Changes in the Muscle Activity of Gymnasts During a Handstand on Various Apparatus
Kochanowicz, A, Niespodziński, B, Mieszkowski, J, Marina, M, Kochanowicz, K, and Zasada, M. Changes in the muscle activity of gymnasts during a handstand on various apparatus. J Strength Cond Res 33(6): 1609–1618, 2019—Gymnasts perform handstands on various apparatus, both in stable and unstable conditions. Such performances require specific muscle activation, which should differ depending on the condition and expertise of the gymnast. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate (a) the difference in electromyography (EMG) between handstands performed on 3 apparatus (floor, rings, and parallel bars); and (...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Physical Profiles of Female Academy Netball Players by Position
Thomas, C, Ismail, KT, Simpson, R, Comfort, P, Jones, PA, and Dos'Santos, T. Physical profiles of female academy netball players by position. J Strength Cond Res 33(6): 1602–1609, 2019—The purpose of this study was to evaluate the height, body mass, and physical characteristics of female academy netball players by position (centers, defenders, and shooters). Data were collected on 43 regional academy players during the preseason period and comprising height, body mass, and physical characteristics (single-leg hop [SLH], squat jump [SJ], countermovement jump [CMJ], 5- and 10-m sprint, 505 change of direction spe...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Functional Movement Screen and a Novel Basketball Mobility Test as an Injury Prediction Tool for Collegiate Basketball Players
Bond, CW, Dorman, JC, Odney, TO, Roggenbuck, SJ, Young, SW, and Munce, TA. Evaluation of the functional movement screen and a novel basketball mobility test as an injury prediction tool for collegiate basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 33(6): 1590–1601, 2019—Identifying injury risk and implementing preventive measures can assist in reducing injury occurrence and may ultimately improve athletic performance. Improper movement patterns often contribute to musculoskeletal (MSK) injuries. The validity of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) as an injury prediction tool for athletes remains unclear. We designed ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Relationship Between Physical Fitness at the End of Preseason and the Inseason Game Performance in Japanese Female Professional Baseball Players
This study examined anthropometric and fitness profiles of Japanese female professional baseball players and investigated the relationship between players' physical fitness and inseason game performance. Fifty-seven players who were registered in the Japan Women's Baseball League (JWBL) participated. Height, body mass, grip strength, back strength, knee extension and flexion strength, hamstring extensibility, vertical jump height, and horizontal jump distance were measured at preseason (February and March) in 2013. Game performance during the 2013 season (March–November) was obtained from official JWBL statistics. Ve...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Mixed Martial Arts Induces Significant Fatigue and Muscle Damage Up to 24 Hours Post-combat
This study investigates the physiological/physical responses to a simulated mixed martial arts (MMA) competition over 24 hours. Twelve fighters performed a simulated MMA competition, consisting of three 5-minute MMA matches. Physiological/physical data were assessed before (Trest), directly after round 1 (Trd1), round 2 (Trd2) and round 3 (Trd3), and then 30 minutes (Trecovery30min) and 24 hours (Trecovery24h) post competition. Heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration ([La−]) were assessed at Trest, Trd1, Trd2, and Trd3. Biological data were collected at Trest, Trd3, Trecov...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Technical and Tactical Aspects in Italian Youth Rugby Union in Relation to Different Academies, Regional Tournaments, and Outcomes
This study aimed to analyze the technical and tactical aspects of the Italian under-18 Academy Rugby Union in relation to different academies, regional tournaments, and game outcomes. A notational analysis (44 indicators) was performed on 16 games (2014–15 season) to evaluate strong differences (p ≤ 0.05; moderate-large effect sizes [ESs]) according to variables. Among academies, strong differences were showed for defensive breakdown, in which the defending support is much (range = 77–87%), equal (range = 11–32%), and less (range = 2–12%) numerous than the attacking support, total tackles (range ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Postactivation Potentiation and Change of Direction Speed in Elite Academy Rugby Players
This study investigated the effect of preceding proagility sprints with maximal isometric squats to determine if postactivation potentiation (PAP) could be harnessed in change of direction speed. Sixteen elite under-17 rugby union players (age: 16 ± 0.41 years; body mass: 88.7 ± 12.1 kg; height: 1.83 ± 0.07 m) from an Aviva Premiership rugby club were tested. Subjects performed a change of direction specific warm-up, followed by 2 baseline proagility tests. After 10-minute recovery, 3 × 3-second maximal isometric squats with a 2-minute recovery between sets were completed as a conditioning activi...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The National Football League Combine 40-yd Dash: How Important is Maximum Velocity?
Clark, KP, Rieger, RH, Bruno, RF, and Stearne, DJ. The NFL combine 40-yard dash: how important is maximum velocity? J Strength Cond Res 33(6): 1542–1550, 2019—This investigation analyzed the sprint velocity profiles for athletes who completed the 40-yard (36.6 m) dash at the 2016 National Football League (NFL) Combine. The purpose was to evaluate the relationship between maximum velocity and sprint performance, and to compare acceleration patterns for fast and slow athletes. Using freely available online sources, data were collected for body mass and sprint performance (36.6 m time with split intervals at 9.1 a...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of Functional Strength Training Program on Movement Quality and Fitness Performance Among Girls Aged 12–13 Years
Liao, T, Li, L, and Wang, YT. Effects of functional strength training program on movement quality and fitness performance among girls aged 12–13 years. J Strength Cond Res 33(6): 1534–1541, 2019—The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of a 12-week intervention of functional strength training (FST) on movement quality and fitness performance among 12- to 13-year-old untrained girls. One hundred forty-four girls (age 12.47 ± 0.57 years) were randomly assigned to the FST group and traditional strength training (TST) group. The FST group underwent 10 functional movement corrective exercise...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Kinetic Analysis of Unilateral Landings in Female Volleyball Players After a Dynamic and Combined Dynamic-Static Warm-up
Avedesian, JM, Judge, LW, Wang, H, and Dickin, DC. Kinetic analysis of unilateral landings in female volleyball players after a dynamic and combined dynamic-static warm-up. J Strength Cond Res 33(6): 1524–1533, 2019—A warm-up is an important period before training or competition to prepare an athlete for the physical demands of subsequent activity. Previous research has extensively focused on the effects of warm-up in relation to various jumping performance attributes; however, limited research has examined the biomechanical nature of landings after common warm-up practices. Twelve female, collegiate-level voll...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Impact of 10-Minute Interval Roller Massage on Performance and Active Range of Motion
In conclusion, active KF and HF ROM improvements were prolonged by additional RM, whereas neuromuscular performance remained relatively unaffected. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Genetic Variability Among Power Athletes: The Stronger vs. the Faster
Ben-Zaken, S, Eliakim, A, Nemet, D, and Meckel, Y. Genetic variability among power athletes: the stronger vs. the faster. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2019—Athletic events can be divided into “aerobic-type events” or “anaerobic-type events” based on energy usage. Power, speed, and strength are also used to specify sports subtypes. Weightlifters (WLs), sprinters, and jumpers feature high-intensity efforts lasting a few seconds. However, their performance requires different proportions of power, speed, and strength. The aim of the current study was to examine genetic differences bet...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Movement Velocity as a Measure of Level of Effort During Resistance Exercise
This study analyzed whether the loss of repetition velocity during a resistance exercise set was a reliable indicator of the number of repetitions left in reserve. After the assessment of one-repetition (1RM) strength and full load-velocity relationship, 30 men were divided into 3 groups according to their 1RM strength per body mass: novice, well trained, and highly trained. On 2 separate occasions and in random order, subjects performed tests of maximal number of repetitions to failure against loads of 65, 75, and 85% 1RM in 4 exercises: bench press, full squat, prone bench pull, and shoulder press. For each exercise, and...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of Water Immersion Methods on Postexercise Recovery of Physical and Mental Performance
Ahokas, EK, Ihalainen, JK, Kyröläinen, H, and Mero, AA. Effects of water immersion methods on postexercise recovery of physical and mental performance. J Strength Cond Res 33(6): 1488–1495, 2019—The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 3 water immersion interventions performed after active recovery compared with active recovery only on physical and mental performance measures and physiological responses. The subjects were physically active men (age 20–35 years, mean ± SD 26 ± 3.7 years). All subjects performed a short-term exercise protocol, including maximal jumps...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Load-Power Relationships for High-Speed Knee Extension Exercise
In conclusion, the very low inertial resistance to initiate each repetition on this novel device may in part explain our PP/BM, AP/FFM, PP/FFM results, in which higher values were achieved by women. Our practical applications imply that the low inertial resistance for HST repetitions negates male size and strength advantages typically seen when power is measured. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Fat-Free Mass Index in a Diverse Sample of Male Collegiate Athletes
This study reported height-adjusted FFMI (FFMIAdj) data in 209 male collegiate athletes from 10 sports (baseball, cross country, football, golf, ice hockey, weightlifting, rugby, swimming, track and field, and water polo) and the FFMIAdj natural upper limit for sports with sufficient sample size. The body composition of all subjects (mean ± SD; age: 20.7 ± 1.9 years, height: 182.9 ± 6.7 cm, body mass: 90.8 ± 16.8 kg, and percent body fat: 15.6 ± 5.3) was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Linear regression was used to adjust for height, and the FFMIAdj natural upper limit wa...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effect of Internal vs. External Focus of Attention Instructions on Countermovement Jump Variables in NCAA Division I Student-Athletes
Kershner, AL, Fry, AC, and Cabarkapa, D. Effect of internal vs. external focus of attention instructions on countermovement jump variables in NCAA Division I student-athletes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2019—The purpose of this study was compare the effect of internal and external focus of attention instructions on force-time characteristics of the countermovement jump (CMJ) in collegiate student-athletes. Forty-three resistance-trained men ( JOURNAL/jscr/04.02/00124278-201906000-00002/math_2MM1/v/2019-05-22T223911Z/r/image-tiff ± SD; age = 20 ± 1.5 years) on an NCAA Division I baseball...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The Validity of a Global Navigation Satellite System for Quantifying Small-Area Team-Sport Movements
This study aimed to evaluate the validity of GNSS to quantify the mean speed (m·s−1) and acceleration (m·s−2) of movements typical to team sports. One participant completed 9 periods of 4 minutes of activity, separated by 2-minute rest periods, which involved walking, jogging, and running in a variety of directions and patterns, aimed to simulate a team-sport movement profile. Speed and acceleration were quantified from a 10-Hz GNSS unit and compared with a 10-camera, 3-dimensional motion capture system (VICON), from which the movement of both the participant's center of mass (COM) and the locatio...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Technical Report Source Type: research

Effects of Light-emitting Diode Therapy on the of Biceps Brachii Muscle of Young Healthy Males after 8 Weeks of Strength Training: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Analysis of Physiological and Kinematic Demands of Wheelchair Basketball Games—A Review
This study aimed to review the literature concerning studies that have investigated physiological and kinematic measures during WB games. The literature search took place in 4 electronic databases: Scopus, MEDLINE–PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL. The inclusion criteria for this review were as follows: (a) articles that evaluated the behavior of physiological and kinematic variables during WB games; (b) athletes aged at least 18 years; and (c) participants with a minimum of 1 year in the modality practice. The selected studies (n = 16) were divided into 2 groups: physiological analysis (n = 11) and kinematic analysis ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Brief Review Source Type: research

Effects of 12-Week Concurrent High-Intensity Interval Strength and Endurance Training Program on Physical Performance in Healthy Older People
This study aimed to analyze the effect of 12-week low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT)-based concurrent training program on body composition, upper- and lower-body muscle strength, mobility, and balance in older adults, as well as to compare it with a low-moderate–intensity continuous training. Ninety active older adults were randomly assigned to experimental group (EG, n = 47) and control group (CG, n = 43). Body composition and physical functioning were assessed before (pretest) and after (posttest) a 12-week intervention. A 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test for an interact...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Validity and Reliability of the Hexoskin Wearable Biometric Vest During Maximal Aerobic Power Testing in Elite Cyclists
Elliot, CA, Hamlin, MJ, and Lizamore, CA. Validity and reliability of the Hexoskin wearable biometric vest during maximal aerobic power testing in elite cyclists. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1437–1444, 2019—The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of the Hexoskin vest for measuring respiration and heart rate (HR) in elite cyclists during a progressive test to exhaustion. Ten male elite cyclists (age 18–52 yrs, height 179.3 ± 6.0 cm, body mass 73.2 ± 9.1 kg, VO2max 60.7 ± 7.8 ml·kg·min−1, mean ± SD) conducted a maximal aerobic ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Reduction of Physiological Strain Under a Hot and Humid Environment by a Hybrid Cooling Vest
Chan, APC, Yang, Y, Wong, FKW, Yam, MCH, Wong, DP, and Song, W-F. Reduction of physiological strain under a hot and humid environment by a hybrid cooling vest. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1429–1436, 2019—Cooling treatment is regarded as one of good practices to provide safe training conditions to athletic trainers in the hot environment. The present study aimed to investigate whether wearing a commercial lightweight and portable hybrid cooling vest that combines air ventilation fans with frozen gel packs was an effective means to reduce participants' body heat strain. In this within-subject repeated measures stu...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Comparative Effects of Two Interval Shuttle-Run Training Modes on Physiological and Performance Adaptations in Female Professional Futsal Players
Teixeira, AS, Arins, FB, De Lucas, RD, Carminatti, LJ, Dittrich, N, Nakamura, FY, and Guglielmo, LGA. Comparative effects of two interval shuttle-run training modes on physiological and performance adaptations in female professional futsal players. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1416–1428, 2019—The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of 2 shuttle-run interval training (SRIT) models with 1 and 3 directional changes per running bout on the aerobic and anaerobic performances of elite female futsal players. Sixteen players competing in the Brazilian National Division League took part in the study. The trai...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Recovery Time Profiling After Short-, Middle- and Long-Distance Swimming Performance
Piras, A, Cortesi, M, Campa, F, Perazzolo, M, and Gatta, G. Recovery time profiling after short-, middle- and long-distance swimming performance. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1408–1415, 2019—We investigated cardiac autonomic responses and hemodynamic parameters on recovery time after short-, middle- and long-swimming performance. Ten male regional-level swimmers were tested to estimate time and frequency domains of arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and heart rate variability after 100, 200, and 400 m of front crawl. We found a BRS reduction for 90 minutes after a maximal 100- and 200-m front crawl event, mean...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Validity and Reliability of an On-Court Fitness Test for Assessing and Monitoring Aerobic Fitness in Squash
This study investigated the validity and reliability of a squash-specific fitness test which can yield both a standalone performance score, as well as pertinent physiological markers such as VO2max, the lactate turnpoint and oxygen cost, in a sport-specific environment. Eight national squash players completed 3 tests in a counterbalanced order: an incremental laboratory treadmill test (LAB) and 2 on-court fitness tests (STs) that involved repeated shuttle runs at increasing speeds. VO2max during ST was agreeable with LAB (typical error [TE] = 3.3 ml·kg−1·min−1, r = 0.79). The mean bias between LAB...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Monitoring the Prescribed and Experienced Heart Rate–Derived Training Loads in Elite Field Hockey Players
This study examined the congruence between the prescribed and experienced heart rate–derived training loads over a 5-week periodized mesocycle. Twenty-four elite female field hockey players training as part of a national team were monitored before an (FIH) Hockey World League tournament. Three on-field training sessions per week were prospectively designed focusing on technical, tactical, and physiologically oriented hockey drills. A training load value, modeling the periodized weekly loading scheme, was prescribed for each training session and was calculated using normative training load responses from performing on...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of a 12-Month Complex Proprioceptive-Coordinative Training Program on Soccer Performance in Prepubertal Boys Aged 10–11 Years
Boraczyński, MT, Sozański, HA, and Boraczyński, TW. Effects of a 12-month complex proprioceptive-coordinative training program on soccer performance in prepubertal boys aged 10–11 years. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1380–1393, 2019—The aim was to examine the effects of a series of on-field proprioceptive-coordinative (P-C) exercises on motor performance (MP) in prepubertal soccer players. Fifty-three male soccer players aged 10.1–11.8 years were randomized among 2 experimental programs receiving P-C training (P-CT; n = 26) or regular training (RT; n = 27). A control group (C; n = 22) consisted of a...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Validity and Reliability of 15 Hz Global Positioning System Units for Assessing the Activity Profiles of University Football Players
Barr, M, Beaver, T, Turczyn, D, and Cornish, S. Validity and reliability of 15 Hz global positioning system units for assessing the activity profiles of university football players. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1371–1379, 2019—Global positioning system (GPS) units have recently become popular for monitoring and assessing the workloads of football players. Currently, there is a lack of studies examining the validity and reliability of these systems for that purpose, so the aim of the current study was to determine whether 15 Hz units (SPI HPU; GPSports, Canberra, Australia) could accurately be used to describe the...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Repeated-Sprint Ability in Division I Collegiate Male Soccer Players: Positional Differences and Relationships With Performance Tests
Lockie, RG, Moreno, MR, Orjalo, AJ, Stage, AA, Liu, TM, Birmingham-Babauta, SA, Hurley, JM, Torne, IA, Beiley, MD, Risso, FG, Davis, DL, Lazar, A, Stokes, JJ, and Giuliano, DV. Repeated-sprint ability in Division I collegiate male soccer players: positional differences and relationships with performance tests. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1362–1370, 2019—Repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in essential for soccer. Important considerations when assessing RSA is whether there are differences between positions (defenders, midfielders, and forwards), and what physiological characteristics may contribute to RSA. This has no...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Predicting the Intensity for Performing Supramaximal Incline Treadmill Interval Training in Distance Runners
In conclusion, Tmax of all conditions proved reliable, and bivariate analysis revealed running at 125% Vmax on a 5% grade yielded a 30-second effort. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The Effects of Various Weighted Implements on Baseball Swing Kinematics in Collegiate Baseball Players
Williams, CC, Gdovin, JR, Wilson, SJ, Cazas-Moreno, VL, Eason, JD, Hoke, EL, Allen, CR, Wade, C, and Garner, JC. The effects of various weighted implements on baseball swing kinematics in collegiate baseball players. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1347–1353, 2019—The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different warm-up (WU) devices on bat swing parameters including maximal resultant velocity (MRV), resultant velocity at ball contact (RVBC), time difference between MRV and RVBC, bat angle at MRV, bat angle at RVBC, and perceptual differences of each WU implement used by National Collegiate Athle...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density of Division 1 Collegiate Football Players: A Consortium of College Athlete Research Study
Bosch, TA, Carbuhn, AF, Stanforth, PR, Oliver, JM, Keller, KA, and Dengel, DR. Body composition and bone mineral density of Division 1 collegiate football players: a consortium of college athlete research study. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1339–1346, 2019—The purpose of this study was to generate normative data for total and regional body composition in Division 1 collegiate football players using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and examine positional differences in total and regional measurements. Data were used from the Consortium of College Athlete Research (C-CAR) group. Four hundred sixty-seven playe...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Differences in the Movement Skills and Physical Qualities of Elite Senior and Academy Rugby League Players
Ireton, MRE, Till, K, Weaving, D, and Jones, B. Differences in the movement skills and physical qualities of elite senior and academy rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1328–1338, 2019—The aim of this study was to investigate (a) the differences in the movement skills and physical qualities between academy and senior rugby league players and (b) the relationships between movement skills and physical qualities. Fifty-five male rugby league players (Senior, n = 18; Under 19 n = 23; Under 16, n = 14) undertook a physical testing battery, including anthropometric (stature and body mass), strength (iso...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Carbohydrate and Caffeine Improves High-Intensity Running of Elite Rugby League Interchange Players During Simulated Match Play
Clarke, JS, Highton, J, Close, GL, and Twist, C. Carbohydrate and caffeine improves high-intensity running of elite rugby league interchange players during simulated match play. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1320–1327, 2019—The study examined the effects of carbohydrate and caffeine ingestion on simulated rugby league interchange performance. Eight male elite rugby league forwards completed 2 trials of a rugby league simulation protocol for interchange players 7 days apart in a randomized crossover design, ingesting either carbohydrate (CHO; 40 g·h−1) or carbohydrate and caffeine (CHO-C) (40 g·...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Log-Transformed Electromyography Amplitude-Power Output Relationship: Single-Leg Knee-Extensor Versus Single-Leg Cycle Ergometry
Noble, EB, Pilarski, JM, Vora, HK, Zuniga, JM, and Malek, MH. Log-transformed electromyography amplitude-power output relationship: single-leg knee-extensor versus single-leg cycle ergometry. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1311–1319, 2019—Comparing and contrasting motor unit recruitment and activation for the same muscles for multiple versus single-joint exercise may provide a better understanding of neuromuscular fatigue. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to compare the slope and y-intercept terms for the 3 superficial quadriceps femoris (QF) (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and vastus medialis) muscles d...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

“Ballistic Six” Upper-Extremity Plyometric Training for the Pediatric Volleyball Players
Turgut, E, Cinar-Medeni, O, Colakoglu, FF, and Baltaci, G. “Ballistic Six” upper-extremity plyometric training for the pediatric volleyball players. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1305–1310, 2019—The Ballistic Six exercise program includes commonly used upper-body exercises, and the program is recommended for overhead throwing athletes. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week the Ballistic Six upper-extremity plyometric training program on upper-body explosive power, endurance, and reaction time in pediatric overhead athletes. Twenty-eight female pediatric volleyball...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of a 6-Week Upper Extremity Low-Volume, High-Intensity Interval Training Program on Oxygen Uptake, Peak Power Output, and Total Exercise Time
Pinto, N, Salassi III, JW, Donlin, A, Schroeder, J, and Rozenek, R. Effects of a 6-week upper extremity low-volume, high-intensity interval training program on oxygen uptake, peak power output, and total exercise time. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1295–1304, 2019—The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of upper extremity (UE) high-intensity interval training (HIIT) to UE continuous training (CT) when training at a similar intensity. Twenty participants (mean age = 23 ± 3 years) were randomly assigned to either a HIIT (n = 10) or CT (n = 10) group. Participants completed a graded exercise test ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Partial Range of Motion Exercise Is Effective for Facilitating Muscle Hypertrophy and Function Through Sustained Intramuscular Hypoxia in Young Trained Men
Goto, M, Chikako, M, Hirayama, T, Terada, S, Nirengi, S, Kurosawa, Y, Nagano, A, and Hamaoka, T. Partial range of motion exercise is effective for facilitating muscle hypertrophy and function through sustained intramuscular hypoxia in young trained men. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1286–1294, 2019—The acute response to and long-term effects of partial range of motion exercise (PRE) and full range of motion exercise (FRE) of elbow extensors were compared in young trained men. The PRE was expected to increase the intramuscular hypoxic environment, which was theorized to enhance muscular hypertrophy. Forty-four resi...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Muscular Strength Adaptations and Hormonal Responses After Two Different Multiple-Set Protocols of Resistance Training in Postmenopausal Women
Nunes, PRP, Barcelos, LC, Oliveira, AA, Furlanetto, R, Martins, FM, Resende, EAMR, and Orsatti, FL. Muscular strength adaptations and hormonal responses after two different multiple-set protocols of resistance training in postmenopausal women. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1276–1285, 2019—We studied the effects of 2 different resistance training (RT) multiple-set protocols (3 and 6 sets) on muscle strength and basal hormones concentrations in postmenopausal women (PW). Postmenopausal women were randomly allocated into 3 groups: control (CT, n = 12), low RT volume (LV = 3 sets for each exercise, n = 10), and high R...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

A New Mathematical Approach to Explore the Post-exercise Recovery Process and Its Applicability in a Cold Water Immersion Protocol
The objective of this study was to propose a mathematical model to analyze the post-training recovery of perceptive, functional, metabolic, and autonomic parameters from the use of cold water immersion (CWI) through isolated and combined analysis. Following simulated training, 64 male soccer players were randomized into an experimental group (EG: CWI, 13 ± 1° C; 15 minutes) and a control group (CG: passive recovery; 15 minutes). Perceptive (soreness and perception of recovery), autonomic (heart rate variability [HRV]), metabolic (lactate concentration), and functional parameters (squat jump, T agility test, spri...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Reliability and Concurrent Validity of Seven Commercially Available Devices for the Assessment of Movement Velocity at Different Intensities During the Bench Press
Pérez-Castilla, A, Piepoli, A, Delgado-García, G, Garrido-Blanca, G, and García-Ramos, A. Reliability and concurrent validity of seven commercially available devices for the assessment of movement velocity at different intensities during the bench press. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1258–1265, 2019—The aim of this study was to compare the reliability and validity of 7 commercially available devices to measure movement velocity during the bench press exercise. Fourteen men completed 2 testing sessions. One-repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press exercise was determined in the first session...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Sex Differences in the Velocity of Muscle Contraction of the Hamstring and Quadriceps Among Recreationally Active Young Adults
This study determines sex differences in the velocity of contraction (VC) of 5 isolated muscles (biceps femoris, semitendinosus, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis) and in the relationships between them. Thirty-six female and 34 male recreationally active young adults participated in the study. The VC was measured by tensiomyography using normalized response velocity (Vrn) to perform comparisons. Sex comparisons were adjusted by height and mass. The study of relationships was carried out by comparing and calculating means and ratios. Sex differences were observed in the VC of rectus femoris (mean differe...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Can the Combination of Acute Alcohol Intake and One Night of Sleep Deprivation Affect Neuromuscular Performance in Healthy Male Adults? A Cross-over Randomized Controlled Trial
Rodrigues, R, Franke, RA, Teixeira, BC, Macedo, RCO, Diefenthaeler, F, Baroni, BM, and Vaz, MA. Can the combination of acute alcohol intake and one night of sleep deprivation affect neuromuscular performance in healthy male adults? A cross-over randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1244–1251, 2019—The aim of this work was to perform a cross-over study to compare isolated and combined effects of alcohol intake and sleep deprivation on neuromuscular responses. Ten young and physically active male subjects were allocated to 4 conditions: (a) placebo intake + normal sleep (PLA + SLE); (b) alcohol ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation With Caffeine Intake on Muscular Strength and Perceived Exertion
Lattari, E, Vieira, LAF, Oliveira, BRR, Unal, G, Bikson, M, de Mello Pedreiro, RC, Marques Neto, SR, Machado, S, and Maranhão-Neto, GA. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation with caffeine intake on muscular strength and perceived exertion. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1237–1243, 2019—The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) associated with caffeine intake on muscular strength and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Fifteen healthy young males recreationally trained (age: 25.3 ± 3.2 years, body mass: 78.0 ± 6.9 k...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Short-Term Delayed Effects of Kinesio Taping on Sprint Cycling Performance
Trecroci, A, Formenti, D, Rossi, A, Esposito, F, and Alberti, G. Short-term delayed effects of Kinesio taping on sprint cycling performance. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1232–1236, 2019—The aim of this study was to assess short-term delayed effects of Kinesio taping (KT) on maximal cycling performance. A design with repeated measures was used. Fifteen healthy trained subjects underwent 3 conditions: no KT (without tape), KT (Kinesio tape applied longitudinally on the thighs), and sham taping (Kinesio tape applied horizontally on the thighs). Each subject performed 2 sets of 3 × 6-second sprints (separated b...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effect of Overload and Tapering on Individual Heart Rate Variability, Stress Tolerance, and Intermittent Running Performance in Soccer Players During a Preseason
This study evaluates the weekly natural log of the root-mean-square difference of successive R-R intervals (lnRMSSDmean), its coefficient of variation (lnRMSSDcv), training load (TL), stress tolerance (ST), and changes in intermittent running performance in response to a 2-week overload (OL) followed by a 1-week taper (TP) during a preseason. Additionally, we determined the relationships between these variables. Ultra-short lnRMSSD, psychometric responses, and ratings of perceived exertion were evaluated daily among 16 under-19 soccer players. At the end of each training phase, the athletes performed the Yo-Yo Intermittent...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

A New Short Track Test to Estimate the VO2max and Maximal Aerobic Speed in Well-Trained Runners
This study was designed to validate a new short track test (Track(1:1)) to estimate running performance parameters maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and maximal aerobic speed (MAS), based on a laboratory treadmill protocol and gas exchange data analysis (Lab(1:1)). In addition, we compared the results with the University of Montreal Track Test (UMTT). Twenty-two well-trained male athletes (VO2max 60.3 ± 5.9 ml·kg−1·min−1; MAS ranged from 17.0 to 20.3 km·h−1) performed 4 testing protocols: 2 in laboratory (Lab(1:1)-pre and Lab(1:1)) and 2 in the field (UMTT and Track(1:1)). The Lab...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Reliability and Validity of a Pool-Based Maximal Oxygen Uptake Test to Examine High-Intensity Short-Duration Freestyle Swimming Performance
Nagle, EF, Nagai, T, Beethe, AZ, Lovalekar, MT, Zera, JN, Connaboy, C, Abt, JP, Beals, K, Nindl, BC, Robertson, RJ, and Lephart, SM. Reliability and validity of a pool-based maximal oxygen uptake test to examine high-intensity short-duration freestyle swimming performance. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1208–1215, 2019—A modality-specific swimming protocol to assess maximal oxygen uptake (VO2maxsw) is essential to accurately prescribe and monitor swimming conditioning programs. Consequently, there is a need for a reliable and valid graded intensity swimming pool test to accurately assess VO2maxsw using indirect cal...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Reactive Strength Index and Knee Extension Strength Characteristics Are Predictive of Single-Leg Hop Performance After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Birchmeier, T, Lisee, C, Geers, B, and Kuenze, C. Reactive strength index and knee extension strength characteristics are predictive of single-leg hop performance after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1201–1207, 2019—Single-leg hop distance is incorporated into return to sport criteria after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) because of its relationship with knee extension strength; however, it may be related to other strength and plyometric characteristics. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between isometric knee extension strength and p...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research