Very-Short-Duration, Low-Intensity Half-Time Re–warm up Increases Subsequent Intermittent Sprint Performance
This study investigated the effect of very-short-duration, low-intensity half-time re–warm up (RW) on subsequent intermittent sprint performance. Using a randomized cross-over design, 11 healthy men performed 3 trials. In the experimental trials, participants performed the first 40-minute intermittent exercise followed by a 15-minute half-time. The interventions at half-time were 15 minutes of seated rest (control), 3 minutes of moderate-intensity RW (cycling at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake [V[Combining Dot Above]O2max]; [60% RW]), and 3 minutes of low-intensity RW (cycling at 30% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max; [30%...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of Different Footwear Properties and Surface Instability on Neuromuscular Activity and Kinematics During Jumping
Lesinski, M, Prieske, O, Borde, R, Beurskens, R, and Granacher, U. Effects of different footwear properties and surface instability on neuromuscular activity and kinematics during jumping. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3246–3257, 2018—The purpose of this study was to examine sex-specific effects of different footwear properties vs. barefoot condition during the performance of drop jumps (DJs) on stable and unstable surfaces on measures of jump performance, electromyographic (EMG) activity, and knee joint kinematics. Drop jump performance, EMG activity of lower-extremity muscles, as well as sagittal and frontal kn...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Understanding the Relationship Between Coach and Athlete Perceptions of Training Intensity in Youth Sport
Scantlebury, S, Till, K, Sawczuk, T, Weakley, J, and Jones, B. Understanding the relationship between coach and athlete perceptions of training intensity in youth sport. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3239–3245, 2018—To alleviate issues arising from the over-/under-prescription of training load, coaches must ensure that desired athlete responses to training are being achieved. The present study aimed to assess the level of agreement between the coach-intended (presession) and observed (postsession) rating of perceived exertion (RPE), with athlete RPE during different training intensities (easy, moderate, hard). Co...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

A Reliable Testing Battery for Assessing Physical Qualities of Elite Academy Rugby League Players
This study assessed the interday reliability of a testing battery for the assessment of physical qualities of rugby league players. Fifty players (age 17.1 ± 1.1 years; stature 181.3 ± 6.3 cm; and body mass 89.0 ± 11.6 kg) from 3 Super League academies participated in this study. Tests of countermovement jump performance, 10- and 20-m sprint performance, change of direction, medicine ball throw, and a modified Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (prone Yo-Yo IR1) were completed on 3 separate occasions. Between-day intraclass correlation coefficient, typical error (TE), coefficient of variation, an...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Positional Differences in GPS Outputs and Perceived Exertion During Soccer Training Games and Competition
Abbott, W, Brickley, G, and Smeeton, NJ. Positional differences in GPS outputs and perceived exertion during soccer training games and competition. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3222–3231, 2018—Soccer training games are popular training modalities, allowing technical, tactical, and physical aspects to be trained simultaneously. Small (SSGs), medium (MSGs), and large training games (LSGs) elicit differing physical demands. To date, no research has investigated physical and perceived demands of training games on soccer playing positions relative to competitive demands. In addition, previous research has referenced ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Aerobic Fitness in Top-Class Soccer Referees
Castagna, C, Bizzini, M, D'Ottavio, S, and Araújo Póvoas, SC. Sex differences in aerobic fitness in top-class soccer referees. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3216–3221, 2018—The aim of this study was to assess the aerobic-fitness differences between male and female top-class soccer field referees (FRs). This with the purpose to provide cutoff values useful for training prescription in female FRs. Forty female top-class FRs (age 34.18 ± 3.50 years and 5 ± 3.9 years international refereeing experience) and 52 male FRs (age 38.4 ± 3.3 years and 5 ± 3.5 years international ref...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Glomerular Filtration Rate Is Unchanged by Ultramarathon
In this study, we calculated eGFR and also measured creatinine clearance after every 25 km of a 100-km run. Twenty healthy, amateur runners (males, mean age 40.75 ± 7.15 years, mean body mass 76.87 ± 8.39 kg) took part in a 100-km run on a track. Blood and urine were collected before the run, after every 25 km, and 12 hours after the run. Seventeen runners completed the study. There was increase in creatinine, urea, and uric acid observed after 100 km (p (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Physical Fitness and Blood Glucose Influence Performance in IndyCar Racing
Ferguson, DP and Myers, ND. Physical fitness and blood glucose influence performance in IndyCar racing. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3193–3206, 2018—Charlie Kimball (CK) is an elite-level IndyCar driver who has type 1 diabetes. Since CK became a full-time competitor, there has been exponential growth in the number of racing drivers competing with type 1 diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to present a case report of data collected on CK over 6 years, to better inform strength and conditioning coaches on how to prepare racing drivers with type 1 diabetes for competition. We hypothesized that the p...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Maximal Upper-Body Strength and Oxygen Uptake Are Associated With Performance in High-Level 200-m Sprint Kayakers
Pickett, CW, Nosaka, K, Zois, J, Hopkins, WG, and Blazevich, AJ. Maximal upper-body strength and oxygen uptake are associated with performance in high-level 200-m sprint kayakers. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3186–3192, 2018—Current training and monitoring methods in sprint kayaking are based on the premise that upper-body muscular strength and aerobic power are both important for performance, but limited evidence exists to support this premise in high-level athletes. Relationships between measures of strength, maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), and 200-m race times in kayakers competing at nat...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Influence of Different Methods to Determine Maximum Heart Rate on Training Load Outcomes in Basketball Players
Berkelmans, DM, Dalbo, VJ, Fox, JL, Stanton, R, Kean, CO, Giamarelos, KE, Teramoto, M, and Scanlan, AT. Influence of different methods to determine maximum heart rate on training load outcomes in basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3177–3185, 2018—The summated-heart-rate-zones (SHRZ) approach uses heart rate (HR) responses relative to maximum HR (HRmax) to calculate the internal training load (TL). Age-predicted, test-derived, and session-based approaches have all been used to determine HRmax in team sports. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of using age-predicted, test-derived,...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Physical, Anthropometric, and Athletic Movement Qualities Discriminate Development Level in a Rugby League Talent Pathway
This study compared the physical, anthropometric, and athletic movement qualities of talent-identified rugby league (RL) players within a development pathway. From a total of 174 players, 3 developmental levels were defined: under 18 (U18; n = 52), under 20 (U20; n = 53), and state league (SL; n = 69). All players performed a test battery that consisted of 5 physical assessments, 2 anthropometric measurements, and an athletic movement assessment. A multivariate analysis of variance modeled the main effect of developmental level (3 levels: U18, U20, and SL) on test criterion variables. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Comparison of Physical Fitness Parameters for Starters vs. Nonstarters in an NCAA Division I Men's Lacrosse Team
Sell, KM, Prendergast, JM, Ghigiarelli, JJ, Gonzalez, AM, Biscardi, LM, Jajtner, AR, and Rothstein, AS. Comparison of physical fitness parameters for starters vs. nonstarters in an NCAA Division I men's lacrosse team. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3160–3168, 2018—The purpose of this study was to present a fitness profile of Division I male lacrosse players and compare the fitness attributes across different positions and starting status. Forty-one Division I men's lacrosse players (19.6 ± 1.6 years, 82.5 ± 9.5 kg, 182.0 ± 5.4 cm) volunteered to participate in the study. Fitness attributes ass...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Body Composition Variables by Sport and Sport-Position in Elite Collegiate Athletes
Fields, JB, Merrigan, JJ, White, JB, and Jones, MT. Body composition variables by sport and sport-position in elite collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3153–3159, 2018—To assess body composition measures by sport and sport-position. Elite collegiate athletes participated (n = 475): men's and women's soccer (MSOC, n = 67; WSOC, n = 110); men's and women's swimming (MSWIM, n = 26; WSWIM, n = 22); men's and women's track and field (MTF, n = 29; WTF, n = 24); women's lacrosse and volleyball (WLAX, n = 84; WVB, n = 73); and baseball (BASE, n = 40). One-way analysis of variances assessed differences acro...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Seasonal Changes in Functional Fitness and Neurocognitive Assessments in Youth Ice-Hockey Players
This study evaluated changes in functional fitness and concussion status over the course of a competitive season in youth ice-hockey players, and examined the relationship between these variables and injury occurrence. Thirty-six participants (8.9 ± 1.1 years) completed preseason and postseason assessments including anthropometric measurements, the functional movement screen (FMS), Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-LQ), and a computerized neurocognitive assessment (ImPACT). Paired-samples t-tests were used to compare preseason and postseason data. Independent samples t-tests were used to compare FMS, YBT-LQ, and ImP...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Importance of Body Composition in the National Hockey League Combine Physiological Assessments
Chiarlitti, NA, Delisle-Houde, P, Reid, RER, Kennedy, C, and Andersen, RE. Importance of body composition in the national hockey league combine physiological assessments. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3135–3142, 2018—The National Hockey League (NHL) combine was designed to assess draft-eligible players based on body composition, speed, power, and strength. The importance of body composition in the battery of combine physical tests was investigated, and differences in results based on position were explored. Thirty-seven elite male Canadian university hockey players (age = 22.86 ± 1.55 years, mass = 87.21 &...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Heart Rate Variability and Training Load Among National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 College Football Players Throughout Spring Camp
Flatt, AA, Esco, MR, Allen, JR, Robinson, JB, Earley, RL, Fedewa, MV, Bragg, A, Keith, CM, and Wingo, JE. Heart rate variability and training load among National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 college football players throughout spring camp. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3127–3134, 2018—The purpose of this study was to determine whether recovery of cardiac-autonomic activity to baseline occurs between consecutive-day training sessions among positional groups of a collegiate football team during Spring camp. A secondary aim was to evaluate relationships between chronic (i.e., 4-week) heart rate variabi...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Stature, Body Mass, and Body Mass Index in High School American Football Players: Appropriate Determinants of Obesity Prevalence?
Mendez, AI, Miramonti, AA, Gillen, ZM, McKay, BD, Leutzinger, TJ, and Cramer, JT. Stature, body mass, and BMI in high school american football players: Appropriate determinants of obesity prevalence? J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3119–3126, 2018—The purpose of this study was to evaluate stature (HT), mass (BM), body mass index (BMI), and obesity prevalence based on BMI categories in a large sample (n = 7,175) of high school American football players enrolled as freshmen, sophomores, or juniors. Players were categorized by their positions: offensive linemen (OLs), defensive linemen (DLs), tight end, defensive end,...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Performance of Future Elite Players at the National Football League Scouting Combine
Hedlund, DP. Performance of future elite players at the NFL scouting combine. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3112–3118, 2018—The purpose of this study is to examine players' physical and performance measures taken at the National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine and compare these with their future performance in the NFL. From 2002 to 2016, 3 types of player data (N = 5,506) were collected from secondary data sources. Results of players earned on various NFL Scouting Combine drills and measurements (e.g., height, body mass, 40-yard dash time, vertical jump, bench press repetitions, shuttle run time, and 3-con...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of a 15-Day Low Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet in Resistance-Trained Men
This study examined the effects of a 15-day isocaloric low carbohydrate (50% E) (LCHF) diet on physiological and metabolic alterations in resistance-trained (RT) men. College-aged RT men (n = 11) completed 4 V[Combining Dot Above]O2max tests using treadmill every 5 days during the 15-day trial. Blood was drawn intravenously pre-exercise across each experimental trial for insulin, cortisol, and glucose. Pulmonary data were collected and substrate oxidation (OXI) was calculated during exercise. Body mass decreased (p (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Can Caffeine Intake Improve Neuromuscular and Technical-Tactical Performance During Judo Matches?
This study aimed to verify the effect of caffeine intake on blood lactate concentrations and neuromuscular and technical-tactical performance during simulated judo matches. Fourteen male judo athletes received capsules containing caffeine or placebo and were evaluated in both conditions. Before the baseline and 1 hour after the caffeine/placebo intake, athletes performed the countermovement jump (CMJ) test, handgrip strength, judogi grip strength test (JGST), and blood samples were collected. Subsequently, the athletes were submitted to three 5-minute matches with 15-minute intervals. All neuromuscular tests were performed...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Acute Effect of Citrulline Malate Supplementation on Upper-Body Resistance Exercise Performance in Recreationally Resistance-Trained Men
Gonzalez, AM, Spitz, RW, Ghigiarelli, JJ, Sell, KM, and Mangine, GT. Acute effect of citrulline malate supplementation on upper-body resistance exercise performance in recreationally resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3088–3094, 2018—To investigate the effect of citrulline malate (CM) supplementation on upper-body resistance exercise performance, 12 recreationally resistance-trained men (21.4 ± 1.6 years; 163.0 ± 46.2 cm; 85.0 ± 12.4 kg) underwent 2 testing sessions administered in a randomized, double-blind fashion. During each visit, participants were provided either 8 g ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Pacing Strategy of a Full Ironman Overall Female Winner on a Course With Major Elevation Changes
Pryor, JL, Adams, WM, Huggins, RA, Belval, LN, Pryor, RR, and Casa, DJ. Pacing strategy of a full Ironman overall female winner on a course with major elevation changes. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3080–3087, 2018—The purpose of this study was to use a mixed-methods design to describe the pacing strategy of the overall female winner of a 226.3-km Ironman triathlon. During the race, the triathlete wore a global positioning system and heart rate (HR)-enabled watch and rode a bike outfitted with a power and cadence meter. High-frequency (every km) analyses of mean values, mean absolute percent error (MAPE), and no...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Mechanical Properties of the Achilles Tendon: Longitudinal Response to Repetitive Loading Exercise
Lepley, AS, Joseph, MF, Daigle, NR, Digiacomo, JE, Galer, J, Rock, E, Rosier, SB, and Sureja, PB. Sex differences in mechanical properties of the Achilles tendon: Longitudinal response to repetitive loading exercise. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3070–3079, 2018—Sex differences have been observed in the mechanical properties of the Achilles tendon, which may help to explain the increased risk of injury in men. However, the response and recovery of tendon mechanics to repetitive loading exercise, as well as sex-dependent responses, are not well understood. The purpose of our study was to compare Achilles tendon me...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Higher Quadriceps Roller Massage Forces Do Not Amplify Range-of-Motion Increases nor Impair Strength and Jump Performance
Grabow, L, Young, JD, Alcock, LR, Quigley, PJ, Byrne, JM, Granacher, U, Škarabot, J, and Behm, DG. Higher quadriceps roller massage forces do not amplify range-of-motion increases nor impair strength and jump performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3059–3069, 2018—Roller massage (RM) has been reported to increase range of motion (ROM) without subsequent performance decrements. However, the effects of different rolling forces have not been examined. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sham (RMsham), moderate (RMmod), and high (RMhigh) RM forces, calculated relative to the individuals'...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Comparison of Sprint Interval and Endurance Training in Team Sport Athletes
Kelly, DT, Tobin, C, Egan, B, Carren, AM, O'Connor, PL, McCaffrey, N, and Moyna, NM. Comparison of sprint interval and endurance training in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3051–3058, 2018—High-volume endurance training (ET) has traditionally been used to improve aerobic capacity but is extremely time-consuming in contrast to low-volume short-duration sprint interval training (SIT) that improves maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) to a similar extent. Few studies have compared the effects of SIT vs. ET using running-based protocols, or in team sport athletes. Club level male Gae...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of Plyometric and Resistance Training on Muscle Strength, Explosiveness, and Neuromuscular Function in Young Adolescent Soccer Players
In conclusion, 8-week free-weight resistance and plyometric training resulted in significant improvements in muscle strength and jump performance. Training resulted in similar muscle hypertrophy in the 2 training modes, with no clear differences in muscle performance. Plyometric training was more effective in improving jump performance, whereas free-weight RT was more advantageous in improving peak torque, where the stretch reflex was not involved. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Characteristics of a National Level Female Weightlifter Peaking for Competition: A Case Study
This study investigated physiological and performance changes of a national-level 69 kg female weightlifter after 3 competition phases over a 28-week training period. The athlete first trained for a regional championship (weeks 1–12), followed by a local competition (weeks 13–23) and the national championship (weeks 24–28). Body mass, vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (CSA), and unloaded and loaded squat jump performance were assessed weekly during each 4-week competition phase. Serum biomarkers and dynamic midthigh pulls were assessed before and after each competition phase. Weightlifting performance...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Range of Motion Adaptations in Powerlifters
Gadomski, SJ, Ratamess, NA, and Cutrufello, PT. Range of motion adaptations in powerlifters. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3020–3028, 2018—The aim of this study was to investigate range of motion (ROM) and training patterns in powerlifters. Upper- and lower-extremity passive ROMs were assessed through goniometry in 15 male powerlifters (35.3 ± 13.7 years) and 15 age-matched controls (34.9 ± 14.6 years). The Apley scratch test and modified Thomas test were used to assess ROM across multiple joints. Training frequency, stretching frequency, and exercise selection were recorded using questionnaires. Pa...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Relationships Between Height, Arm Length, and Leg Length on the Mechanics of the Conventional and High-Handle Hexagonal Bar Deadlift
Lockie, RG, Moreno, MR, Orjalo, AJ, Lazar, A, Liu, TM, Stage, AA, Birmingham-Babauta, SA, Stokes, JJ, Giuliano, DV, Risso, FG, Davis, DL, and Callaghan, SJ. Relationships between height, arm length, and leg length on the mechanics of the conventional and high-handle hexagonal bar deadlift. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3011–3019, 2018—The study investigated relationships between arm length (AL) and leg length (LL) and conventional deadlift (CD) and high-handle hexagonal bar deadlift (HHBD) mechanics. Twenty-three resistance-trained subjects (14 men and 9 women) completed a 1 repetition maximum CD and HHBD. A line...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Divergent Blood Pressure Response After High-Intensity Interval Exercise: A Signal of Delayed Recovery?
The objective of this commentary is to highlight potential factors influential to the adaptation of high-intensity exercise. Herein, we present a rationale supporting the contention that elevated systolic blood pressure, after a bout of high-intensity exercise, may be indicative of delayed/incomplete recovery. Relative to type I skeletal muscle fibers, the unique cellular/vascular characteristics of type II muscle fibers may necessitate longer recovery periods, especially when exposed to repeated high-intensity efforts (i.e., intervals). In addition to the noted race disparities in cardiometabolic disease risk, including h...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

In Memoriam: Dr. Terry Todd (1938–2018) Pioneering Powerlifter, Writer, Sport Promoter, and Historian Who Changed the Cultural Paradigm for Strength
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Memoriam Source Type: research

Relationship Between Change of Direction, Speed, and Power in Male and Female National Olympic Team Handball Athletes
Pereira, LA, Nimphius, S, Kobal, R, Kitamura, K, Turisco, LAL, Orsi, RC, Cal Abad, CC, and Loturco, I. Relationship between change of direction, speed, and power in male and female National Olympic Team handball athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2987–2994, 2018—The aims of this study were to (a) assess the relationship between selected speed- and power-related abilities (determined by 20-m sprint, unloaded countermovement jump [CMJ] and squat jump [SJ], and loaded jump squat [JS]) and performance in 2 distinct change of direction (COD) protocols (Zigzag test and T-test) and (b) determine the magnitude of di...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Research Note Source Type: research

Influence of Muscle Quality on the Differences in Strength From Slow to Fast Velocities in Career Firefighters
Gerstner, GR, Giuliani, HK, Mota, JA, and Ryan, ED. Influence of muscle quality on the differences in strength from slow to fast velocities in career firefighters. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2982–2986, 2018—The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ultrasound-derived muscle quality and the %decrease in peak torque (PT) from slow to fast velocities in career firefighters. Thirty-nine male career firefighters (mean ± SD: age = 36.90 ± 6.87 years; stature = 180.93 ± 6.98 cm; mass = 109.30 ± 20.57 kg; and body mass index [BMI] = 33.24 ± 4.95 kg·m&mi...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Research Note Source Type: research

Effect of High-Dose, Short-Duration β-Alanine Supplementation on Circulating IL-10 Concentrations During Intense Military Training
This study examined the effect of β-alanine as a potential anti-inflammatory agent during intense military training. Twenty soldiers (20.1 ± 0.6 years) from an elite combat unit were randomly assigned to either a β-Alanine (BA) or placebo (PL) group. Soldiers were provided with 12 g·d−1 of either BA or PL for 7 days between 2 intensive periods of navigational training and restricted sleep. During the initial training period, soldiers navigated on average 27.8 km·d−1 with ∼50% of their body mass in their packs for 5 days. Soldiers returned to base and began a 7-day supplementat...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Research Note Source Type: research

Acute Hypotension After Moderate-Intensity Handgrip Exercise in Hypertensive Elderly People
Souza, LR, Vicente, JB, Melo, GR, Moraes, VC, Olher, RR, Sousa, IC, Peruchi, LH, Neves, RV, Rosa, TS, Ferreira, AP, and Moraes, MR. Acute hypotension after moderate-intensity handgrip exercise in hypertensive elderly people. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2971–2977, 2018—Isometric handgrip (IHG) training is effective in reducing blood pressure (BP), but little is known about the occurrence of acute hypotension by postisometric exercise hypotension (PIEH) and the underlying mechanisms. Ten sedentary hypertensive elderly people (7 women and 3 men) individuals, with a mean age of 73.2 ± 2.2 years and systolic ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Influence of Acute Concurrent Exercise Performed in Public Fitness Facilities on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Among Older Adults in Rio de Janeiro City
Cordeiro, R, Monteiro, W, Cunha, F, Pescatello, LS, and Farinatti, P. Influence of acute concurrent exercise performed in public fitness facilities on ambulatory blood pressure among older adults in Rio de Janeiro city. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2962–2970, 2018—The project “Third-Age Academies’” (TAAs) is a public policy providing supervised physical activities to over 40,000 seniors at open-access facilities (squares etc.) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We investigated whether TAA concurrent exercise circuit induced postexercise hypotension (PEH) in individuals older than 60 years. Blood pressu...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Physiological and Biomechanical Responses to an Acute Bout of High Kicking in Dancers
Rice, PE, Gurchiek, RD, and McBride, JM. Physiological and biomechanical responses to an acute bout of high kicking in dancers. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2954–2961, 2018—High-kick precision competitive dance involves the integration of kicking inline, jumping, and turning during a 3-minute routine and causes a disturbance to both aerobic and anaerobic systems. However, no known study has quantified the effect of a hick-kick–specific protocol on blood lactate (BL), heart rate (HR), and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. A group of adolescent high-kick dancers (n = 20; age = 15.0 ± 1.8 years; ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Physiological Responses to and Athlete and Coach Perceptions of Exertion During Small-Sided Basketball Games
This study describes heart rate (HR) responses during different small-sided games (SSGs) in junior basketball players and identifies the level of agreement between athlete and coach perceptions of internal training load calculated using the in-task rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method. Over a 6-week period, 12 male junior basketball players, who played in the Spanish national under-18 League, played 7 games of one-a-side (1v1), 6 games of 2-a-side (2v2), 8 games of 5-a-side (5v5), and 5 games of superiority (3v2) situations. During 1v1, 2v2, 5v5, and 3v2, peak HRs were 90.27 ± 3.37%, 92.68 ± 3.29%, 92.01...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Workloads of Competitive Surfing: Work-to-Relief Ratios, Surf-Break Demands, and Updated Analysis
Farley, ORL, Secomb, JL, Raymond, ER, Lundgren, LE, Ferrier, BK, Abbiss, CR, and Sheppard, JM. Workloads of competitive surfing: work-to-relief ratios, surf-break demands, and updated analysis. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2939–2948, 2018—The study provides an in-depth descriptive and quantitative time-motion analysis of competitive surfing, using Global Positioning System (GPS) units and video synchronization, which serves to extend upon the results of Farley, Harris, and Kilding (Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26, 7 [2012]). In addition, comparisons between locations and surfers competing in th...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Frequency Speed of Kick Test Performance Comparison Between Female Taekwondo Athletes of Different Competitive Levels
Santos, JFS and Franchini, E. Frequency speed of kick test performance comparison between female taekwondo athletes of different competitive levels. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2934–2938, 2018—Construct validity is a desirable characteristic in any performance test to differentiate athletes. However, no taekwondo-specific test was investigated with this purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare female taekwondo athletes grouped in different competitive levels. Forty-two female taekwondo athletes divided into International/National (median [interquartile range]; n = 21, age: 20 [18–25] years; body ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The Match Heart Rate and Running Profile of Elite Under-21 Hurlers During Competitive Match-Play
Young, D, Mourot, L, Beato, M, and Coratella, G. The match heart rate and running profile of elite under-21 hurlers during competitive match-play. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2925–2933, 2018—The aims of the current study were to examine the physical and physiological demands of elite under-21 male hurling match-play across halves of play and between positions. Global positioning systems (10 Hz) and heart rate (HR) monitors were used to collect data from 95 players during 10 games. Total distance (TD), relative speed, high-speed running (HSR), sprint distance, total sprints, and mean length of sprint was 6,688 &...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Running Intensities in Elite Youth Soccer by Age and Position
Duthie, GM, Thornton, HR, Delaney, JA, Connolly, DR, and Serpiello, FR. Running intensities in elite youth soccer by age and position. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2918–2924, 2018—The purpose of this investigation was to examine differences between the peak running speed, acceleration, and metabolic power of elite youth soccer across a range of age levels by position. Ninety-six elite junior soccer players were assessed between 2015 and 2017. Ninety-six elite junior soccer players (at time of match: age, 15.8 ± 0.9 years; body mass, 69.1 ± 8.0 kg) were assessed during 61 games within the 2015, 2016...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Match Demands of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Men's Soccer
This study aimed to profile positional movement characteristics of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I male soccer players. Eighteen Division I male soccer players were monitored using global positioning systems, inertial movement, and heart rate (HR) technology during 24 matches over a full competitive season (N = 235 observations). Positional groups were classified as either a forward (F), center midfielder (CM), wide midfielder (WM), or defender (D). Movement was profiled by locomotor (walking [0–7.19 km·h−1], jogging [7.20–14.39 km·h−1], running [14.40–...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Laboratory-Based Physical and Physiological Test Results That Serve as Predictors of Male, Amateur Road Cyclists' Performance Levels
Coetzee, B, and Malan, D. Laboratory-based physical and physiological test results that serve as predictors of male, amateur road cyclists' performance levels. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2897–2906, 2018—The purposes of this study were first, to determine the practical significant differences of laboratory-based physical and physiological test results between a selected group of successful and less successful amateur, male road cyclists from Africa; and second, to determine the significance, adequacy, accurateness, and usefulness of laboratory-based physical and physiological test results to serve as predictors...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Examining the Influence of Exercise Intensity and Hydration on Gastrointestinal Temperature in Collegiate Football Players
DeMartini-Nolan, JK, Martschinske, JL, Casa, DJ, Lopez, RM, Stearns, RL, Ganio, MS, and Coris, E. Examining the influence of exercise intensity and hydration on gastrointestinal temperature in collegiate football players. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2888–2896, 2018—Debate exists regarding the influence of intensity and hydration on body temperature during American football. The purpose of this study was to observe body core temperature responses with changes in intensity and hydration. Twenty-nine male football players (age = 21 ± 1 year, height = 187 ± 9 cm, mass = 110.1 ± 23.5 kg, body ma...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Efficacy of Hot Yoga as a Heat Stress Technique for Enhancing Plasma Volume and Cardiovascular Performance in Elite Female Field Hockey Players
Perrotta, AS, White, MD, Koehle, MS, Taunton, JE, and Warburton, DER. Efficacy of hot yoga as a heat stress technique for enhancing plasma volume and cardiovascular performance in elite female field hockey players. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2878–2887, 2018—This investigation examined the efficacy of hot yoga as an alternative heat stress technique for enhancing plasma volume percentage (PV%) and cardiovascular performance. Ten international caliber female field hockey players completed six 60-minute hot yoga sessions using permissive dehydration over 6 days, followed by a 6-day national team camp. Changes in ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Consumption of a 5-mg Melatonin Supplement Does Not Affect 32.2-km Cycling Time Trial Performance
Brandenberger, KJ, Ingalls, CP, Rupp, JC, and Doyle, JA. Consumption of a 5-mg melatonin supplement does not affect 32.2-km cycling time trial performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2872–2877, 2018—Some studies suggest that exogenous melatonin supplementation may improve athletic performance in hot humid environments because of its precooling effect. However, melatonin is also consumed as a sleep aid for its depressive effects on the central nervous system (CNS), which may hinder performance. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine whether consuming a 5-mg supplement of melatonin would affect perform...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effect of Caffeine Supplementation on Quadriceps Performance After Eccentric Exercise
This study examined the effect of caffeine supplementation on uninjured and injured muscle. Eight men and women (N = 16) who were physically active individuals participated in this study (age: 24.3 ± 4.3 years; height: 173.0 ± 7.0 cm, mass: 75.2 ± 11.5 kg; body fat: 18.2 ± 15.9%). One leg was assessed under uninjured and injured (100 eccentric quadriceps contractions) conditions after caffeine supplementation (6 mg·kg−1), with the other leg assessed under both conditions after placebo supplementation. Compared with the placebo, caffeine increased peak isokinetic torque by 6.8 &plusm...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The Perceived Psychological Responsibilities of a Strength and Conditioning Coach
Radcliffe, JN, Comfort, P, and Fawcett, T. The perceived psychological responsibilities of a strength and conditioning coach. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2853–2862, 2016—Research is limited in exploring the specific psychology-oriented responsibilities of the strength and conditioning professional. The present research explored the psychological responsibilities adopted by accredited strength and conditioning coaches. Participants comprised 10 coaches working within the United Kingdom, 3 within the United States, and 5 within Australia offering a cross-section of experience from various sport disciplines and ed...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

An Eighteen-Minute Submaximal Exercise Test to Assess Cardiac Fitness in Response to Aerobic Training
Romagnoli, M, Alis, R, Sanchis-Gomar, F, Lippi, G, and Arduini, A. An 18-minute submaximal exercise test to assess cardiac fitness in response to aerobic training. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2846–2852, 2018—We aimed to evaluate the utility of a submaximal heart rate recovery (HRR) test to monitor changes in cardiac fitness after aerobic training. Twenty healthy subjects were assigned to a control (n = 10) or a training (n = 10) group. Subjects in the training group performed 8 weeks of bicycle training, followed by 8 weeks of detraining. Heart rate recovery was assessed after exercises at 65% and 80% HRmax. Th...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research