Construct Validity of Two Different Methods of Scoring and Performing Push-ups
Clemons, J. Construct validity of two different methods of scoring and performing push-ups. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 2971–2980, 2019—The purpose of this investigation was to determine the construct validity of the standard push-ups (STPUs) and hand-release push-ups (HRPUs) by comparing them to the criterion measures of absolute strength (i.e., 1 repetition maximum [RM] bench press [BP]) and relative strength (1RM·body mass−1). Thirty-one, college-age males were recruited for the study. The HRPU was performed by lifting the palms from the floor between each push-up (PU), whereas the STPU only req...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - October 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Validity of Combination Use of Activity Record and Accelerometry to Measure Free-Living Total Energy Expenditure in Female Endurance Runners
Yoshida, A, Ishikawa-Takata, K, Tanaka, S, Suzuki, N, Nakae, S, Murata, H, Taguchi, M, and Higuchi, M. Validity of combination use of activity record and accelerometry to measure free-living total energy expenditure in female endurance runners. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 2962–2970, 2019—Herein, we attempted to prove the validity of a new approach to assessing total energy expenditure (TEE) that combines activity recording and accelerometry in athletes. Eight female endurance runners participated in this study. We measured TEE over 8 days in the regular training season by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) me...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - October 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Assessing Asymmetries in Change of Direction Speed Performance: Application of Change of Direction Deficit
Dos'Santos, T, Thomas, C, Jones, PA, and Comfort, P. Assessing asymmetries in change of direction speed performance; application of change of direction deficit. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 2953–2961, 2019—The aims of this study were to quantify asymmetries in change of direction (COD) performance using completion time and COD deficit, and determine its influence on asymmetry profiling of COD ability. A secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship between linear speed, 505 time, and COD deficit. Forty-three youth netball athletes (age: 15.4 ± 1.1 years, height: 1.71 ± 0.06 m, and mass: 63.3 &plus...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - October 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Comparison of Psychological and Physiological Responses to Imposed vs. Self-selected High-Intensity Interval Training
This study compared physiological and perceptual responses between imposed and self-selected HIIE. Fourteen adults (age = 24 ± 3 years) unfamiliar with HIIE initially performed ramp exercise to exhaustion to measure maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) followed by 2 subsequent sessions whose order was randomized. Imposed HIIE consisted of eight 60 seconds bouts at 80 percent peak power output (%PPO) separated by 60 seconds recovery at 10 %PPO. Self-selected HIIE (HIIESS) followed the same structure, but participants freely selected intensity in increments of 10 %PPO to achieve a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) ≥7. D...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - October 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Influence of Power Clean Ability and Training Age on Adaptations to Weightlifting-Style Training
James, LP, Comfort, P, Suchomel, TJ, Kelly, VG, Beckman, EM, and Haff, GG. Influence of power clean ability and training age on adaptations to weightlifting-style training. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 2936–2944, 2019—The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether weightlifting actions are a viable method for improving athletic performance among weaker, inexperienced lifters when compared with individuals with a greater power clean (PC) result, and hence weightlifting ability and experience. Two groups of males with distinctly different PC performances (higher performance [HP]: N = 8; body mass [BM] ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - October 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Intrasession and Intersession Reliability of Countermovement Jump Testing in Division-I Volleyball Athletes
This study assessed intrasession and intersession reliability of CMJ variables in NCAA D-I volleyball athletes. Eleven female volleyball players (age = 19.8 ± 0.8 years, height = 1.75 ± 0.07 m, body mass = 71.6 ± 8.9 kg) performed twice weekly CMJ testing on force platforms across 14 weeks of training. Dependent variables were CMJ height (CMJH), reactive strength index modified (RSIMOD), relative peak power (rPP), and countermovement depth (CM depth). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), coefficient of variation (CV), and typical error (TE) were calculated, along with Pearson correlation coeffic...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - October 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Adductor Squeeze Strength, Subjective Markers of Recovery and Training Load in Elite Rugby Players
Tiernan, C, Lyons, M, Comyns, T, Nevill, AM, and Warrington, G. The relationship between adductor squeeze strength, subjective markers of recovery and training load in elite Rugby players. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 2926–2931, 2019—The adductor squeeze strength test has become a popular training monitoring marker, particularly in team sports. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between adductor squeeze strength scores, subjective markers of recovery and training load in elite Rugby Union players, because of limited research in this area. Nineteen elite male Rugby Union players completed d...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - October 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Appendicular Body Composition Analysis: Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Compared With Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Division I College Athletes
Brewer, GJ, Blue, MNM, Hirsch, KR, Peterjohn, AM, and Smith-Ryan, AE. Appendicular body composition analysis: Validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis compared with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in Division I college athletes. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 2920–2925, 2019—The purpose of this study was to evaluate validity of appendicular body composition measurements measured from a multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) compared with a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) criterion in Division I athletes. One hundred sixty male (n = 44) and female (n = 116) collegiate athletes were enr...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - October 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

A Retrospective Analysis of Collegiate Athlete Blood Biomarkers at Moderate Altitude
This study aimed to describe the changes in blood biomarkers in collegiate football (FB) (n = 31) and cross-country (XC) (n = 29; 16 women [FXC], 13 men [MXC]) athletes across a competitive season while training and living at a moderate altitude (1,655 m). This study used a database of previously collected hematological (complete blood count and serum ferritin) and muscle damage (lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase) blood biomarkers. Data were analyzed both within and between groups using linear mixed-model and variance component analyses, alpha = 0.05. All 3 groups had significant but different patterns of change in...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - October 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Three-Year Longitudinal Fitness Tracking in Top-Level Competitive Youth Ice Hockey Players
Cordingley, DM, Sirant, L, MacDonald, PB, and Leiter, JR. Three-year longitudinal fitness tracking in top-level competitive youth ice hockey players. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 2909–2912, 2019—The purpose of this retrospective review was to report the physical and physiological development of top-level competitive male youth hockey players for 3 consecutive years (13, 14, and 15 years of age). Before each hockey season, the athletes (n = 103) underwent a fitness testing combine to assess aerobic, anaerobic, and musculoskeletal fitness. The tests performed included the height, body mass, body fat percentage det...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - October 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Anticipatory Salivary Cortisol and State Anxiety Before Competition Predict Match Outcome in Division I Collegiate Wrestlers
Cintineo, HP and Arent, SM. Anticipatory salivary cortisol and state anxiety before competition predict match outcome in Division I collegiate wrestlers. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 2905–2908, 2019—Anticipation of exercise and other stressors has been shown to result in physiological and psychological changes, which include increased levels of cortisol and anxiety. Combat sports, in particular, typically elicit robust anticipatory responses because of the distinct nature of these sports. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between state anxiety scores, anticipatory corti...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - October 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Practitioner Perceptions of Evidence-Based Practice in Elite Sport in the United States of America
Fullagar, HHK, Harper, LD, Govus, A, McCunn, R, Eisenmann, J, and McCall, A. Practitioner perceptions of evidence-based practice in elite sport in the United States of America. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 2897–2904, 2019—Practitioners' perceptions regarding the use and effectiveness of research evidence in sport is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to examine practitioners' perceptions around the use, implementation, and barriers to evidence-based practice (EBP) in sport science in the United States of America (USA). A survey (28 items) was completed by 67 full-time staff who were a phys...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - October 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Low-Load vs. High-Load Resistance Training to Failure on One Repetition Maximum Strength and Body Composition in Untrained Women: Addendum
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Addendum Source Type: research

Effects of Judo Training on Bones: A Systematic Literature Review
This article provides useful information on bone for health sport scientists, coaches, and practitioners, stimulating future research lines on judo. In particular, coaches and physical trainers should consider introducing judo fall techniques in their training plans to prevent fall-related injuries, especially relevant in the older population. Conversely, coaches are urged to carefully control weight cycling dietary habits of their athletes, which can produce serious metabolic responses on bones. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Brief Review Source Type: research

Swim-Specific Resistance Training: A Systematic Review
In conclusion, tether forces showed the greatest associations with swimming performance, although the efficacy of tethered swimming as an SSWPT method is yet to be confirmed. Further research should focus on the effects of SDLRT to verify the greater transfer of dry land resistance practices to swimming performance, with inertial training being potentially more beneficial than traditional resistance training. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Brief Review Source Type: research

Characterization of the Physical Fitness of Police Officers: A Systematic Review
Marins, EF, David, GB, and Del Vecchio, FB. Characterization of the physical fitness of police officers: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2860–2874, 2019—Physical fitness tests (e.g., aerobic power, muscular endurance, and flexibility tests) are commonly used to assess the ability of police officers to perform work-related tasks. The purpose of this study was to describe, from a systematic literature review, data related to police physical fitness. The research was conducted in 5 electronic databases to search for original studies that measured physical fitness (aerobic and anaerobic capacity, s...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Brief Review Source Type: research

Scientific Basis for Eccentric Quasi-Isometric Resistance Training: A Narrative Review
Oranchuk, DJ, Storey, AG, Nelson, AR, and Cronin, JB. The scientific basis for eccentric quasi-isometric resistance training: A narrative review. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2846–2859, 2019—Eccentric quasi-isometric (EQI) resistance training involves holding a submaximal, yielding isometric contraction until fatigue causes muscle lengthening and then maximally resisting through a range of motion. Practitioners contend that EQI contractions are a powerful tool for the development of several physical qualities important to health and sports performance. In addition, several sports involve regular quasi-isometric ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Brief Review Source Type: research

Influence of Morphology and Strength on Front Crawl Swimming Speed in Junior and Youth Age-Group Swimmers
This study, conducted in 2 male age groups, was aimed at analyzing the influence of body properties, dry-land strength and swimming strength on 50-m crawl (VCrawl). We examined 2 competitive groups, Youth (20.6 ± 1.05) and Junior (17.3 ± 0.59), based on (a) body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM), body height (BH) and total body length (TBL), and arm span (AS); (b) countermovement jump (CMJ) and maximum isometric strength of elbow and knee joints; and (c) tethered crawl strength. We hypothesized that a higher relationship of strength indices in younger swimmers in VCrawl and tethered swimming would be a bette...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Low-Intensity Resistance Exercise Reduces Hyperglycemia and Enhances Glucose Control Over a 24-Hour Period in Women With Type 2 Diabetes
Cruz, LC, Teixeira-Araujo, AA, Andrade, KTP, Rocha, TCOG, Puga, GM, and Moreira, SR. Low intensity resistance exercise reduces hyperglycemia and enhances glucose control over a 24-hour period in women with type 2 diabetes. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2826–2835, 2019—The study herein aimed to compare glucose concentration and hyperglycemic responses of 24 hours after resistance exercise (RE) performed in different intensities in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Twelve women with T2D (55.2 ± 4.0 years; 70.1 ± 11.4 kg; and 155.7 ± 3.3 cm) performed 4 experimental sessions divided into 2 bl...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Relationship Between Selected Physical Qualities, Bowling Kinematics, and Pace Bowling Skill in Club-Standard Cricketers
This study sought to determine these interrelationships. Thirty-one male club-standard pace bowlers completed 3 test sessions on separate occasions 4–7 days apart. The first testing session comprised an 8-over pace bowling assessment, where bowling skill and selected bowling kinematics were measured. A physical test battery was completed over the remaining 2 sessions. Peak and mean ball release (BR) speed were related with 1 repetition maximum pull-up strength (rs = 0.56, p = 0.005) and correlated with 20-m sprint time (rs = −0.42, p = 0.022; rs = −0.37, p = 0.044, respectively). Mean radial error was ass...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Planning Training Workload in Football Using Small-Sided Games' Density
Sangnier, S, Cotte, T, Brachet, O, Coquart, J, and Tourny, C. Planning training workload in football using small-sided games density. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2801–2811, 2019—To develop the physical qualities, the small-sided games' (SSGs) density may be essential in soccer. Small-sided games are games in which the pitch size, players' number, and rules are different to those for traditional soccer matches. The purpose was to assess the relation between training workload and SSGs' density. The 33 densities data (41 practice games and 3 full games) were analyzed through global positioning system (GPS) data co...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Global Training Effects of Trained and Untrained Muscles With Youth Can be Maintained During 4 Weeks of Detraining
In conclusion, youth HL-LR and LL-HR global training effects of trained and untrained limbs demonstrate similar benefits (pre- to detraining) and decrements (post- to detraining) with detraining. The findings emphasize that training any muscle group in a child can have positive global implications for improved strength and power that can persist over baseline measures for at least a month. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of the Competitive Season on the Isokinetic Muscle Parameters Changes in World-Class Handball Players
Maurelli, O, Bernard, PL, Dubois, R, Ahmaidi, S, and Prioux, J. Effects of the competitive season on the isokinetic muscle parameters changes in world-class handball players. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2778–2787, 2019—The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the competitive season on isokinetic muscular parameters of the lower limbs in world-class handball players. Nineteen, male, world-class, handball players (age, 26.6 ± 5.4 years) participated in the study. Two bilateral isokinetic tests of knee joint flexors (H; hamstring) and extensors (Q; quadriceps) were performed in the beginning a...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Physiological Pattern Changes in Response to a Simulated Competition in Elite Women's Artistic Gymnasts
Isacco, L, Ennequin, G, Cassirame, J, and Tordi, N. Physiological pattern changes in response to a simulated competition in elite women's artistic gymnasts. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2768–2777, 2019—The outstanding progress in women's artistic gymnastics in recent decades has led to increased technical and physiological demands. The aim of this study was to investigate (a) the physiological demands of elite French gymnasts and (b) the impact of a competitive routine on physiological pattern changes. Fourteen French elite female gymnasts performed anthropometric measurements, physical fitness tests, and a simu...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Upper and Lower Body Power Are Strong Predictors for Selection of Male Junior National Volleyball Team Players
Tsoukos, A, Drikos, S, Brown, LE, Sotiropoulos, K, Veligekas, P, and Bogdanis, GC. Upper and lower body power are strong predictors for selection of male junior National volleyball team players. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2760–2767, 2019—The purpose of this study was to determine whether a battery of anthropometric and lower and upper body strength and speed and power tests predicted selection of young volleyball players for a Junior National Team by expert coaches. Fifty-two male junior volleyball players (14.8 ± 0.5 years, height: 1.84 ± 0.05 m, body mass: 72.5 ± 7.1 kg) took part in a t...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of Repeated Sprints With Changes of Direction on Youth Soccer Player's Performance: Impact of Initial Fitness Level
In conclusion, although RS-COD training may positively affect RS and change of direction performance, its effects may vary according to the initial aerobic fitness of youth soccer players, with trivial effect on intermittent endurance in high-aerobic fitness players and possible beneficial effect on low-aerobic fitness players. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Acute Effect of Aerobic and Strength Exercise on Heart Rate Variability and Baroreflex Sensitivity in Men With Autonomic Dysfunction
This study compared heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) responses to acute aerobic exercise (AE) and strength exercise (SE) in men with CADysf. Twenty men were assigned into control (n = 10: 33.8 ± 3.0 years; 23.7 ± 1.5 kg·m−2) and CADysf (n = 10: 36.2 ± 9.8 years; 28.4 ± 2.6 kg·m−2) groups. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction underwent AE, SE, and a nonexercise control day (control session [CTL]) in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Heart rate variability and BRS were assessed in a supine position during 25 minutes of recovery after AE, SE, and ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Short-Term Training and Detraining Effects of Supervised vs. Unsupervised Resistance Exercise in Aging Adults
This study compared the effects of a 4-week supervised (SUP) resistance training program and unsupervised (UNSUP) resistance training program followed by 12 weeks of detraining (DET). Thirty-six healthy aging adults (age: 53.6 ± 3.6 years; body mass index: 28.3 ± 5.1 kg·m−2) were randomly allocated to an SUP group (n = 17) or a UNSUP group (n = 19). Participants completed 3 training sessions per week using resistance bands and body weight movements. Measures of physical performance were administered at baseline, at the end of the training program, and after the DET period. Function was assessed w...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Using Perceptual and Neuromuscular Responses to Estimate Mechanical Changes During Continuous Sets in the Bench Press
This study analyzed the effectiveness of the OMNI-RES (0–10) and the electromyographic signal for monitoring changes in the movement velocity during a set to muscular failure performed with different relative loads in the bench press (BP) exercise. Ten males (30.8 ± 5.7 years) were evaluated on 8 separate days with 48 hours of rest between sessions. After determining the 1 repetition maximum value, participants performed 7 sets to failure with the following relative loads ranges: 30 (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

A Repeated Power Training Enhances Fatigue Resistance While Reducing Intraset Fluctuations
In conclusion, RPA training represents an effective method to mainly improve fatigue resistance together with the novel finding of a better consistency in performance (measured as reduced intraset power fluctuations) at the end of a dynamic repeated effort. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Pole Dancing for Fitness: The Physiological and Metabolic Demand of a 60-Minute Class
Nicholas, JC, McDonald, KA, Peeling, P, Jackson, B, Dimmock, JA, Alderson, JA, and Donnelly, CJ. Pole dancing for fitness: The physiological and metabolic demand of a 60-minute class. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2704–2710, 2019—Little is understood about the acute physiological or metabolic demand of pole dancing classes. As such, the aims of this study were to quantify the demands of a standardized recreational pole dancing class, classifying outcomes according to American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) exercise-intensity guidelines, and to explore differences in physiological and metabolic measures between...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Combined Effects of Static Stretching and Electrical Stimulation on Joint Range of Motion and Muscle Strength
Mizuno, T. Combined effects of static stretching and electrical stimulation on joint range of motion and muscle strength. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2694–2703, 2019—The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the combination of static stretching (SS) and electrical stimulation (ES) for 8 weeks on joint range of motion (ROM), muscle strength, and muscle architecture. Thirty-one subjects were divided into 3 groups: the SS combined with ES (SS + ES) group, SS group, and control group. The SS + ES group performed calf stretching simultaneously with ES to the gastrocnemius medialis, whereas the SS group...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Order Effects of Resistance and Stretching Exercises on Heart Rate Variability and Blood Pressure in Healthy Adults
In conclusion, this study indicated that SE followed by RE promotes a reduction in LFnu and RMSSDnu, with trivial to small magnitude decreases in SBP. Therefore, performing SE either before or between RE would be an important exercise prescription recommendation to lower cardiac load and consequently greater safety. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of Practical Blood Flow Restriction Training on Adolescent Lower-Body Strength
Luebbers, PE, Witte, EV, and Oshel, JQ. Effects of practical blood flow restriction training on adolescent lower-body strength. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2674–2683, 2019—The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a practical blood flow restriction (BFR) training program on lower-body strength of high school weightlifters. Twenty-five students were divided into 3 groups. For 6 weeks, each group completed the same resistance training program with the exception of the parallel back squat exercise (2 d·wk−1), which was different for each group. One group (HI) completed a traditional high...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Isometric Midthigh Pull Performance Is Associated With Athletic Performance and Sprinting Kinetics in Division I Men and Women's Basketball Players
Townsend, JR, Bender, D, Vantrease, WC, Hudy, J, Huet, K, Williamson, C, Bechke, E, Serafini, PR, and Mangine, GT. Isometric midthigh pull performance is associated with athletic performance and sprinting kinetics in Division I men and women's basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2665–2673, 2019— The relationships between isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) force, athletic performance measures, and sprint kinetics in Division I men's and women's basketball players were investigated. Twenty-three (male = 8, female = 15) Division 1 basketball players completed a maximal 20-m sprint trial while tethered to ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Alpha-Actinin-3 R577X Polymorphism Influences Muscle Damage and Hormonal Responses After a Soccer Game
Coelho, DB, Pimenta, EM, Rosse, IC, Veneroso, C, Pussieldi, GDA, Becker, LK, De Oliveira, EC, Carvalho, MRS, and Silami-Garcia, E. Alpha-actinin-3 R577X polymorphism influences muscle damage and hormonal responses after a soccer game. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2655–2664, 2019—The purpose of this study was to evaluate indicators of muscle damage and hormonal responses after soccer matches and its relation to alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene expression (XX vs. RR/RX), considering that the R allele produces alpha-actinin-3 and provides greater muscle strength and power. Thirty players (10 XX and 20 RR/RX) younger th...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Using Microtechnology to Quantify Torso Angle During Match-Play in Field Hockey
Warman, GE, Cole, MH, Johnston, RD, Chalkley, D, and Pepping, GJ. Using microtechnology to quantify torso angle during match-play in field hockey. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2648–2654, 2019—Field hockey is played in a dynamic environment placing specific postural demands on athletes. Little research has been devoted to understanding the nature of a player's torso postures in field hockey match-play and its relationship with the perceptuomotor demands of the sport. We used commercially available microtechnology worn by 16 athletes during a 6-match national tournament to quantify torso flexion/extension angles. ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Trunk Muscle Endurance, Flexibility, Stride Foot Balance, and Contralateral Trunk Lean in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers
Myrick, KM, Pallone, AS, Feinn, RS, Ford, KM, and Garbalosa, JC. Trunk muscle endurance, flexibility, stride foot balance, and contralateral trunk lean in collegiate baseball pitchers. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2641–2647, 2019—The incidence of shoulder and elbow injuries in baseball is increasing. The trunk is crucial to transmission of energy from lower limbs, achieving the largest angular momentum and torque during pitching, and controlling acceleration of the arm. Excessive contralateral trunk lean has been correlated with increased ball velocity and forces on the elbow. Underlying biomechanical causes con...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Reliability of Squat Kinetics in Well-Trained Rugby Players: Implications for Monitoring Training
Appleby, BB, Cormack, SJ, and Newton, RU. Reliability of squat kinetics in well-trained rugby players: implications for monitoring training. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2635–2640, 2019—The aim of this study was to determine the within-session reliability in kinetic variables of the squat in well-trained athletes during a typical resistance training protocol. Fifteen subjects completed 2 testing sessions. Session 1 was establishment of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat, and session 2 involved 2 sets of 2 maximal effort repetitions of the squat at 70, 80, and 90% of 1RM with 3D motion analysis and ground reaction ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Correlation of Fiber-Type Composition and Sprint Performance in Youth Soccer Players
Metaxas, T, Mandroukas, A, Michailidis, Y, Koutlianos, N, Christoulas, K, and Ekblom, B. Correlation of fiber-type composition and sprint performance in youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2629–2634, 2019—The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between muscle fiber type and sprint performance in elite young soccer players of different age groups of the same team. Twenty-eight young players participated in this study (group U15, n = 8; group U13, n = 9; and group U11, n = 11). Anthropometric assessments, acceleration (10 m), and Bangsbo modified sprint test (30 m) were performed. Muscl...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Biomarker Response to a Competitive Season in Division I Female Soccer Players
Walker, AJ, McFadden, BA, Sanders, DJ, Rabideau, MM, Hofacker, ML, and Arent, SM. Biomarker response to a competitive season in Division I female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2622–2628, 2019—The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of training load (TL) on performance and biomarkers of health, performance, and recovery in Division I female soccer players throughout a competitive season. Subjects (N = 25, Mage = 20 ± 1.1 years) were monitored before the start of preseason and every 4-weeks thereafter (T1–T5). A battery of performance tests was administered before the start of...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Precooling's Effect on American Football Skills
Bradley, LJ, Miller, KC, Wiese, BW, and Novak, JR. Precooling's effect on American football skills. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2616–2621, 2019—Precooling (i.e., cooling before exercise) may reduce the risk of exertional heatstroke (EHS) in American football athletes. However, implementation of precooling by coaches or medical staff would likely be poor if it impaired performance. We investigated whether precooling impacted American football skill performance in this randomized, crossover, counterbalanced study. Twelve men (24 ± 2 years, mass = 85.5 ± 6.3 kg, height = 181.8 ± 8.1 cm) comple...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Solar Radiation Exposure Has Diurnal Effects on Thermoregulatory Responses During High-Intensity Exercise in the Heat Outdoors
This study investigated the diurnal effects of variations in solar radiation associated with changing solar elevation angle on thermoregulatory responses during high-intensity exercise in the heat outdoors. Ten male high school soccer players completed two 2-hour soccer training sessions under a clear sky in the heat of summer. These sessions were commenced at 0900 hours (AM) and 1600 hours (PM) on separate days. Solar radiation and elevation angle were higher in AM (820–1,070 W·m−2 and 45–69°) than PM (620–110 W·m−2 and 34–10°: both p (Source: Journal of Strength a...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Three DNA Polymorphisms Previously Identified as Markers for Handgrip Strength Are Associated With Strength in Weightlifters and Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy
In conclusion, by replicating previous findings in 4 independent studies, we demonstrate that the rs12055409 G-, rs4626333 G-, and rs2273555 A-alleles are associated with higher levels of strength, muscle mass, and muscle fiber size. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Comparison Between Back Squat, Romanian Deadlift, and Barbell Hip Thrust for Leg and Hip Muscle Activities During Hip Extension
This study compared muscle activities of vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), and gluteus maximus (GM) during the back squat (SQ), Romanian deadlift (RDL), and barbell hip thrust (BHT) exercises performed with the same load (60 kg) and at one repetition maximum (1RM). Eight men with a minimum of 1 year's lower-body strength training experience performed the exercises in randomized order. Before each exercise, surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and then used to normalize to each muscle's EMG during each trial. Barbell hip thrust showed higher GM activit...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Asymmetry and Athletic Performance: A Critical Review
Maloney, SJ. The relationship between asymmetry and athletic performance: A critical review. J Strength Cond Res 33(9): 2579–2593, 2019—Symmetry may be defined as the quality to demonstrate an exact correspondence of size, shape, and form when split along a given axis. Although it has been widely asserted that the bilateral asymmetries are detrimental to athletic performance, research does not wholly support such an association. Moreover, the research rarely seeks to distinguish between different types of bilateral asymmetry. Fluctuating asymmetries describe bilateral differences in anthropometric attributes, s...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 29, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Brief Review Source Type: research

Efficiency of Pneumatic Tourniquet Cuff With Asymmetric Pressure Distribution at Rest and During Isometric Muscle Action
Ipavec, M, Grapar Žargi, T, Jelenc, J, and Kacin, A. Efficiency of pneumatic tourniquet cuff with asymmetric pressure distribution at rest and during isometric muscle action. J Strength Cond Res 33(9): 2570–2578, 2019—The aim of this study was to compare effects of newly designed double-chamber cuff with asymmetric pressure (APC) distribution and standard single-chamber cuff with symmetric pressure (SPC) distribution on muscle perfusion and volitional activation. First, the 2 cuffs were compared bilaterally on resting thigh muscles of 17 healthy volunteers at 4 cuff pressures (120, 160, 200, and 240 mm Hg). Th...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 29, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Improved Performance in Master Runners Competing in the European Championships Between 1978 and 2014
Schneider, AL, Nikolaidis, PT, and Knechtle, B. Improved performance in master runners competing in the European championships between 1978 and 2014. J Strength Cond Res 33(9): 2559–2569, 2019—The performance trends in elite runners have been well investigated, but we have no knowledge about performance trends and the difference between the sexes in elderly runners competing at a high level in varying distances. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of these age groups. Data from 17 European Championships held between 1978 and 2014 were analyzed for various race distances (i.e., 100, 200,...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 29, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Progression in Youth Soccer: Selection and Identification in Youth Soccer Players Aged 13–15 Years
Bidaurrazaga-Letona, I, Lekue, JA, Amado, M, and Gil, SM. Progression in youth soccer: Selection and identification in youth soccer players aged 13–15 years. J Strength Cond Res 33(9): 2548–2558, 2019—The aim of this study was to identify the factors that are important for the identification and selection of young soccer players. Ninety-four adolescent soccer players from the under-13 (U13; age = 12.3 ± 0.3 years; n = 50) and under-15 (U15; age = 14.0 ± 0.2 years; n = 44) categories belonging to a professional club participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements, physical tests (sprin...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 29, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Does a 1-Year Age Gap Modify the Influence of Age, Maturation, and Anthropometric Parameters as Determinants of Performance Among Youth Elite Soccer Players?
Bidaurrazaga-Letona, I, Lekue, JA, Amado, M, and Gil, SM. Does a 1-year age gap modify the influence of age, maturation, and anthropometric parameters as determinants of performance among youth elite soccer players? J Strength Cond Res 33(9): 2541–2547, 2019—Because age-groups in soccer often comprise children born within a 2-year time frame, characteristics that define the profile of a successful player may not be appropriate for the oldest or youngest players of the same age-group. Therefore, this study aimed to determine to what extent performance was influenced by age, maturation, and body size in elite soc...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 29, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research