Novel Technologies Found to be Valid and Reliable for the Measurement of Vertical Jump Height With Jump-and-Reach Testing
Brooks, ER, Benson, AC, and Bruce, LM. Novel technologies found to be valid and reliable for the measurement of vertical jump height with jump-and-reach testing. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2838–2845, 2018—Vertical jump testing is used by coaches and athletes across many sports and disciplines to assess lower-body power and neuromuscular fatigue. A range of devices are available to measure jump height, with recent innovations attempting to improve portability, usability, and accessibility. New devices should be evaluated for their effectiveness and dependability in specific tests before being adopted. The purpo...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Validity and Reliability of Global Positioning System Units (STATSports Viper) for Measuring Distance and Peak Speed in Sports
Beato, M, Devereux, G, and Stiff, A. Validity and reliability of global positioning system units (STATSports Viper) for measuring distance and peak speed in sports. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2831–2837, 2018—Previous evidence has proven that large variability exists in the accuracy of different brands of global positioning systems (GPS). Therefore, any GPS model should be validated independently, and the results of a specific brand cannot be extended to others. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of GPS units (STATSports Viper) for measuring distance and peak speed in sports. Twenty...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Cardiac Autonomic and Blood Pressure Responses to an Acute Foam Rolling Session
This study evaluated the effects of an acute session of FR exercise on heart rate variability (HRV) and BP responses in healthy individuals. Fifteen (M = 8, F = 7) healthy subjects completed either an FR or nonexercise control trial in randomized order. Heart rate variability and BP measurements were collected at baseline, 10, and 30 minutes after each trial. There were significant increases (p (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Low Energy Availability, Plasma Lipids, and Hormonal Profiles of Recreational Athletes
This study describes the lipid levels, hormonal profiles, and nutrient intakes of recreationally active adults at risk of LEA compared with those not at risk. Thirty-eight women who meet or exceed the New Zealand guidelines for physical activity participated. Each participant completed an online questionnaire including the Low Energy Availability in Females questionnaire (LEAF-Q), demographic questions, and daily exercise to determine energy expenditure. Participants also provided a weighed 3-day diet record, a blood sample analyzed for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein choles...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Photobiomodulation Therapy on Physiological and Performance Parameters During Running Tests: Dose–Response Effects
This study was aimed at verifying effects of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) with different energy doses (15, 30, and 60 J per site) on physiological and performance parameters during running tests. Fifteen male recreational runners participated in a crossover, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. They performed testing protocol in 5 sessions with different treatments: control, placebo, and PBMT with 15, 30, or 60 J per site (14 sites in each lower limb). Physiological and performance variables were assessed during submaximal (at 8 and 9 km·h−1) and maximal running tests. Photobiomodulatio...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Mixed Session Periodization as a New Approach for Strength, Power, Functional Performance, and Body Composition Enhancement in Aging Adults
Berzerra, ES, Orssatto, LBR, Moura, BM, Willardson, JM, Simão, R, and Moro, ARP. Mixed session periodization as a new approach for strength, power, functional performance, and body composition enhancement in aging adults. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2795–2806, 2018—The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of mixed session periodization (MSP) vs. traditional periodization (TP) on strength, power, functional performance, and body composition in aging adults. Forty-five healthy aging adults were randomly divided into 3 groups: MSP, TP, and Control. Subjects were tested before the intervention fo...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Test-Retest Reliability and Concurrent Validity of Athletic Performance Combine Tests in 6–15-Year-Old Male Athletes
Gillen, ZM, Miramonti, AA, McKay, BD, Leutzinger, TJ, and Cramer, JT. Test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of athletic performance combine tests in 6–15-year-old male athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2783–2794, 2018—Athletic performance combine tests are used by high school, collegiate, and professional American football programs to evaluate performance; however, limited evidence is available on performance combine test results in youth athletes. The purposes of this study were to report test-retest reliability statistics and evaluate concurrent validity among combine performance tests in ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Individual and Combined Influence of ACE and ACTN3 Genes on Muscle Phenotypes in Polish Athletes
Orysiak, J, Mazur-Różycka, J, Busko, K, Gajewski, J, Szczepanska, B, and Malczewska-Lenczowska, J. Individual and combined influence of ACE and ACTN3 genes on muscle phenotypes in polish athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2776–2782, 2018—The aim of this study was to examine the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) genes, independently or in combination, and muscle strength and power in male and female athletes. The study involved 398 young male (n = 266) and female (n = 132) athletes representing various sport disciplines (ice hockey, canoeing, swimmin...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Muscle Activation Patterns of Lower-Body Musculature Among 3 Traditional Lower-Body Exercises in Trained Women
Korak, JA, Paquette, MR, Fuller, DK, Caputo, JL, and Coons, JM. Muscle activation patterns of lower-body musculature among 3 traditional lower-body exercises in trained women. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2770–2775, 2018—The deadlift and back and front squats are common multijoint, lower-body resistance exercises that target similar musculature. To our knowledge, muscle activity measured using surface electromyography has never been analyzed among these 3 exercises. Furthermore, most literature examining this topic has included male participants creating a void in the literature for the female population. Knowle...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of 12-Week Resistance Training on Sprint and Jump Performances in Competitive Adolescent Rugby Union Players
Harries, SK, Lubans, DR, Buxton, A, MacDougall, THJ, and Callister, R. Effects of 12-week resistance training on sprint and jump performances in competitive adolescent rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2762–2769, 2018—Sprint performance is an important characteristic for success in many sports, including rugby union. Resistance training is used to increase muscular fitness (i.e., strength, endurance, and power) and may also be effective for improving sprint and jump performances. The aims of this study were to examine the effects of resistance training using 2 different periodized programs (linea...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of Accentuated Eccentric Loading on Muscle Properties, Strength, Power, and Speed in Resistance-Trained Rugby Players
Douglas, J, Pearson, S, Ross, A, and McGuigan, M. Effects of accentuated eccentric loading on muscle properties, strength, power, and speed in resistance-trained rugby players. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2750–2761, 2018—The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of slow and fast tempo resistance training incorporating accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) compared with traditional resistance training (TRT) in trained rugby players. Fourteen subjects (19.4 ± 0.8 years, 1.82 ± 0.05 m, 97.0 ± 11.6 kg, and relative back squat 1 repetition maximum [1RM]: 1.71 ± 0.24 kg·B...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

A Comparison of the Effects of Short-Term Plyometric and Resistance Training on Lower-Body Muscular Performance
Whitehead, MT, Scheett, TP, McGuigan, MR, and Martin, AV. A comparison of the effects of short-term plyometric and resistance training on lower-body muscular performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2743–2749, 2018—The purpose of this study was to compare effects of short-term plyometric and resistance training on lower-body muscular performance. A convenience sample of 30 male subjects aged 21.3 ± 1.8 years (height, 177.3 ± 9.4 cm; mass, 80.0 ± 2.6 kg; body fat, 16.1 ± 1.2%) participated in this investigation. Participants were grouped, and they participated in progressive plyometri...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Whole-Body High-Intensity Interval Training Induce Similar Cardiorespiratory Adaptations Compared With Traditional High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Healthy Men
Schaun, GZ, Pinto, SS, Silva, MR, Dolinski, DB, and Alberton, CL. Sixteen weeks of whole-body high-intensity interval training induce similar cardiorespiratory responses compared with traditional high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2730–2742, 2018—Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols that use the body weight as resistance could be an interesting and inexpensive alternative to traditional ergometer-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT-T) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). Therefore,...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Warm-up Optimizes Postural Control but Requires Some Minutes of Recovery
Paillard, T, Kadri, MA, Nouar, MB, and Noé, F. Warm-up optimizes postural control but requires some minutes of recovery. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2725–2729, 2018—The aim was to compare monopedal postural control between the dominant leg (D-Leg) and the nondominant leg (ND-Leg) in pre– and post–warm-up conditions. Thirty healthy male sports science students were evaluated before and after a warm-up exercise (12 minutes of pedaling with an incremental effort on a cycle ergometer with a controlled workload). Monopodal postural control was assessed for the D- and ND-Legs before and immediately...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Eight-Week Battle Rope Training Improves Multiple Physical Fitness Dimensions and Shooting Accuracy in Collegiate Basketball Players
This study investigated whether battle rope (BR) training enhances multiple physical fitness dimensions, including aerobic capacity (AC), upper-body anaerobic power (AnP), upper-body and lower-body power, agility, and core muscle endurance, and shooting accuracy in basketball players and compared its effects with those of regular training (shuttle run [SR]). Thirty male collegiate basketball players were randomly assigned to the BR or SR groups (n = 15 per group). Both groups received 8-week interval training for 3 sessions per week; the protocol consisted of the same number of sets, exercise time, and rest interval time. ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

An Evaluation of Supramaximally Loaded Eccentric Leg Press Exercise
This study sought to investigate the mechanical characteristics of supramaximally loaded eccentric exercise when using a custom-built leg press machine. Using a within-subject, repeated-measures design, 15 strength trained subjects (age, 31 ± 7 years; height, 180.0 ± 6.8 cm; body mass, 81.5 ± 13.9 kg) were assessed under 3 different conditions: low (LO), moderate (MOD), and high (HI) intensity, which were equivalent in intensity to 110, 130, and 150%, respectively, of peak force during an isometric maximal voluntary contraction (IMVC) performed on leg press at 90° knee flexion. All loading conditio...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Assessment of Upper-Body Ballistic Performance Through the Bench Press Throw Exercise: Which Velocity Outcome Provides the Highest Reliability?
This study aimed to compare the between-session reliability of 3 velocity variables (mean velocity [MV], mean propulsive velocity [MPV], and maximum velocity [Vmax]) to assess bench press throw (BPT) performance. Twenty-one men were tested during 2 consecutive weeks in 2 variants of the BPT exercise (concentric-only and eccentric-concentric) against 5 different loading conditions (17, 27, 37, 47, and 57 kg). The 2 sessions of each BPT variant were performed within the same week separated by 48–72 hours. The main findings revealed that (a) the highest reliability was observed for Vmax (median coefficient of variation ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Strongman Log Push Press: The Effect Log Diameter has on Force-Time Characteristics
Renals, L, Lake, J, Keogh, J, and Austin, K. Strongman log push press: The effect log diameter has on force-time characteristics. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2693–2700, 2018—Strongman training is becoming more common in strength and conditioning practices, particularly the log press. The existing literature analyzes force characteristics of the log clean and jerk or press compared with the weightlifting clean and jerk exercise. This investigation aims to explore the braking and propulsive phase performance characteristics of the push press with a barbell and strongman logs of different sizes. Ten experienced at...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Abstracts
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Abstracts Source Type: research

Is Elevation Training Mask a Strategy to Increase Lactate Clearance Through Respiratory Muscle Loading?
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Manuscript Clarification Source Type: research

Power Testing in Basketball: Current Practice and Future Recommendations
Wen, N, Dalbo, VJ, Burgos, B, Pyne, DB, and Scanlan, AT. Power testing in basketball: Current practice and future recommendations. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2686–2700, 2018—Numerous foundational movements performed during basketball are predicated on underlying power-related attributes, including speed, change-of-direction (COD), and jumping. Accordingly, fitness testing batteries for basketball have incorporated an assortment of linear speed tests, COD tests, and jump tests. However, because of the wide variety of testing options, it is difficult for basketball practitioners to select appropriate testing prot...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Brief Review Source Type: research

Recent Advancements in Our Understanding of the Ergogenic Effect of Respiratory Muscle Training in Healthy Humans: A Systematic Review
Shei, R-J. Recent advancements in our understanding of the ergogenic effect of respiratory muscle training in healthy humans: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2674–2685, 2018—Respiratory muscle training (RMT) has been shown to be an effective ergogenic aid for sport performance. Respiratory muscle training has been documented to improve performance in a wide range of exercise modalities including running, cycling, swimming, and rowing. The physiological effects of RMT that may explain the improvements in performance have been proposed to include diaphragm hypertrophy, muscle fiber–type swit...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Brief Review Source Type: research

Partial Compared with Full Range of Motion Resistance Training for Muscle Hypertrophy: A Brief Review and an Identification of Potential Mechanisms
Newmire, DE and Willoughby, DS. Partial compared to full range of motion resistance training for muscle hypertrophy: A brief review and an identification of potential mechanisms. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2661–2673, 2018—Resistance training promotes skeletal muscle hypertrophy; there are specific recommendations of intensity, volume, and duration that appear to facilitate hypertrophy the greatest. However, currently, there is not a definitive consensus on optimal range of motion. It appears that the partial range of motion (pROM) mode of exercise may have some similar benefit on muscle hypertrophy as the conve...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Brief Review Source Type: research

Hyperandrogenism Enhances Muscle Strength After Progressive Resistance Training, Independent of Body Composition, in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Kogure, GS, Silva, RC, Miranda-Furtado, CL, Ribeiro, VB, Pedroso, DCC, Melo, AS, Ferriani, RA, and Reis, RMd. Hyperandrogenism enhances muscle strength after progressive resistance training, independent of body composition, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2651–2660, 2018—The effects of resistance exercise on muscle strength, body composition, and increase in cross-sectional area of skeletal muscle (hypertrophy) were evaluated in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This case-control study included 45 PCOS and 52 non-PCOS women, with age between 18–37 years and b...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Assessing Differences in Anthropometric and Fitness Characteristics Between Police Academy Cadets and Incumbent Officers
Orr, RM, Dawes, JJ, Pope, R, and Terry, J. Assessing differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics between police academy cadets and incumbent officers. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2641–2650, 2018—The physical fitness of police officers must be developed in new cadets and sustained in incumbent officers. The aims of this study were to profile and compare the anthropometric and fitness characteristics of police academy cadets and incumbent officers of varying ages from a single police force. Retrospective data for 84 police academy cadets (♂ = 66, mean age = 27.96 ± 5.73 years; ♀ = 18, mean...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Well-Trained Cyclists' Aerobic and Anaerobic Performances
In conclusion, the EIMD did not impair gross efficiency, nor aerobic and anaerobic performances in trained cyclists. However, despite the benefits of strength training to improve cyclists' performance, coaches must be cautious to the days after the strength training sessions because EIMD may change the perception of maintaining a given submaximal intensity during training or competition. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Evaluating Physical Workload by Position During Match in Elite Bandy
Blomqvist, S, Ervasti, PE, and Elcadi, GH. Evaluating physical workload by position during match in elite bandy. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2616–2622, 2018—To improve current understandings of physical workload (WL) in elite bandy, 10 bandy players were monitored for heart rate (HR) during 13 matches over 1 championship season. Participants were divided into 5 subgroups according to playing position—libero, defender, halves, midfielder, and forward. Heart rate measurements were analyzed with 2 different methods to compute physical WL—(a) percentage of total time spent in different HR zones (HRres) a...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Development of Anaerobic Fitness in Top-Level Competitive Youth Ice Hockey Players
Leiter, JR, Cordingley, DM, and MacDonald, PB. Development of anaerobic fitness in top-level competitive youth ice hockey players. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2612–2615, 2018—Ice hockey is a physiologically complex sport involving both the anaerobic and aerobic energy systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anaerobic power output (PO) of top-level competitive youth hockey players. It was hypothesized that with each successive increase in age, there would be an associated change in anaerobic PO. Two hundred and fifty-one male hockey players between the ages of 13–17 years participated in this...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Anthropometry and Functional Movement Patterns in Elite Male Volleyball Players of Different Competitive Levels
Toselli, S and Campa, F. Anthropometry and functional movement patterns in elite male volleyball players of different competitive levels. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2601–2611, 2018—The aim of this study was to establish specific profiles for anthropometry and functional movement parameters and identify which characteristics can be modified by training to achieve a better quality of movement in elite male volleyball players competing at the Italian National League (Super Lega = 39, aged 25.6 ± 4.7 years and A2 = 30, aged 26.2 ± 5.3 years). Another aim was to value functional movement patterns in re...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Dry-Land Resistance Training Practices of Elite Swimming Strength and Conditioning Coaches
Crowley, E, Harrison, AJ, and Lyons, M. Dry-land resistance training practices of elite swimming strength and conditioning coaches. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2592–2600, 2018—No research to date has investigated dry-land resistance (RT) training practices of elite swimming strength and conditioning coaches. This is the first comprehensive study exploring dry-land RT training practices in swimming. The aims of this study were to examine (a) the dry-land RT training practices and exercises used by elite swimming strength and conditioning coaches and (b) the rationale provided by coaches about their practices and ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Influence of Team Rating on Running Performance in Elite Gaelic Football
Mangan, S, Malone, S, Ryan, M, Mc Gahan, J, Warne, J, Martin, D, O'Neill, C, Burns, C, and Collins, K. Influence of team rating on running performance in elite Gaelic football. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2584–2591, 2017—It is currently unknown how team rating influences running performance in Gaelic football. Global positioning system technologies were used to quantify match-running performance within 5 elite Gaelic football teams over a period of 5 years (2012–2016). In total 780 player data sets were collected over 95 matches. Running performance variables included total distance, high-speed distance (&...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Physical Fitness Performance of Young Professional Soccer Players Does Not Change During Several Training Seasons in a Spanish Elite Reserve Team: Club Study, 1996–2013
Los Arcos, A and Martins, J. Physical fitness performance of young professional soccer players does not change during several training seasons in a Spanish elite reserve team: club study, 1996–2013. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2577–2583, 2018—The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in physical fitness performance in young professional soccer players during several training seasons in a Spanish elite reserve team. Physical test values (i.e., vertical jump test, straight line sprint test, and discontinuous and progressive submaximal running test) of 97 young professional soccer players who belong...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Neuromuscular, Biochemical, Endocrine, and Mood Responses to Small-Sided Games' Training in Professional Soccer
William, S, Turner, AN, Weston, M, Russell, M, Johnston, MJ, and Kilduff, LP. Neuromuscular, biochemical, endocrine, and mood responses to small-sided games' training in professional soccer. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2569–2576, 2018—The 24-hour responses to small-sided games' (SSGs) soccer training were characterized. Professional soccer players (n = 16) performed SSG's (4vs4 + goalkeepers; 6 × 7-minutes, 2-minute interset recovery) with performance (peak power output [PPO] and jump height [JH]), physiological (blood creatine kinase [CK], lactate, salivary testosterone, and cortisol), and mood measures c...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Physical Fitness Predictors of a Warrior Task Simulation Test
Huang, H-C, Nagai, T, Lovalekar, M, Connaboy, C, and Nindl, BC. Physical fitness predictors of a warrior task simulation test. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2562–2568, 2018—The warrior task simulation test (WTST) has been developed in an attempt to better assess physical fitness required for soldiers to perform battlefield tasks and drills to determine whether laboratory-based measurements of physical fitness components could be used to predict the WTST. Forty-three healthy and physically active men participated in 2 sessions: the WTST and laboratory testing. The WTST comprised 282-m run, low hurdles, high crawl, ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Repeat Effort Performance Is Reduced 24 Hours After Acute Dehydration in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes
This study sought to determine the influence of acute dehydration on physical performance and physiology in mixed martial arts (MMA). Mixed martial arts athletes (n = 14; age: 23 ± 4 years) completed in a randomized counterbalanced order a dehydration protocol, (DHY: 3-hour cycling at 60 W in 40° C to induce 5% dehydration) or thermoneutral control (25° C: CONT) exercise, followed by ad libitum fluid/food intake. Performance testing (a repeat sled push test, medicine ball chest throw, and vertical jump) was completed 3 hours and 24 hours after the intervention, whereas urine and blood samples were collected ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Body Weight and Mood State Modifications in Mixed Martial Arts: An Exploratory Pilot
Brandt, R, Bevilacqua, GG, Coimbra, DR, Pombo, LC, Miarka, B, and Lane, AM. Body weight and mood state modifications in mixed martial arts: An exploratory pilot. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2548–2554, 2018—Mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters typically use rapid weight loss (RWL) as a strategy to make competition weight. The aim of the present study was to compare body weight and mood changes in professional male MMA athletes who used strategies to rapidly lose weight (n = 9) and with MMA athletes who did not (n = 3). Body mass and mood states of anger, confusion, depression, fatigue, tension, and vigor and total m...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Validity and Reliability of a New Test of Planned Agility in Elite Taekwondo Athletes
This study aimed to examine the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of a new test of planned agility in elite taekwondo athletes and to establish its relationship with sprint-time, jumping ability, and dynamic balance. Twenty-seven (20 males and 7 females) taekwondo athletes participated in this study. They performed taekwondo-specific agility test (TSAT) in 2 occasions (i.e., test-retest). In addition, they performed jumping ability (i.e., squat jump, countermovement jump, standing long jump, and 3-hop jump), sprint-time (5- and 20-m dash), and dynamic balance (i.e., Y-test) tests along with a planned agility test (i.e...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Repeated Exposure to Taekwondo Combat Modulates the Physiological and Hormonal Responses to Subsequent Bouts and Recovery Periods
This study examined the physiological and hormonal responses to successive taekwondo combats using an ecologically valid competition time structure. Ten elite male international taekwondo competitors (age 19 ± 3 years) took part in a simulated championship event. The competitors performed 4 combats that were interspersed with different recovery intervals (63 ± 4, 31 ± 3 and 156 ± 5 minutes, respectively). Heart rate (HR) was measured during the combats and venous blood samples were obtained both before and after each combat to determine the plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations. The plasm...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Analysis of Training Loads in Elite Under 18 Australian Rule Football Players
This study supports the application of training diaries and session rating of perceived exertion for TL monitoring in junior athletes. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effect of Accommodating Resistance on the Postactivation Potentiation Response in Rugby League Players
This study examined the postactivation potentiation (PAP) response of 2 conditioning activities (CA), the hex bar deadlift and back squat, combined with accommodating resistance; this adds a percentage of the total resistance during the exercise. Twenty amateur rugby league players performed 2 experimental trials and a control trial without a CA. Participants performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) before and 30, 90, and 180 seconds after 1 set of 3 repetitions of each CA at 70% 1 repetition maximum (RM), with up to an additional 23% 1RM from accommodating resistance. Peak power output (PPO), force at PPO, velocity at PPO, ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Associatons Between Self-Reported Well-being and Neuromuscular Performance During a Professional Rugby Union Season
Hills, SP, Rogerson, DJ. Associatons between self-reported well-being and neuromuscular performance during a professional rugby union season. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2498–2509, 2018—Self-reported wellness is often used to monitor fatigue responses to training and competition. Constraints within team sports mean short-form wellness questionnaires are typically preferred to literature-validated documents. This research aimed to assess the relationship between self-reported wellness and neuromuscular (NM) performance during a professional rugby union season, and to identify changes in these parameters over a 12...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Comparison of the Technique of the Football Quarterback Pass Between High School and University Athletes
Toffan, A, Alexander, MJL, and Peeler, J. Comparison of the technique of the football quarterback pass between high school and university athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2474–2497, 2018—The purpose of the study was to compare the most effective joint movements, segment velocities, and body positions to perform the fastest and most accurate pass of high school and university football quarterbacks. Secondary purposes were to develop a quarterback throwing test to assess skill level, to determine which kinematic variables were different between high school and university athletes, and to determine which varia...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing Does Not Prevent the Decline in Maximal Strength After Fatiguing Exercise
This study sought to determine the effect of a CHO rinse on MVC, voluntary activation, and contractile properties after fatiguing exercise. Thirteen adults participated in a double-blind, cross-over study. Maximal voluntary contraction of the dominant knee extensors was assessed, and voluntary activation (%VA) was determined using twitch interpolation. Participants then held 50% of MVC until volitional fatigue followed by a 20-second rinse with a solution of 8% maltodextrin (CHO) or placebo (PLA). Maximal voluntary contraction and %VA were reassessed immediately and 5 minutes after exercise. Maximal voluntary contraction d...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Improving Power Output in Older Adults Using Plyometrics in a Body Mass–Supported Treadmill
Dobbs, TJ, Simonson, SR, and Conger, SA. Improving power output in older adults using plyometrics in a body mass–supported treadmill. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2458–2465, 2018—The purpose of this study was to determine if performing plyometrics in a body mass–supported treadmill would lead to greater increases in power output and functional strength in older adults compared with traditional strength training. Twenty-three participants were randomized to strength (SG, n = 8), plyometric (PG, n = 8), or control (CG, n = 7) groups. The SG and PG exercised 3 times per week for 8 weeks, whereas the CG p...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Comparison of Body Composition Variables Across a Large Sample of National Collegiate Athletic Association Women Athletes From 6 Competitive Sports
Fields, JB, Metoyer, CJ, Casey, JC, Esco, MR, Jagim, AR, and Jones, MT. Comparison of body composition variables across a large sample of National Collegiate Athletic Association women athletes from 6 competitive sports. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2452–2457, 2018—Body composition (BC) plays a critical role in sport performance and athlete health. Body size and BC have been widely studied in men's sports, with reported changes observed over time. However, a paucity of current data exists in women athletes. The purpose of this descriptive study was to measure and compare BC data for collegiate women athletes from...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

External and Internal Focus of Attention Increases Muscular Activation During Bench Press in Resistance-Trained Participants
Kristiansen, M, Samani, A, Vuillerme, N, Madeleine, P, and Hansen, EA. External and internal focus of attention increases muscular activation during bench press in resistance-trained participants. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2442–2451, 2018—Research on the effects of instructed attentional focus during execution of strength training exercises is limited and has thus far only been performed on single-joint exercises. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of instructed internal (INT) and external (EXT) focus of attention with a baseline measurement of no instructed focus of attention (BASE) on the surfa...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Analysis of Factors Related to Back Squat Concentric Velocity
Fahs, CA, Rossow, LM, and Zourdos, MC. Aanalysis of factors related to back squat concentric velocity. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2435–2441, 2018—Measuring bar velocity during barbell exercises can be a useful metric for prescribing resistance training loads and for predicting the 1 repetition maximum (1RM). However, it is not clear whether either anthropometric factors (e.g., limb length) or training experience influences bar velocity. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between 1RM back squat bar velocity and femur length, training experience, strength, and 36.6-m sprint time in colle...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Measurement of Cortisol and Testosterone in Athletes: Accuracy of Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry Assays for Cortisol and Testosterone Measurement in Whole-Blood Microspecimens
Fragala, MS, Goldman, SM, Goldman, MM, Bi, C, Colletti, JD, Arent, SM, Walker, AJ, and Clarke, NJ. Measurement of cortisol and testosterone in athletes: Accuracy of LC-MS/MS assays for cortisol and testosterone measurement in whole-blood microspecimens. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2425–2434, 2018—Biomarker monitoring provides insight into athletes' training tolerance but is limited by the need for office-based specimen collection. To facilitate self-collection during training, we developed liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry-based tests that measure circulating total cortisol and testosterone us...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Self-selected vs. Fixed Repetition Duration: Effects on Number of Repetitions and Muscle Activation in Resistance-Trained Men
Nóbrega, SR, Barroso, R, Ugrinowitsch, C, da Costa, JLF, Alvarez, IF, Barcelos, C, and Libardi, CA. Self-selected vs. fixed repetition duration: effects on number of repetitions and muscle activation in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2419–2424, 2018—The aim of this study was to compare the effects of self-selected and fixed repetition duration (RD) on resistance exercise (RE) volume, muscle activation, and time under tension (TUT) per repetition and per session. Twelve resistance-trained men participated in the study. A randomized cross-over design was used and each participant perfor...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Superior Training-Specific Adaptations With an 8-Week Yoak Push-up Training Program
Lima, C, Li, Y, Low, JL, Herat, N, and Behm, DG. Superior training-specific adaptations with an 8-week yoak push-up training program. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2409–2418, 2018—There are few progressive metastability training programs in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in strength, endurance, muscle activation, and neuromuscular efficiency after an 8-week progressive, push-up training program under stable and unstable conditions. Nineteen male and female recreationally trained participants performed twice per week, an 8-week push-up training program, using either a relativel...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research