A Structured E-Investigation Into the Prevalence and Acceptance of Smartphone Applications by Exercise Professionals
Bromilow, L, Stanton, R, and Humphries, B. A structured e-investigation into the prevalence and acceptance of smartphone applications by exercise professionals. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1330–1339, 2020—The primary purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and acceptance of smartphone applications by exercise professionals when interacting with clients and patients. A 29-item anonymous online survey was designed, containing separate sections on demographics, smartphone proficiency, benefits and barriers to using smartphones, and use of smartphones in a professional setting. Accredited members of the ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

National Football League Scouting Combine Tests Correlated to National Football League Player Performance
LaPlaca, DA and McCullick, BA. National Football League scouting combine tests correlated to National Football League player performance. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1317–1329, 2020—The National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine has been used since 1982 to collect performance information on the top-rated NFL prospects including physical test results from the vertical jump, broad jump, 3 cone drill, shuttle run, 40-yd dash, and bench press. The correlation between NFL Scouting Combine test results and NFL player performance is frequently questioned, and thus this study endeavored to identify significant rela...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Acute Effect of High-Intensity Interval Versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Exercise on Blood Pressure and Arterial Compliance in Middle-Aged and Older Hypertensive Women With Increased Arterial Stiffness
This study compared the acute effect of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) on blood pressure (BP) and arterial compliance in middle-aged and older hypertensive women with increased arterial stiffness. Nineteen women (67.6 ± 4.7 years) participated in this randomized controlled crossover trial. Subjects completed a control, MICE (30 minutes at 50–55% of heart rate reserve [HRR]), and HIIE (10 × 1 minute at 80–85% of HRR, 2 minutes at 40–45% of HRR) session in random order. Blood pressure and large and small arterial compliance (radial arte...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effect of Asymmetry on Biomechanical Characteristics During 180° Change of Direction
Thomas, C, Dos'Santos, T, Comfort, P, and Jones, PA. Effect of asymmetry on biomechanical characteristics during 180° change of direction. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1297–1306, 2020—The aim of this study was to explore the effect of asymmetry on biomechanical characteristics during two 180° change of direction (CoD) tasks (505 and modified 505 [505mod]). Fifty-two male (n = 24; age = 22.1 ± 4.8 years; height = 1.78 ± 0.06 m; body mass = 76.9 ± 10.8 kg) and female (n = 28; age = 19.1 ± 1.7 years; height = 1.67 ± 0.06 m; body mass = 60.4 ± 7.4 kg) team-sport playe...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Biomechanical Determinants of the Modified and Traditional 505 Change of Direction Speed Test
Dos'Santos, T, McBurnie, A, Thomas, C, Comfort, P, and Jones, PA. Biomechanical determinants of the modified and traditional 505 change of direction speed test. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1285–1296, 2020—The aim of this study was to investigate the whole-body biomechanical determinants of 180° change of direction (COD) performance. Sixty-one male athletes (age: 20.7 ± 3.8 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.06 m, mass: 74.7 ± 10.0 kg) from multiple sports (soccer, rugby, and cricket) completed 6 trials of the modified and traditional 505 on their right leg, whereby 3D motion and ground reaction for...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Hyperventilation-Aided Recovery for Extra Repetitions on Bench Press and Leg Press
This study investigated the benefits of HV-aided recovery on lifting repetitions and joint velocity during resistance training involving multiple joints and both concentric and eccentric contractions. Eleven power-trained men (mean ± SD age: 22.5 ± 4.3 years, training experience: 8.3 ± 3.6 years) performed 6 sets each of bench press and leg press at 80% 1 repetition maximum. Each set was continued until failure, with a 5-minute recovery between sets. In protocol A, HV was implemented for 30 seconds before the first, third, and fifth sets of each exercise (HV-aided recovery), whereas spontaneous breathi...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The Effect of Resistance Exercise Movement Tempo on Psychophysiological Responses in Novice Men
This study aimed to compare the effects of movement tempo in resistance exercise (RE) on psychophysiological responses in novice men. Seventeen novice men (24.5 ± 3.2 years; 79.3 ± 8.22 kg; 1.76 ± 0.06 m) performed the 10 repetition maximum (10RM) test for bench press and knee extension in 2 sessions (test-retest) and 2 RE training sessions with different movement tempos in a random and counterbalanced order (4 sets of 10 repetitions). The low tempo RE (LTRE) session was performed using 50% 10RM with 3-0-3-0 seconds (concentric, pause, eccentric, and pause, respectively). The moderate tempo RE (MTRE) s...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Varying the Order of Combinations of Single- and Multi-Joint Exercises Differentially Affects Resistance Training Adaptations
Brandão, L, de Salles Painelli, V, Lasevicius, T, Silva-Batista, C, Brendon, H, Schoenfeld, BJ, Aihara, AY, Cardoso, FN, de Almeida Peres, B, and Teixeira, EL. Varying the order of combinations of single- and multi-joint exercises differentially affects resistance training adaptations. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1254–1263, 2020—Our study aimed to compare the effects of multi-joint (MJ) and single-joint (SJ) exercises, either isolated or in combination, and in different orders, on cross-sectional area (CSA) of the pectoralis major (PM) and different heads of the triceps brachii (TB), as well as on the one...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Barbell Squat Relative Strength as an Identifier for Lower Extremity Injury in Collegiate Athletes
Case, MJ, Knudson, DV, and Downey, DL. Barbell squat relative strength as an identifier for lower extremity injury in collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1249–1253, 2020—The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of using the relative strength level of Division I athletes in One repetition maximum (1RM) barbell back squat as an identifier of seasonal lower extremity (LE) injury. One repetition maximum back squat (kg) and reported LE injuries were retrospectively collected for Division I male football (n = 46), female volleyball and softball athletes (n = 25). Maximum preseason relative (body...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Is Performing Repetitions to Failure Less Important Than Volume for Muscle Hypertrophy and Strength?
In conclusion, MF and NMF protocol conducted with the same total repetition numbers produced similar maximal muscle strength performance and neuromuscular activation. Nevertheless, NMF training could be a more appropriate strategy to increase muscle hypertrophy (vastus lateralis) and muscular endurance performance in untrained individuals when compared with MF. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Lower-limb Dynamics of Muscle Oxygen Saturation During the Back-squat Exercise: Effects of Training Load and Effort Level
Gómez-Carmona, CD, Bastida-Castillo, A, Rojas-Valverde, D, de la Cruz Sánchez, E, García-Rubio, J, Ibáñez, SJ, and Pino-Ortega, J. Lower-limb dynamics of muscle oxygen saturation during the back-squat exercise: effects of training load and effort level. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1227–1236, 2020—The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of strength training on lower limb muscle oxygenation. The sample consisted of 12 male subjects (22.4 ± 1.73 years; 1.81 ± 0.08 cm height and 77.76 ± 8.77 kg body mass). Six different strength training stimuli were an...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of Warming Up With Lower-Body Wearable Resistance on Physical Performance Measures in Soccer Players Over an 8-Week Training Cycle
This study aimed to examine the effects of adding wearable resistance (WR) lower-limb loading to a warm-up on physical performance measures in soccer athletes. Thirty-one national-level soccer players (aged 16–18 years) were matched for speed and allocated to either a WR training (WRT = 15) or an unloaded (CON = 16) group. Both groups performed the same warm-up 2–3x·wk−1 for 8 weeks with the WRT group wearing 200- to 600-g loads on their calves. Pre-training, mid-training, and post-training data were collected for 10- and 20-m sprint times, repeated sprint ability, and vertical countermovement jump...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effect of Competition Frequency on Strength Performance of Powerlifting Athletes
This study investigated the effect of competition frequency on strength (relative and absolute) in PL athletes over a 12-month period. Results across all male (n = 563, mean ± SD; age; 28 ± 10 years, body mass; 89.3 ± 19.3 kg) and female (n = 437, age; 31 ± 11 years, body mass; 70.1 ± 15.8 kg) PL athletes were collated. Total competition scores were used to calculate absolute and relative strength for each competition. Linear mixed models with random effects, and effect sizes ± 95% confidence intervals compared competition frequency and total score for (a) all, (b) male, and (c) fe...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

“Stronger Is Better”: Gale Gillingham, the Weight-Trained Green Bay Packer All-Pro
This article seeks to correct that oversight and discusses his career, training, and contributions to the field of strength and conditioning. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Invited Historical Perspective Source Type: research

Physiological and Perceptual Demands of Running on a Curved Nonmotorized Treadmill Compared With Running on a Motorized Treadmill Set at Different Grades
Schoenmakers, PPJM, Crisell, JJ, and Reed, KE. Physiological and perceptual demands of running on a curved nonmotorized treadmill compared with running on a motorized treadmill set at different grades. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1197–1200, 2020—The current study compared the physiological and perceptual demands of running on a commercially available curved nonmotorized treadmill (cNMT) with different incline grades on a motorized treadmill (MT). Ten male team-sport athletes completed, after a familiarization session, a 6-minute run at a target velocity of 2.78 m·s−1 on the cNMT (cNMTrun). The mean ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Research Note Source Type: research

High-Intensity Interval Training Shock Microcycle for Enhancing Sport Performance: A Brief Review
Dolci, F, Kilding, AE, Chivers, P, Piggott, B, and Hart, NH. High-intensity interval training shock microcycle for enhancing sport performance: A brief review. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 1188–1196, 2020—High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a powerful strategy to develop athletes' fitness and enhance endurance performance. Traditional HIIT interventions involve multiple microcycles (7–10 days long) of 2–3 HIIT sessions each, which have been commonly supported to improve athletic performance after a minimum period of 6 weeks training. Regardless of the efficacy of such an approach, in recent yea...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Brief Review Source Type: research

Normative Reference Values for High School–Aged American Football Players: Proagility Drill and 40-Yard Dash Split Times
McKay, BD, Miramonti, AA, Gillen, ZM, Leutzinger, TJ, Mendez, AI, Jenkins, NDM, and Cramer, JT. Normative reference values for high school–aged American football players: Proagility drill and 40-yard dash split times. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 1184–1187, 2020—The purpose of this short report was to provide test- and position-specific normative reference values for the 10- and 20-yd split times (10YD and 20YD) during the 40-yd dash (40YD) as well as 10-yd split times during the proagility drill (PA) based on a large, nationally representative sample of high school–aged American football players in t...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Short Research Report Source Type: research

Factors that Influence Session-Rating of Perceived Exertion in Elite Gaelic Football
Malone, S, Hughes, B, Roe, M, Mangan, S, and Collins, K. Factors that influence session-rating of perceived exertion in elite Gaelic football. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 1176–1183, 2020—The current investigation examined the relationships between external training load (TL) measures and the session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE) within Gaelic football players. Furthermore, we examined the effect that player experience, playing position, and 1-km time trial (TT) performance had on perception of TL. Physical performance (total distance, high-speed distance, very high–speed distance, max velocity, tota...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effect of a Core Stabilization Training Program on Performance of Ballet and Modern Dancers
Kalaycioglu, T, Apostolopoulos, NC, Goldere, S, Duger, T, and Baltaci, G. Effect of a core stabilization training program on performance of ballet and modern dancers. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 1166–1175, 2020—The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a core stabilization training (CST) program on performance of university-level ballet and modern dancers. Twenty-four dancers between the ages of 18 and 24 years participated in the study. Core stabilization training was performed for 45–60 minutes per day, 3 days a week, for 8 weeks. For 2 days, the training was conducted by an experienced phy...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of Combining Running and Practical Duration Stretching on Proprioceptive Skills of National Sprinters
In conclusion, combining running and practical duration SS may be beneficial for right-leg postural stabilization, whereas DS may be partly and slightly deleterious. Both SS and DS combined with running and running alone have neutral effects on knee JPS. Sports professionals should consider running and practical duration SS as part of the warm-up of sprinters to partly improve unipedal static postural balance. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Faster Heart Rate Recovery Correlates With High-Intensity Match Activity in Female Field Hockey Players—Training Implications
Harry, K and Booysen, MJ. Faster heart rate recovery correlates with high-intensity match activity in female field hockey players–training implications. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 1150–1157, 2020—The physical match demands of female field hockey are intense and may differ according to playing positions. In addition, conducting sports-specific field tests can assist coaches in determining their players' preparedness for competition. There is limited research regarding the match demands and relevance of field testing at premier league levels. Therefore, the aims were to describe the physical match demands o...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effect of Heat Stress on Measures of Running Performance and Heart Rate Responses During a Competitive Season in Male Soccer Players
Coker, NA, Wells, AJ, and Gepner, Y. The effect of heat stress on measures of running performance and heart rate responses during a competitive season in male soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 1141–1149, 2020—Measures of running performance and heart rate (HR) responses to match play during 3 different heat stress (HS) conditions were assessed in 7 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I male soccer players. Total distance and distance covered within distinct velocity zones (walking [WALK], jogging [JOG], low-speed running, high-speed running, sprinting [SPRINT], low-intensity runnin...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Auto-Regulated Exercise Selection Training Regimen Produces Small Increases in Lean Body Mass and Maximal Strength Adaptations in Strength-trained Individuals
Rauch, JT, Ugrinowitsch, C, Barakat, CI, Alvarez, MR, Brummert, DL, Aube, DW, Barsuhn, AS, Hayes, D, Tricoli, V, and De Souza, EO. Auto-regulated exercise selection training regimen produces small increases in lean body mass and maximal strength adaptations in highly trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 1133–1140, 2020—The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of auto-regulatory exercise selection (AES) vs. fixed exercise selection (FES) on muscular adaptations in strength-trained individuals. Seventeen men (mean ± SD; age = 24 ± 5.45 years; height = 180.3 ± 7....
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Whole-Body Vibration as a Warm-up Before Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage on Symptoms of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness in Trained Subjects
Magoffin, RD, Parcell, AC, Hyldahl, RD, Fellingham, GW, Hopkins, JT, and Feland, JB. Whole-body vibration as a warm-up before exercise-induced muscle damage on symptoms of delayed-onset muscle soreness in trained subjects. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 1123–1132, 2020—There is no clear scientific evidence that whole-body vibration (WBV) used as a warm-up before performing eccentric exercise mitigates delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and speeds strength loss recovery. These benefits were observed primarily in nonresistance-trained individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether WBV could mitigate so...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Sprint-Specific Training in Youth: Backward Running vs. Forward Running Training on Speed and Power Measures in Adolescent Male Athletes
This study compared the effects of 2 sprint-specific training programs against the natural development of speed, power, and stiffness in a group of adolescent male athletes. Forty-three male adolescents (aged 13–15 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 training groups; backward running training (BRT = 26), or forward running training (FRT = 17). A physical education class (n = 24) of similar age constituted a control (CON) group. Both training groups performed running sessions matched for distance and intensity biweekly for 8 weeks. Parametric and magnitude-based inferences were used to analyze within group (pre-po...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Moderate-Intensity Strength Exercise to Exhaustion Results in More Pronounced Signaling Changes in Skeletal Muscles of Strength-Trained Compared With Untrained Individuals
In conclusion, moderate-intensity strength exercise performed to volitional fatigue changed the phosphorylation status of mTORC1 downstream signaling molecules and markers of ubiquitin-proteasome system activation in trained individuals, suggesting activation of protein synthesis and degradation. In contrast to the trained group, signaling responses in the untrained group were considerably less pronounced. It can be assumed that the slowdown in muscle mass gain as the athletes increase in qualification cannot be associated with a decrease in the sensitivity of systems regulating protein metabolism, but possibly with inadeq...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of Personal Protective Equipment on Metabolism and Performance During an Occupational Physical Ability Test for Federal Highway Police Officers
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of load carriage on physiological, perceptual, and performance responses during an Occupational Physical Ability Test (OPAT). Thirteen male FHP officers completed an OPAT with PPE (WPPE, load = 12.0 kg) and without PPE (NPPE, load = 5.2 kg) in 2 separate sessions in a randomized and counterbalanced order. Metabolic responses (heart rate [HR] and its variability, and blood lactate concentration [Lac]), perceptual (rating of perceived exertion [RPE]), and OPAT performance were measured. Paired t and Wilcoxon tests were used to identify differences between conditions, an...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of a Tapering Period on Physical Condition in Soccer Players
In conclusion, a 2-week step tapering program was found to be an effective periodization strategy to increase muscle power and acceleration, and to reduce stress perception in soccer amateur players. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Metabolic Profile and Performance Responses During Two Consecutive Sessions of Sprint Interval Training
Malta, ES, Brisola, GMP, de Poli, RAB, Dutra, YM, Franchini, E, and Zagatto, AM. Metabolic profile and performance responses during two consecutive sessions of sprint interval training. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 1078–1085, 2020—The study aimed to (a) typify the cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and performance responses during a single sprint interval training (SIT) session, (b) investigate the interference of 2 subsequent sessions on cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and performance responses, and (c) verify the relationships of SIT total work performed with aerobic fitness indices. Thirty-six untrained men performed...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Evaluating the Effects of Underloaded and Overloaded Warm-ups on Subsequent Swing Velocity
Miller, RM, Heishman, AD, Freitas, EDS, and Bemben, MG. Evaluating the effects of underloaded and overloaded warm-ups on subsequent swing velocity. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 1071–1077, 2020—Several attempts to identify the optimal on-deck procedure to enhance swing velocity in baseball have been made. However, inconsistent findings continue to constitute much of the body of literature. In addition, the emergence of athlete monitoring in sport has led to the exploration of more sport-specific tasks to potentially identify athlete fatigue and readiness to perform. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Resistance Exercise Order Does Not Affect the Magnitude and Duration of Postexercise Blood Pressure in Older Women
In conclusion, resistance exercise order does not interfere in the magnitude and duration of postexercise hypotension in trained nonhypertensive older women. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Physical Response to Pad- and Bag-Based Boxing-Specific Training Modalities
This study examined the differences in the physical response elicited from a contemporary Boxing-Specific Exercise Protocol (BSEP) performed using a punch bag and a pad routine. Fourteen male elite amateur boxers (age = 22 ± 2 years; height = 176.9 ± 7.3 cm; body mass = 78.8 ± 8.7 kg; and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max = 55.94 ± 5.96 ml·kg−1·min−1) were recruited. The BSEP comprised 3 × 3-minute rounds. Average (HRave) and peak (HRpeak) heart rate, average (V[Combining Dot Above]O2ave) and peak oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), blood lactate (BLa) co...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Defining the Phases of Boxing Punches: A Mixed-Method Approach
Lenetsky, S, Brughelli, M, Nates, RJ, Neville, JG, Cross, MR, and Lormier, AV. Defining the phases of boxing punches: A mixed-method approach. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 1040–1051, 2020—Current research on punching in boxing has explored both kinematic and kinetic variables; however, there is no shared structure in the literature to describe these findings. A common method used to provide a shared structure in other sporting tasks is the definition of movement phases. To define the phases of 4 punches used in boxing (lead punches and rear straight and hook punches), 10 experienced and competitive boxers (age = ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Resistance Training Status and Effectiveness of Low-Frequency Resistance Training on Upper-Body Strength and Power in Highly Trained Soccer Players
Hertzog, M, Rumpf, MC, and Hader, K. Resistance training status and effectiveness of low-frequency resistance training on upper-body strength and power in highly trained soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 1032–1039, 2020—Soccer is classified as a contact/collision sport with many player-to-player duels. Winning these duels, shielding the ball or fending off an opponent requires upper-body strength and power. Therefore, this study aimed (a) to examine the time-related effect of an upper-body resistance training (RT) on maximal strength and power changes in highly trained soccer players and (b) to investi...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Load-Velocity Relationship in Variations of the Half-Squat Exercise: Influence of Execution Technique
This study aimed to compare the load-velocity relationship obtained from 2 variations of the half-squat exercise (traditional vs. ballistic) using 2 execution techniques (eccentric-concentric vs. concentric-only). Twenty men performed a submaximal progressive loading test in 4 half-squat exercises: eccentric-concentric traditional-squat, concentric-only traditional-squat, countermovement jump (i.e., ballistic squat using the eccentric-concentric technique), and squat jump (i.e., ballistic squat using the concentric-only technique). Individual linear regressions were used to estimate the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) for each ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The Effects of Multiple Sets of Squats and Jump Squats on Mechanical Variables
Rossetti, ML, Munford, SN, Snyder, BW, Davis, SE, and Moir, GL. The effects of multiple sets of squats and jump squats on mechanical variables. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 1017–1023, 2020—The mechanical responses to 2 nonballistic squat and 2 ballistic jump squat protocols performed over multiple sets were investigated. One protocol from each of the 2 nonballistic and ballistic conditions incorporated a pause between the eccentric and concentric phases of the movements in order to determine the influence of the coupling time on the mechanical variables and postactivation potentiation (PAP). Eleven men (age: 21.9...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Resistance Training Performed With Single and Multiple Sets Induces Similar Improvements in Muscular Strength, Muscle Mass, Muscle Quality, and IGF-1 in Older Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Cunha PM, Nunes JP, Tomeleri CM, Nascimento MA, Schoenfeld BJ, Antunes M, Gobbo LA, Teixeira D, and Cyrino ES. Resistance training performed with single and multiple sets induces similar improvements in muscular strength, muscle mass, muscle quality, and IGF-1 in older women: A randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 1008–1016, 2020—The purpose of this study was to compare the effects between single set vs. multiple sets of resistance training (RT) on measures of muscular strength, muscle mass, muscle quality (MQ), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in untrained healthy older women. Sixty-...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Pilates Method Training: Functional and Blood Glucose Responses of Older Women With Type 2 Diabetes
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of the Pilates method on the functional capacity (FC) and glycemic control of older women with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Twenty-two women with T2D were randomized into control (CONTROL: 67.5 ± 6.3 years; 154.7 ± 6.1 cm; 73.5 ± 6.1 kg) and Pilates (PILATES: 65.5 ± 5.5 years; 155.0 ± 4.5 cm; 66.2 ± 5.4 kg) groups, which held sessions of 60 minutes at a frequency of 3 times per week during 12 weeks. Blood glucose was measured before and after sessions in PILATES, as well as in moments of pre, rest, 4, 8, and 12 weeks o...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Mean Combined Relative Grip Strength and Metabolic Syndrome: 2011–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Churilla, JR, Summerlin, M, Richardson, MR, and Boltz, AJ. Mean combined relative grip strength and metabolic syndrome: 2011–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 995–1000, 2020—The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among mean combined relative grip strength (MCRGS), the metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the individual MetS criterion using a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults (≥20 years of age). The study sample included subjects from the 2011–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES). Subject MCRGS, us...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Environmental Conditions, Preseason Fitness Levels, and Game Workload: Analysis of a Female NCAA DI National Championship Soccer Season
Benjamin, CL, Hosokawa, Y, Curtis, RM, Schaefer, DA, Bergin, RT, Abegg, MR, and Casa, DJ. Environmental conditions, preseason fitness levels, and game workload: Analysis of a female NCAA DI National Championship Soccer Season. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 988–994, 2020—The purpose of this study was to determine the independent and combined moderating effect of aerobic fitness and environmental conditions on physical workloads during collegiate female soccer matches. Nineteen National Collegiate Athletic Association female soccer athletes were included in this study (mean ± SD: age, 20.6 ± 1.4 years;...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The Countermovement Jump Mechanics of Mixed Martial Arts Competitors
James, LP, Connick, M, Haff, GG, Kelly, VG, and Beckman, EM. The countermovement jump mechanics of mixed martial arts competitors. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 982–987, 2020—Gross countermovement jump (CMJ) performance measures are greater in higher-level mixed martial arts (MMA) competitors than lower-level (LL) competitors. Differences in CMJ kinetics and kinematics throughout the action may explain those CMJ performance differences, but this remains to be investigated. After warm-up and familiarization, 27 MMA competitors (divided into 2 groups based on competitive standard; higher level [HL]: n = 14 and LL: n...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Early Season Hormonal and Biochemical Changes in Division I Field Hockey Players: Is Fitness Protective?
Walker, AJ, McFadden, BA, Sanders, DJ, Bozzini, BN, Conway, SP, and Arent, SM. Early season hormonal and biochemical changes in Division I field hockey players: is fitness protective? J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 975–981, 2020—The purpose was to evaluate changes in hormonal and biochemical markers as a result of the accumulated stress of the initial 4-week training block in field hockey players. Women's Division I field hockey players (N = 22; Mage = 19.7 ± 1.1 years) performed testing before the start of preseason (A1) that included body composition (%BF), vertical jump, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. B...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Comparison of Internal and External Training Loads in Male and Female Collegiate Soccer Players During Practices vs. Games
McFadden, BA, Walker, AJ, Bozzini, BN, Sanders, DJ, and Arent, SM. Comparison of internal and external training loads in male and female collegiate soccer players during practices vs. games. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 969–974, 2020—The purpose of this study was to compare the internal and external training loads (TLs) in men and women throughout a Division I soccer season during practices versus games. Players were evaluated during all practices and regulation game play using the Polar TeamPro system, utilizing Global Positioning Satellite technology and heart rate (HR) monitoring to determine TL, time spent in...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Combined Sprint Interval, Plyometric, and Strength Training in Adolescent Soccer Players: Effects on Measures of Speed, Strength, Power, Change of Direction, and Anaerobic Capacity
Ferley, DD, Scholten, S, and Vukovich, MD. Combined sprint interval, plyometric, and strength training in adolescent soccer players: effects on measures of speed, strength, power, change of direction, and anaerobic capacity. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 957–968, 2020—During winter, many soccer players train indoors to improve the aerobic and anaerobic demands of their sport. Sprint interval training (SIT) performed on a treadmill using level and graded conditions represents a viable alternative to traditional endurance conditioning. To date, little research exists contrasting the effects of these conditions. Ther...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

ACTN3 R577X Genotype in Professional and Amateur Tennis Players
Moreno-Pérez, V, Machar, R, Sanz-Rivas, D, and Del Coso, J. ACTN3 R577X genotype in professional and amateur tennis players. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 952–956, 2020—Several investigations have concluded that the RR genotype in the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is overrepresented in elite athletes of strength- and power-based sports when compared with nonelite populations, suggesting a positive role of this genotype on physical performance. However, no investigation has been geared to determine the distribution of this polymorphism in elite tennis players. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency di...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Aerobic Exercise Performance During Load Carriage and Acute Altitude Exposure
This study quantified the impact of combined load carriage and acute altitude exposure on 5-km running time-trial (TT) performance and self-selected pacing strategy. Furthermore, this study developed a velocity prediction tool (nomogram) for similar aerobic exercise tasks performed under various combinations of altitude and load stress. Nine volunteers (6M/3F, age: 24 ± 7 years, height: 171 ± 6 cm, body mass: 72 ± 7 kg, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak: 50.5 ± 5.2 ml·min−1·kg−1) completed a randomized, repeated-measures design protocol. Volunteers performed 3 familiariz...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

2.4-km Run and 20-m Multistage Fitness Test Relationships in Law Enforcement Recruits After Academy Training
This study documented changes in and relationships between the 2.4-km run and 20MSFT in law enforcement recruits after academy training. Retrospective analysis on 6 academy classes (276 males and 50 females) from one agency was conducted. The 20MSFT and 2.4-km run were completed before and after academy training. Estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was derived from 2.4-km run time and the 20MSFT shuttle number. Paired-samples t-tests ascertained whether the 2.4-km run and 20MSFT improved after academy. Correlations and linear regression derived relationships between the 2.4-km run and 20MSFT. Recruits improved in the 2.4...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Recruit Fitness Standards From a Large Law Enforcement Agency: Between-Class Comparisons, Percentile Rankings, and Implications for Physical Training
Lockie, RG, Dawes, JJ, Orr, RM, and Dulla, JM. Recruit fitness standards from a large law enforcement agency: Between-class comparisons, percentile rankings, and implications for physical training. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 934–941, 2020—Law enforcement can be a physically demanding profession. Many agencies use a “one-size-fits-all” academy training approach, which may not be optimal for all recruits. There is also little information that benchmarks fitness of law enforcement recruits. The purpose of this study was to analyze between-academy class differences in fitness, as well as produce normati...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Real and Perceived Effects of Caffeine on Sprint Cycling in Experienced Cyclists
Anderson, DE, German, RE, Harrison, ME, Bourassa, KN, and Taylor, CE. Real and perceived effects of caffeine on sprint cycling in experienced cyclists. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 929–933, 2020—Caffeine ingestion before an exercise bout may provide ergogenic effects on anaerobic performance, particularly in trained athletes. However, the degree of influence of caffeine may be coupled with the placebo effect. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized design was used to determine the real and perceived effects of caffeine on anaerobic performance. Ten competitively trained cyclists (9 men and 1 woman) complet...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effect of Acute Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Bench Press Power, Velocity, and Repetition Volume
Williams, TD, Martin, MP, Mintz, JA, Rogers, RR, and Ballmann, CG. Effect of acute beetroot juice supplementation on bench press power, velocity, and repetition volume. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 924–928, 2020—The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute beetroot juice (BRJ) supplementation on power, velocity, and repetitions to failure (RTF) during bench press exercise. Resistance-trained male subjects (n = 11) were recruited for this study. Using a double-blinded, counterbalanced, crossover study design, subjects were supplemented with either 70 ml of BRJ or placebo (PL; black currant juice) ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research