Identification of Maximal Running Intensities During Elite Hurling Match-Play
Young, D, Malone, S, Beato, M, Mourot, L, and Coratella, G. Iidentification of maximal running intensities during elite hurling match-play. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2608–2617, 2020—The current study aimed to describe the duration-specific running intensities of elite hurling players during competition with respect to position using a rolling average method. Global positioning systems (10-Hz Viper; STATSport, Viper, Newry, Northern Ireland) were used to collect data from 36 elite hurling players across 2 seasons. Players were categorized according to playing positions (full-backs, half-backs, midfielders, half...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Efficacy of Combined General, Special, and Specific Resistance Training on Pace Bowling Skill in Club-Standard Cricketers
This study investigated the efficacy of combined “general,” “special,” and “specific” resistance training on pace bowling skill. Twelve male, club-standard pace bowlers were randomly allocated to a combined resistance training (CRT) program or traditional cricket training (TCT) program for 8 weeks. The CRT group (n = 6) trained with 300, 250-g, and standard cricket balls; performed 20-m sprints with +20% and +15% body mass resistance (but also unresisted); and completed chin-up and pull-up training. The TCT group (n = 6) trained with standard balls and performed unresisted 20-m sprints. ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Biophysical Follow-up of Age-Group Swimmers During a Traditional Three-Peak Preparation Program
Zacca, R, Azevedo, R, Ramos, VR, Abraldes, JA, Vilas-Boas, JP, Castro, FAdS, Pyne, DB, and Fernandes, RJ. Biophysical follow-up of age-group swimmers during a traditional three-peak preparation program. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2585–2595, 2020—The aim of this study was to quantify changes and contributions of bioenergetic, technique, and anthropometric profiles across a traditional 3-peak swimming season. Twenty-four age-group swimmers (11 boys: 15 years 6 months ± 1 year 1 month; 13 girls: 14 years 5 months ± 10 months) of equal maturational stage were monitored through a 400-m test in front cr...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Demarcating Exercise Intensity Domains in Freestyle Swimming: Is There an Alternative to Incremental Step Test and Beats Below HRmax Method?
Piatrikova, E, Sousa, AC, Willsmer, NJ, Gonzalez, JT, and Williams, S. Demarcating exercise intensity domains in freestyle swimming: is there an alternative to incremental step test and beats below HRmax method? J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2575–2584, 2020—Critical power derived from the 3-minute all-out test (3MT) was recently used to estimate the exercise intensity boundaries in competitive cyclists. Considering that physiological testing is challenging in swimming, the purpose of this study was to examine whether critical speed (CS) derived from the 3MT could be used for the same purpose in swimming. The secon...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Concurrent Training and Detraining: The Influence of Different Aerobic Intensities
Sousa, AC, Neiva, HP, Gil, MH, Izquierdo, M, Rodríguez-Rosell, D, Marques, MC, and Marinho, DA. Concurrent training and detraining: the influence of different aerobic intensities. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2565–2574, 2020—The aim of this study was to verify the effects of different aerobic intensities combined with the same resistance training on strength and aerobic performances. Thirty-nine men were randomly assigned to a low-intensity group (LIG), moderate-intensity group (MIG), high-intensity group (HIG), and a control group. The training program consisted of full squat, jumps, sprints, and running ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Reliability and Usefulness of Time-Motion and Physiological Responses in Simulated Judo Matches
Franchini, E, Dunn, E, and Takito, MY. Reliability and usefulness of time-motion and physiological responses in simulated judo matches. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2557–2564, 2020—Match simulations have been used to investigate different interventions in judo. However, no study has assessed the reliability of actions performed and the physiological responses to the match and its usefulness. Thus, 2 studies were conducted to verify the reliability of time-motion and physiological responses to judo matches. In the first study, 25 judo athletes performed one 5-minute judo match simulation twice, 1 week apart, and h...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effect of 2- vs. 3-Minute Interrepetition Rest Period on Maximal Clean Technique and Performance
Ammar, A, Riemann, BL, Abdelkarim, O, Driss, T, and Hökelmann, A. Effect of 2- vs. 3-minute interrepetition rest period on maximal clean technique and performance. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2548–2556, 2020—Currently, it is widely accepted that adopting a long rest period (3–5 minutes) during maximal strength and power exercise is of importance in reducing acute fatigue and maintaining power and technique proficiency. However, despite the fact that weightlifting is an example of maximal strength exercise, only 2 minutes are officially allowed when athletes attempt 2 successive lifts. The purpose of t...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Relationship Between Velocity Loss and Repetitions in Reserve in the Bench Press and Back Squat Exercises
This study aimed to compare the pattern of repetition velocity decline during a single set to failure performed against 4 relative loads in the bench press (BP) and full back squat (SQ) exercises. After an initial test to determine 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength and load-velocity relationships, 20 men performed one set of repetitions to failure (MNR test) against loads of 50, 60, 70, and 80% 1RM in BP and SQ, on 8 random order sessions performed every 6–7 days. Velocity against the load that elicited a ∼1.00 m·s−1 (V1 m·s−1 load) was measured before and immediately after each MNR te...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Content Validity Index and Reliability of a New Protocol for Evaluation of Lifting Technique in the Powerlifting Squat and Deadlift
Sjöberg, H, Aasa, U, Rosengren, M, and Berglund, L. Content validity index and reliability of a new protocol for evaluation of lifting technique in the powerlifting squat and deadlift. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2528–2536, 2020—The aim of the study was to create a protocol to cover aspects of technique considered to be associated with risk of injury in the powerlifting squat and deadlift and to examine the content validity and reliability of the aspects included in the protocols. For the content validity investigation, a consensus group of 3 powerlifting physiotherapists identified the domains of content (...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Relative Age Effect in Russian Elite Hockey
The objective of this research was to study RAE prevalence in Russian elite ice hockey, which for years has been holding leading positions in global ice hockey. To estimate RAE prevalence, birthdates of recruits of leading ice hockey academies, players of the leading junior and adult teams, and most successful Russian-born National Hockey League (worlds' strongest ice hockey league) players were identified (n = 2,285). A high prevalence of RAE was identified. The number of players born in the first half of the year was higher than those born later in the year—65.5 and 34.5%, respectively. The RAE prevalence was high ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Influence of Training Schedules on Objective Measures of Sleep in Adolescent Academy Football Players
Brown, GA, Veith, S, Sampson, JA, Whalan, M, and Fullagar, HHK. Influence of training schedules on objective measures of sleep in adolescent academy football players. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2515–2521, 2020—Football academy settings may pose risks to adolescent athletes achieving sufficient sleep because of the contextual challenges these players face (e.g., psychosocial pressure, changes in training, competition, and academic stress). Given the importance of sleep to overall health as well as physical athletic development and injury risk, this study aimed to investigate whether differences in training sched...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Peak Torque Explains More Unique Variability in Growth Measurements than Rate of Torque Development in Young Boys and Girls
This study reported test-retest reliability and evaluated collinearity for isometric leg extension and flexion peak torque (PT) and rate of torque development (RTD) in young boys and girls. Measurements of growth included height, body mass, fat-free mass, maturity offset, and leg extensor and flexor muscle cross-sectional area. Maximal isometric contractions quantified PT and RTD. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), SEM, coefficients of variation, and minimum detectable changes quantified test-retest reliability. Zero-order correlations and first-order partial correlations evaluated collinearity. Peak torque from l...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The Influence of Age on Firefighter Combat Challenge Performance and Exercise Training Habits
Saari, AI, Renz, G, Davis, P, and Abel, MG. The influence of age on firefighter combat challenge performance and exercise training habits. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2500–2506, 2020—The primary purpose of this study was to compare older vs. younger physically trained structural firefighters' performance in an international firefighter physical ability competition (Scott Firefighter Combat Challenge) and their engagement in physical training. Secondarily, firefighters' perceived importance of fitness characteristics to perform occupational tasks was evaluated. Sixty-four trained male firefighters' completed a ti...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The Relationship Between the National Football League Scouting Combine and Game Performance Over a 5-Year Period
This study analyzed data from athletes who participated in the Combine between 2013 and 2017 (n = 1,537) and their subsequent year's performance in the NFL. Data from 6 athletic measures were normalized for each athlete when compared with all other athletes (avgCZ) and athletes of the same position (avgPZ). Correlational analysis was used to ascertain whether the physical performance tests were associated with subsequent year's game performance (avgS). A multiple linear regression was performed to examine whether individual event Combine performance could predict the subsequent year's avgS in the NFL. Of the 35 correlation...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Repeated Application of a Novel Creatine Cream Improves Muscular Peak and Average Power in Male Subjects
Whinton, AK, Donahoe, K, Gao, R, Thompson, KMA, Aubry, R, Saunders, TJ, Johnston, A, Chilibeck, PD, and Burr, JF. Repeated application of a novel creatine cream improves muscular peak and average power in male subjects. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2482–2491, 2020—Using a multicenter, randomized controlled trial, (N = 123, age 23 ± 4 years) we sought to determine whether administration of a novel, topical creatine supplement could improve muscular performance after acute and repeated (7-day) exposure. To study the acute performance enhancing effects of the supplement, subjects completed 5 sets of 15 maxima...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Ergogenic Effects of 8 Days of Sceletium Tortuosum Supplementation on Mood, Visual Tracking, and Reaction in Recreationally Trained Men and Women
Hoffman, JR, Marcus, I, Dubnov-Raz, G, and Gepner, Y. Ergogenic effects of 8 days of Sceletium tortuosum supplementation on mood, visual tracking, and reaction in recreationally trained men and women. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2476–2481, 2020—Sceletium tortuosum (ST) is a South African plant that has been reported to promote a sense of well-being in healthy individuals and used in treating people with anxiety, stress, or depression. These studies have been conducted in middle-aged and older adults, but no investigations have been performed in a healthy, young adult population. Thus, the purpose of this study w...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Cycling Performance Enhancement After Drop Jumps May Be Attributed to Postactivation Potentiation and Increased Anaerobic Capacity
de Poli, RAB, Boullosa, DA, Malta, ES, Behm, D, Lopes, VHF, Barbieri, FA, and Zagatto, AM. Cycling performance enhancement after drop jumps may be attributed to postactivation potentiation and increased anaerobic capacity. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2465–2475, 2020—The study aimed to investigate the effects of drop jumps (DJs) on supramaximal cycling performance, anaerobic capacity (AC), electromyography, and fatigue. Thirty-eight recreational cyclists participated into 3 independent studies. In study 1 (n = 14), neuromuscular fatigue was assessed with the twitch interpolation technique. In study 2 (n = 16), th...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Test-Retest Reliability of Static and Countermovement Power Push-Up Tests in Young Male Athletes
Bohannon, NA, Gillen, ZM, Shoemaker, ME, McKay, BD, Gibson, SM, Cramer, JT. Test-Retest Reliability of Static and Counter-Movement Power Push-Up Tests in Young Male Athletes. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2456–2464, 2020—The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate test-retest reliability of the static (SP) and countermovement (CMP) power push-up test in young male athletes. The secondary purpose was to compare the reliability of vertical ground reaction forces versus torque measurements during the power push-up tests. Twenty boys (age = 11.60 ± 1.15 years) performed SPs and CMPs on force plates with t...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Differences in the Electromyographic Activity of Lower-Body Muscles in Hip Thrust Variations
Collazo García, CL, Rueda, J, Suárez Luginick, B, Navarro, E. Differences in the electromyographic activity of lower-body muscles in hip thrust variations. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2449–2455, 2020—Coaches often use variations of an exercise to train a specific muscle. The purpose of this study was to analyze motor patterns in 4 variations of one of the most popular strength training exercises for the lower body: the barbell hip thrust. Seven experienced personal trainers performed a series of 8 repetitions of each variation with a load of 40% one repetition maximum. Subjects rested 3′ betw...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effectiveness of a 2-Week Strength Training Learning Intervention on Self-selected Weight-Training Intensity
Glass, SC, Ahmad, S, and Gabler, T. Effectiveness of a 2-week strength training learning intervention on self-selected weight-training intensity. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2443–2448, 2020—The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an imposed (IM) vs. self-selected (SS) 2-week strength training intervention on SS resistance training intensity. Subjects 18–40 years (SS n = 10 and IM n = 10) were provided resistance training orientation (chest press, leg press, triceps extension, bicep curl, and shoulder press). On 6 different training days, subjects completed 2 sets on each machine whi...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Can Simulated Partners Boost Workout Effort in Long-Term Exercise?
Feltz, DL, Hill, CR, Samendinger, S, Myers, ND, Pivarnik, JM, Winn, B, Ede, A, and Ploutz-Snyder, L. Can simulated partners boost workout effort in long-term exercise? J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2434–2442, 2020—We tested whether exercising with a stronger simulated (i.e., software-generated) partner leads to greater work effort compared to exercising alone, to help those seeking to maintain or improve fitness levels with long-term high-intensity training, but who find it necessary or practical to exercise in social isolation. Forty-one middle-aged adults, who participated in at least 30 minutes of vigorous exer...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Evaluation of Load-Velocity Relationships and Repetitions-to-Failure Equations in the Presence of Male and Female Spotters
Nickerson, BS, Williams, TD, Snarr, RL, Garza, JM, and Salinas, G. Evaluation of load-velocity relationships and repetitions-to-failure equations in the presence of male and female spotters. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2427–2433, 2020—The purpose of this study was 2 fold: (a) to determine whether differences in mean concentric velocity (MCV), repetitions-to-failure (RTF), measured 1 repetition maximum (1RM), and 1RM prediction methods vary between lifter and spotter sex and (b) determine the accuracy of velocity-based 1RM (MCV1RM) and repetitions-to-failure-based 1RM (RTF1RM) prediction equations in the presence...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Blood Flow Restriction at High Resistance Loads Increases the Rate of Muscular Fatigue, but Does Not Increase Plasma Markers of Myotrauma or Inflammation
Winchester, LJ, Morris, CE, Badinger, J, Wiczynski, TL, and VanWye, WR. Blood flow restriction at high resistance loads increases the rate of muscular fatigue, but does not increase plasma markers of myotrauma or inflammation. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2419–2426, 2020—High-load resistance training and blood flow restriction (BFR) training at low loads both promote protein synthesis and growth through different cell signaling mechanisms. Therefore, co-activation of these pathways could result in a synergistic effect for additional growth enhancement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how BFR effects per...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Long-Term Strength Adaptation: A 15-Year Analysis of Powerlifting Athletes
Latella, C, Teo, W-P, Spathis, J, and van den Hoek, D. Long-term strength adaptation: A 15-year analysis of powerlifting athletes. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2412–2418, 2020—Strength is a fundamental component of athletic performance and development. This investigation examined the long-term strength development of powerlifting (PL) athletes. The rate of strength gain/day was assessed in 1897 PL athletes (F = 626, M = 1,271) over a 15-year period (2003–2018). Independent T-tests explored sex differences in baseline absolute (kg) and relative strength (kg·body mass−1 [bm]) recorded from the fi...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Isometric Mid-thigh Pull Kinetics: Sex Differences and Response to Whole-Body Vibration
Merrigan, JJ, Dabbs, NC, and Jones, MT. Isometric mid-thigh pull kinetics: Sex differences and response to whole-body vibration. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2407–2411, 2020—The purpose was to investigate whether whole-body vibration's (WBV's) effect on force-time characteristics is dependent on time and sex. Subjects (men, n = 18; women, n = 18) performed a static quarter squat with WBV (frequency: 30 Hz; amplitude: 2–4 mm) and without for 5 × 30 seconds repetitions (1:1, WBV:rest). Next, they performed 2 sets of 3 repetitions of the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) with 3 minutes of intraset rest and...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Research Note Source Type: research

Muscular Fitness and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review
Rodrigues de Lima, T, Custódio Martins, P, Henrique Guerra, P, and Augusto Santos Silva, D. Muscular fitness and cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents: A systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2394–2406, 2020—The purpose of this study was to identify and summarize the relationships between muscular fitness (MF) and individual components of metabolic syndrome (high waist circumference [WC], high blood pressure [BP], high systolic BP [SBP], high diastolic BP [DBP], high triglycerides [TG], fasting blood glucose [FG], and low HDL cholesterol levels [HDL-C]) in children and adolescen...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Brief Review Source Type: research

Women's Football: An Examination of Factors That Influence Movement Patterns
Griffin, J, Larsen, B, Horan, S, Keogh, J, Dodd, K, Andretta, M, and Minahan, C. Title: Women’s football: An examination of factors that influence movement patterns. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2384–2393, 2020—The popularity and professionalism of women's football has increased in conjunction with participation rates over the last 10 years, with projected female participation rates to double worldwide by 2026. Scientific interest has also increased, in part due to Fédération Internationale de Football Association now allowing global positioning system (GPS) units to be worn during all competi...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Brief Review Source Type: research

The Influence of Movement Tempo on Acute Neuromuscular, Hormonal, and Mechanical Responses to Resistance Exercise—A Mini Review
Wilk, M, Tufano, JJ, and Zajac, A. The influence of movement tempo on acute neuromuscular, hormonal, and mechanical responses to resistance exercise—a mini review. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2369–2383, 2020—Resistance training studies mainly analyze variables such as the type and order of exercise, intensity, number of sets, number of repetitions, and duration and frequency of rest periods. However, one variable that is often overlooked in resistance training research, as well as in practice, is premeditated movement tempo, which can influence a myriad of mechanical and physiological factors associated wi...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Brief Review Source Type: research

Determining Maximal Muscle Strength in Mice: Validity and Reliability of an Adapted Swimming Incremental Overload Test
Gouvêa, AL, Martinez, CG, and Kurtenbach, E. Determining maximal muscle strength in mice: validity and reliability of an adapted swimming incremental overload test. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2360–2368, 2020—At present, there are no reliable methods to determine maximal muscle strength in small rodents. Here, we established an adapted swimming incremental overload test (SIOT) as an instrument for this purpose. First, to validate the test, BALB/c mice received 20 mg·kg−1·d−1 of dexamethasone (DEXA group) or water (control group). After 14 days, with a cumulative dose of 120 mg&mid...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Methodological Reports Source Type: research

Modeling Fitness Variable Responses to Training in Prepubescent Children
Alves, AR, Marta, C, Neiva, HP, Nunes, C, Izquierdo, M, and Marques, MC. Modeling fitness variable responses to training in prepubescent children. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2352–2359, 2020—The aim of this study was to determine strength and oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) performances according to different training program intervention design with 8-week duration in prepubescent children through a multiple linear regression models. Two hundred forty-five healthy prepubescent children (aged 10.9 ± 0.5 years) were randomly assigned to a specific training program (strength training only—S; aerobic training...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Short Research Report Source Type: research

Different Foot Positioning During Calf Training to Induce Portion-Specific Gastrocnemius Muscle Hypertrophy
Nunes, JP, Costa, BDV, Kassiano, W, Kunevaliki, G, Castro-e-Souza, P, Rodacki, ALF, Fortes, LS, and Cyrino, ES. Different foot positioning during calf training to induce portion-specific gastrocnemius muscle hypertrophy. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2347–2351, 2020—The aim of this study was to compare the changes in gastrocnemius muscle thickness (MT) between conditions such as which foot was pointed outward (FPO), foot was pointed inward (FPI), or foot was pointed forward (FPF). Twenty-two young men (23 ± 4 years) were selected and performed a whole-body resistance training program 3 times per week for 9 ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Short Research Report Source Type: research

Effect of the Fatigue on the Physical Performance in Different Small-Sided Games in Elite Football Players
Calderón Pellegrino, G, Paredes-Hernández, V, Sánchez-Sánchez, J, García-Unanue, J, and Gallardo, L. Effect of the fatigue on the physical performance in different small-sided games in elite football players. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2338–2346, 2020—Football players need to be able to perform high-intensity efforts of short duration with brief recovery periods. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the pitch dimension on high-intensity actions and the effect of a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test on the physical performance in different 4-against-4 (4v4) sma...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Physical Capacities of German Bundesliga Soccer Players
Cardoso de Araújo, M, Baumgart, C, Jansen, CT, Freiwald, J, and Hoppe, MW. Sex differences in physical capacities of German Bundesliga soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2329–2337, 2020—Sex differences in physical capacities of elite soccer players have received limited attention. Therefore, this study investigated sex differences in linear and nonlinear sprint, squat and countermovement jump, core endurance, as well as incremental and intermittent endurance capacities in German Bundesliga soccer players. A total of 76 field players (29 women) were tested for the mentioned anaerobic- and aerobic-...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Physical Characteristics of Elite Youth Female Soccer Players Characterized by Maturity Status
Emmonds, S, Scantlebury, S, Murray, E, Turner, L, Robsinon, C, and Jones, B. Physical characteristics of elite youth female soccer players characterized by maturity status. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2321–2328, 2020—The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of maturity status on the physical characteristics of youth female soccer players. One hundred fifty-seven players from 3 elite soccer academies in England completed assessments of anthropometry, strength (isometric midthigh pull), lower-body power (countermovement jump [CMJ]), aerobic capacity (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1), cha...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Monitoring Wellness, Training Load, and Running Performance During a Major International Female Field Hockey Tournament
McGuinness, McMahon, G, A, Malone, S, Kenna, D, Passmore, D, and Collins, K. Monitoring wellness, training load, and running performance during a major international female field hockey tournament. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2312–2320, 2020—The current observational study quantified players' activity profiles during a major international female field hockey tournament and determined whether an association exists between well-being measures and running performance within elite female hockey players. Elite female field hockey players (23 ± 3 years; 162.6 ± 13 cm; and 66 ± 6 kg) participated i...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Association of Functional Screening Tests and Noncontact Injuries in Division I Women Student-Athletes
Warren, M, Lininger, M, Smith, CA, Copp, A, and Chimera, NJ. Association of functional screening tests and noncontact injuries in Division I women student-athletes. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2302–2311, 2020—To determine the association between functional screening tests and lower-body, noncontact injuries in Division I women basketball, soccer, and volleyball student-athletes (SA). Sixty-eight injury-free women SA (age: 19.1 ± 1.1 years, height: 171.3 ± 8.7 cm, and mass: 68.4 ± 9.5 kg) were tested preseason with single hop (SH), triple hop (TH), and crossover hop (XH) for distance, and iso...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Relationship Between Repeated Kicking Performance and Maximal Aerobic Capacity in Elite Junior Australian Football
Joseph, J, Woods, C, and Joyce, C. Relationship between repeated kicking performance and maximal aerobic capacity in elite junior Australian football. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2294–2301, 2020—Australian football (AF) is a physically demanding game, requiring players to engage in a range of anaerobic activities interspersed with prolonged aerobic exercise. Coupled, players have to perform a range of technical skills, the most fundamental of which being to effectively kick (dispose) the ball. The aim of this study was to ascertain the extent to which aerobic capacity influenced kicking performance in AF. Twenty...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Monitoring Changes in Power, Speed, Agility, and Endurance in Elite Cricketers During the Off-Season Period
Herridge, R, Turner, A, and Bishop, C. Monitoring changes in power, speed, agility, and endurance in elite cricketers during the off-season period. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2285–2293, 2020—The purpose of this study was to monitor changes in power, speed, agility, and endurance in elite cricketers during the 20-week off-season period. Fourteen elite male cricketers (age 26.2 ± 5.3 years; height 180.8 ± 8.5 cm; mass 83.5 ± 6.7 kg) conducted a physical testing battery in week 1 and week 18 of the off-season period. The testing included a yoyo intermittent recovery test, bilateral and unilate...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of Endurance Exercise Bouts in Hypoxia, Hyperoxia, and Normoxia on mTOR-Related Protein Signaling in Human Skeletal Muscle
This study investigated the effects of short-term hypoxia (HY), hyperoxia (PER), and normoxia on anabolic signaling proteins in response to an acute bout of moderate endurance exercise (EEX) before and after an endurance exercise training intervention. Eleven healthy male subjects conducted one-legged cycling endurance exercise (3 × 30 min·wk−1 for 4 weeks). One leg was trained under hypoxic (12% O2) or hyperoxic conditions (in a randomized cross-over design), and the other leg was trained in normoxia (20.9% O2) at the same relative workload. Musculus vastus lateralis biopsies were taken at baseline (T0)...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of an Upper-Body Training Program Involving Resistance Exercise and High-Intensity Arm Cranking on Peak Handcycling Performance and Wheelchair Propulsion Efficiency in Able-Bodied Men
Chaikhot, D, Reed, K, Petroongrad, W, Athanasiou, F, van Kooten, D, and Hettinga, FJ. Effects of an upper-body training program involving resistance exercise and high-intensity arm cranking on peak handcycling performance and wheelchair propulsion efficiency in able-bodied men. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2267–2275, 2020—The aim of this study was to determine the training effects of an upper-body training program involving resistance exercise and high-intensity arm cranking on peak handcycling performance, propulsion efficiency, and biomechanical characteristics of wheelchair propulsion in able-bodied men. The t...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Physiological Adaptations to High-Intensity Interval and Continuous Training in Kayak Athletes
This study compared physiological adaptations with HIIT and CT in flat water kayak athletes. Twenty-four national-class kayakists were divided into 3 groups (n = 8 per group), 2 of which participated in an 8-week CT or HIIT program, whereas the third one served as control (C). An incremental maximum oxygen uptake (V̇o2max), a maximal anaerobic Wingate-type, as well as 1,000-m (T1,000 m) and 200-m (T200 m) time test were performed before and after the training period on a kayak ergometer, to determine changes in V̇o2max, peak blood lactate ([La+2]peak), paddling speed at V̇o2max (JOURNAL/jscr/04.03/00124278-202008000-000...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Use of Visual Feedback During Jump-Squat Training Aids Improvement in Sport-Specific Tests in Athletes
This study investigated the effects of instantaneous performance feedback during the jump-squat exercise over a 6-week training period. Twenty-five strength-trained athletes were randomly divided into an instant feedback (n = 13, half-squat 3-repetition maximum (3RM)/body mass = 2.38 ± 0.19) or a nonfeedback (n = 12, half-squat 3RM/body mass = 2.03 ± 0.44) group. Both groups performed the same training program (3 × week), consisting of 4 sets of 8 repetitions (weeks 1–3) and 8 sets of 4 repetitions (weeks 4–6) using a barbell with a load that maximized the average concentric power output (Pm...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Acute Effects of Interset Rest Duration on Physiological and Perceptual Responses to Resistance Exercise in Hypoxia
This study aimed to determine whether manipulating interset rest periods during resistance training in hypoxia impacts on physiological and perceptual responses to exercise. Twelve healthy males completed 1 repetition maximum (1RM) testing for the bilateral leg extension, before completing 4 separate randomized trials comprising 5 × 10 repetitions of leg extensions at 70% 1RM. Experimental trials were completed in both moderate hypoxia (FIO2 = 15%) and normoxia (FIO2 = 21%), using interset rest periods of both 60 and 180 seconds for each environmental condition. Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to quantify muscle ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Acute Effects of Different Rest Intervals Between Sets of Resistance Exercise on Neuromuscular Fatigue in Trained Older Women
Jambassi Filho, JC, Gurjão, ALD, Prado, AKG, Gallo, LH, and Gobbi, S. Acute effects of different rest intervals between sets of resistance exercise on neuromuscular fatigue in trained older women. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2235–2240, 2020—The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of different rest intervals (RIs) between sets on total volume, time under tension, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and integrated electromyography (iEMG) activity of the vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) muscles. Twenty-one resistance-trained older women (66.4 ± 4.4 years; 69.1 ±...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Comparison of Mechanical Outputs Between the Traditional and Ballistic Bench Press: Role of the Type of Variable
This study aimed to comprehensively explore the differences in mechanical outputs between the bench press (BP) and the bench press throw (BPT) exercises performed by 21 men (age: 22.0 ± 4.2 years, body mass: 73.4 ± 7.7 kg, height: 177.2 ± 8.0 cm, and concentric-only [C-O] BP 1 repetition maximum: 81.3 ± 6.8 kg) against a fixed external load of 27 kg using both the (C-O) and eccentric-concentric (E-C) execution techniques. The types of variables collected by means of a linear velocity transducer were the traditional mean values (i.e., from the first positive velocity until the barbell reaches max...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Acute and Delayed Effects of a Resistance Training Session Leading to Muscular Failure on Mechanical, Metabolic, and Perceptual Responses
This study explored the acute and delayed (24 and 48 hours after exercise) effects of a resistance training session leading to muscular failure. Eleven resistance-trained men completed a training session consisting on 3 sets of repetitions to failure during the back-squat exercise performed at the maximum possible speed with a load equivalent to a mean propulsive velocity (MPV) of 1 m·s−1 (≈60% of 1 repetition maximum). A number of mechanical (number of repetitions and starting MPV of the set, MPV achieved against the 1MPV load, countermovement jump [CMJ] height, and handgrip strength), metabolic (lactat...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Influence of Adding Single-Joint Exercise to a Multijoint Resistance Training Program in Untrained Young Women
Barbalho, M, Gentil, P, Raiol, R, Fisher, J, Steele, J, and Coswig, V. Influence of adding single-joint exercise to a multijoint resistance training program in untrained young women. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2214–2219, 2020—The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of adding single-joint (SJ) exercises to a multijoint (MJ) resistance training (RT) program on muscle strength and anthropometric measures of young women. Twenty untrained women were divided into a group that performed only MJ exercises or a group that performed both SJ and MJ exercises (MJ + SJ). Before and after 8 weeks of train...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Eight Weeks of Strength and Power Training Improves Club Head Speed in Collegiate Golfers
Oranchuk, DJ, Mannerberg, JM, Robinson, TL, and Nelson, MC. Eight weeks of strength and power training improves club head speed in collegiate golfers. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2205–2213, 2020—Club head speed (CHS) is a major determinant of drive distance, a key component of golf performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the indirect effects of an 8-week strength and power program on CHS. Twelve (6 men, 6 women) NCAA Division II golfers (20.3 ± 1.5 years) randomly assigned to an intervention or control group underwent either a periodized strength and power program consisting of high-load b...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Reliability and Validity of a New Portable Tethered Sprint Running Test as a Measure of Maximal Anaerobic Performance
In conclusion, our results suggest that despite insufficient stimulation of anaerobic metabolism in some subjects resulting from poor implementation of test instructions, the PTSR is a reliable and valid test for an easy and practical assessment of maximal anaerobic performance under different field conditions. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of Different Training Interventions on the Recovery of Physical and Neuromuscular Performance After a Soccer Match
Trecroci, A, Porcelli, S, Perri, E, Pedrali, M, Rasica, L, Alberti, G, Longo, S, and Iaia, FM. Effects of different training interventions on the recovery of physical and neuromuscular performance after a soccer match. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2189–2196, 2020—In competitive soccer, players are frequently required to play in periods with congested fixtures in which they have limited time to recover between matches (3–4 days). Thus, finding the most appropriate intervention strategy to limit players' neuromuscular (muscle function of lower limbs) and physical (running performance) impairments in this shor...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research