous preterm birth (PTB) and preterm pre-labor rupture of the membranes (pPROM) are major pregnancy complications. Although PTB and pPROM have common etiologies, they arise from distinct pathophysiologic pathways. Inflammation is a common underlying mechanism in both conditions. Balanced inflammation is required for fetoplacental growth; however, overwhelming inflammation (physiologic at term and pathologic at preterm) can lead to term and preterm parturition. A lack of effective strategies to control inflammation and reduce the risk of PTB and pPROM suggests that there are several modes of the generation of...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - August 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Adipose tissue, immune aging, and cellular senescence
AbstractObesity represents a serious health problem as it is rapidly increasing worldwide. Obesity is associated with reduced healthspan and lifespan, decreased responses to infections and vaccination, and increased frequency of inflammatory conditions typical of old age. Obesity is characterized by increased fat mass and remodeling of the adipose tissue (AT). In this review, we summarize published data on the different types of AT present in mice and humans, and their roles as fat storage as well as endocrine and immune tissues. We review the age-induced changes, including those in the distribution of fat in the body, in ...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - August 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Mitochondria, immunosenescence and inflammaging: a role for mitokines?
AbstractA global reshaping of the immune responses occurs with ageing, indicated as immunosenescence, where mitochondria and mitochondrial metabolism play an important role. However, much less is known about the role of mitochondrial stress response in this reshaping and in particular of the molecules induced by such response, collectively indicated as mitokines. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of mitokines in modulating immune response and inflammation focusing on GDF15, FGF21 and humanin and their possible involvement in the chronic age-related low-grade inflammation dubbed inflammaging. Al...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - August 4, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The human immunosenescence phenotype: does it exist?
Abstract“Immunosenescence” has been invoked as the root cause of increased incidence and severity of infectious disease in older adults and their poorer response to vaccination, and is implicated in increased solid cancers and increased autoimmunity with age. But how to define it in the individual and t o show that immunosenescence is responsible for these adverse health outcomes? How can we monitor interventions aimed at restoring appropriate immune function to overcome these perceived immune deficits? Hence, the many efforts over the years aimed at establishing biomarkers of immunosenescence whic h to be usef...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - August 4, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The interplay between immunosenescence and age-related diseases
AbstractThe aging immune system (immunosenescence) has been implicated with increased morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Of note, T cell aging and low-grade inflammation (inflammaging) are implicated with several age-related conditions. The expansion of late-differentiated T cells (CD28−), regulatory T cells, increased serum levels of autoantibodies, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were implicated with morbidities during aging. Features of accelerated immunosenescence can be identified in adults with chronic inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, and are predictive of poor clinical outcomes. There...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - August 2, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Preterm birth: pathogenesis and clinical consequences revisited
(Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - July 31, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Down syndrome, accelerated aging and immunosenescence
AbstractDown syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder, associated with moderate to severe intellectual disability. While life expectancy of Down syndrome population has greatly increased over the last decades, mortality rates are still high and subjects are facing prematurely a phenomenon of atypical and accelerated aging. The presence of an immune impairment in Down syndrome subjects is suggested for a long time by the existence of an increased incidence of infections, the incomplete efficacy of vaccinations, and a high prevalence of autoimmunity. Immunologic abnormalities have been described since many years in t...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - July 22, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Preterm birth and sustained inflammation: consequences for the neonate
AbstractAlmost half of all preterm births are caused or triggered by an inflammatory process at the feto-maternal interface resulting in preterm labor or rupture of membranes with or without chorioamnionitis ( “first inflammatory hit”). Preterm babies have highly vulnerable body surfaces and immature organ systems. They are postnatally confronted with a drastically altered antigen exposure including hospital-specific microbes, artificial devices, drugs, nutritional antigens, and hypoxia or hyperoxia ( “second inflammatory hit”). This is of particular importance to extremely preterm infants born befo...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - July 12, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

In Memoriam: Peter A. Miescher, 1923 –2020
(Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - June 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Role of galectin-glycan circuits in reproduction: from healthy pregnancy to preterm birth (PTB)
We describe the current understanding of galectins in term and preterm labor and discuss how the galectin-glycan circuits contribute to key immunological pathways sustaining maternal tolerance and preventing microbial infections. A deeper understanding of the glycoimmune pathways regulating early events in preterm birth could offer the broader translational potential for the treatment of this devastating syndrome. (Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - June 28, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Evolving cervical imaging technologies to predict preterm birth
AbstractPreterm birth, defined as delivery at less than 37  weeks’ gestation, increases maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality and places heavy financial and emotional burdens on families and society. Although premature cervical remodeling is a major factor in many preterm deliveries, how and why this occurs is poorly understood. This review describes ex isting and emerging imaging techniques and their advantages and disadvantages in assessing cervical remodeling. Brightness mode (B-mode) ultrasound is used to measure the cervical length, currently the gold standard for determining risk of preterm birth. Several...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - June 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Immunometabolism: new insights and lessons from antigen-directed cellular immune responses
AbstractModulation of immune responses by nutrients is an important area of study in cellular biology and clinical sciences in the context of cancer therapies and anti-pathogen-directed immune responses in health and disease. We review metabolic pathways that influence immune cell function and cellular persistence in chronic infections. We also highlight the role of nutrients in altering the tissue microenvironment with lessons from the tumor microenvironment that shapes the quality and quantity of cellular immune responses. Multiple layers of biological networks, including the nature of nutritional supplements, the geneti...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - June 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Correction to: Schistosomiasis —from immunopathology to vaccines
The original version of this article inadvertently missed out to display the correct acknowledgement for Fig.  2. The corrected part of legend of Fig. 2 is given below. (Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - June 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Introduction: immunopathology of unresolved tropical diseases
(Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - May 31, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Infection-induced epigenetic changes and their impact on the pathogenesis of diseases
(Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - March 31, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Epigenetic lifestyle of Epstein-Barr virus
AbstractEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a model of herpesvirus latency and epigenetic changes. The virus preferentially infects human B-lymphocytes (and also other cell types) but does not turn them straight into virus factories. Instead, it establishes a strictly latent infection in them and concomitantly induces the activation and proliferation of infected B cells. How the virus establishes latency in its target cells is only partially understood, but its latent state has been studied intensively by many. During latency, several copies of the viral genome are maintained as minichromosomes in the nucleus. In latently infected...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - March 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Epigenetic control in Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection and associated disease
AbstractKaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of several malignancies of endothelial and B-cell origin. The fact that latently infected tumor cells in these malignancies do not express classical viral oncogenes suggests that pathogenesis of KSHV-associated disease results from multistep processes that, in addition to constitutive viral gene expression, may require accumulation of cellular alterations. Heritable changes of the epigenome have emerged as an important co-factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of many non-viral cancers. Since KSHV encodes a number of factors that directly or i...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - March 25, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Correction to: Lung functional development and asthma trajectories
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The given names and family names of all authors were switched in the original publication. (Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - March 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Towards new TB vaccines
AbstractMycobacterium tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death attributed to a single infectious organism. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the standard vaccine againstM. tuberculosis, is thought to prevent only 5% of all vaccine-preventable deaths due to tuberculosis, thus an alternative vaccine is required. One of the principal barriers to vaccine development againstM. tuberculosis is the complexity of the immune response to infection, with uncertainty as to what constitutes an immunological correlate of protection. In this paper, we seek to give an overview of the immunology ofM. tuberculosis infection, and by doi...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - March 17, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Implications of asymptomatic infection for the natural history of selected parasitic tropical diseases
AbstractProgress has been made in the control or elimination of tropical diseases, with a significant reduction of incidence. However, there is a risk of re-emergence if the factors fueling transmission are not dealt with. Although it is essential to understand these underlying factors for each disease, asymptomatic carriers are a common element that may promote resurgence; their impact in terms of proportion in the population and role in transmission needs to be determined. In this paper, we review the current evidence on whether or not to treat asymptomatic carriers given the relevance of their role in the transmission o...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - March 17, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Epigenetic modulation in chronic hepatitis B virus infection
AbstractThe human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small-enveloped DNA virus causing acute and chronic hepatitis. Despite the existence of an effective prophylactic vaccine and the strong capacity of approved antiviral drugs to suppress viral replication, chronic HBV infection (CHB) continues to be a major health burden worldwide. Both the inability of the immune system to resolve CHB and the unique replication strategy employed by HBV, which forms a stable viral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) minichromosome in the hepatocyte nucleus, enable infection persistence. Knowledge of the complex network of interactions that ...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - March 16, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Leishmaniasis immunopathology —impact on design and use of vaccines, diagnostics and drugs
AbstractLeishmaniasis is a disease complex caused by 20 species of protozoan parasites belonging to the genusLeishmania. In humans, it has two main clinical forms, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous or tegumentary leishmaniasis (CL), as well as several other cutaneous manifestations in a minority of cases. In the mammalian hostLeishmania parasites infect different populations of macrophages where they multiply and survive in the phagolysosomal compartment. The progression of both VL and CL depends on the maintenance of a parasite-specific immunosuppressive state based around this host macrophage infection. The compl...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - March 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The immunology of other mycobacteria: M. ulcerans , M. leprae
AbstractMycobacterial pathogens can be categorized into three broad groups:Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex causing tuberculosis,M. leprae andM. lepromatosis causing leprosy, and atypical mycobacteria, or non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), responsible for a wide range of diseases. Among the NTMs,M. ulcerans is responsible for the neglected tropical skin disease Buruli ulcer (BU). Most pathogenic mycobacteria, includingM. leprae, evade effector mechanisms of the humoral immune system by hiding and replicating inside host cells and are furthermore excellent modulators of host immune responses. In contrast,M. ulcerans repl...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Human unconventional T cells in Plasmodium falciparum infection
AbstractMalaria is an old scourge of humankind and has a large negative impact on the economic development of affected communities. Recent success in malaria control and reduction of mortality seems to have stalled emphasizing that our current intervention tools need to be complemented by malaria vaccines. Different populations of unconventional T cells such as mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and γδ T cells are gaining attention in the field of malaria immunology. Significant advances in our basic understanding of unconventional T cell biology in rodent malar...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 18, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Schistosomiasis —from immunopathology to vaccines
AbstractSchistosomiasis (bilharzia) is a neglected tropical disease caused by trematode worms of the genusSchistosoma. The transmission cycle involves human (or other mammalian) water contact with surface water contaminated by faeces or urine, as well as specific freshwater snails acting as intermediate hosts. The main disease-causing species areS. haematobium,S. mansoni andS. japonicum. According to the World Health Organisation, over 250 million people are infected worldwide, leading to considerable morbidity and the estimated loss of 1.9 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), a likely underestimated figure. Sch...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 18, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Dysbiosis of the gut and lung microbiome has a role in asthma
AbstractWorldwide 300 million children and adults are affected by asthma. The development of asthma is influenced by environmental and other exogenous factors synergizing with genetic predisposition, and shaping the lung microbiome especially during birth and in very early life. The healthy lung microbial composition is characterized by a prevalence of bacteria belonging to the phylaBacteroidetes,Actinobacteria, andFirmicutes. However, viral respiratory infections are associated with an abundance ofProteobacteria with generaHaemophilus andMoraxella in young children and adult asthmatics. This dysbiosis supports the activat...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 17, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Recent findings in the genetics and epigenetics of asthma and allergy
AbstractIn asthma and allergy genetics, a trend towards a few main topics developed over the last 2  years. First, a number of studies have been published recently which focus on overlapping and/or very specific phenotypes: within the allergy spectrum but also reaching beyond, looking for common genetic traits shared between different diseases or disease entities. Secondly, an urgently needed foc us has been put on asthma and allergy genetics in populations genetically different from European ancestry. This acknowledges that the majority of new asthma patients today are not white and asthma is a truly worldwide diseas...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Epigenetic crosstalk in chronic infection with HIV-1
AbstractHuman immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) replicates through the integration of its viral DNA into the genome of human immune target cells. Chronically infected individuals thus carry a genomic burden of virus-derived sequences that persists through antiretroviral therapy. This burden consists of a small fraction of intact, but transcriptionally silenced, i.e. latent, viral genomes and a dominant fraction of defective sequences. Remarkably, all viral-derived sequences are subject to interaction with host cellular physiology at various levels. In this review, we focus on epigenetic aspects of this interaction. We provi...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Revealing eukaryotic histone-modifying mechanisms through bacterial infection
AbstractIn the long co-evolution of host-pathogen interaction, bacteria have developed sophisticated strategies to manipulate host cell mechanisms and reprogram host transcription. Targeting chromatin, mainly through post-translational modification (PTM) of histone proteins, is one strategy that has been revealed over the last decade. Indeed, histone modifications play a crucial role in regulating transcription during cell type and stimulus specific responses, making them good targets during infection. Therefore, the study of host-pathogen interactions provides breakthroughs in understanding virulence mechanisms, but also ...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 3, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Asthma epidemiology and risk factors
This article will review recent trends in the prevalence of asthma and recent studies that investigate risk factors of asthma. (Source: Seminars in Immunopathology)
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 3, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Modulating local airway immune responses to treat allergic asthma: lessons from experimental models and human studies
AbstractWith asthma affecting over 300 million individuals world-wide and estimated to affect 400 million by 2025, developing effective, long-lasting therapeutics is essential. Allergic asthma, where Th2-type immunity plays a central role, represents 90% of child and 50% of adult asthma cases. Research based largely on animal models of allergic disease have led to the generation of a novel class of drugs, so-called biologicals, that target essential components of Th2-type inflammation. Although highly efficient in subclasses of patients, these biologicals and other existing medication only target the symptomatic stage of a...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 3, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Multiomic immune clockworks of pregnancy
AbstractPreterm birth is the leading cause of mortality in children under the age of five worldwide. Despite major efforts, we still lack the ability to accurately predict and effectively prevent preterm birth. While multiple factors contribute to preterm labor, dysregulations of immunological adaptations required for the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy is at its pathophysiological core. Consequently, a precise understanding of these chronologically paced immune adaptations and of the biological pacemakers that synchronize the pregnancy “immune clock” is a critical first step towards identifying deviations t...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - February 3, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research