Effects of Resistance Training Methods on Golf Clubhead Speed and Hitting Distance: A Systematic Review
Uthoff, A, Sommerfield, LM, and Pichardo, AW. Effects of resistance training methods on golf clubhead speed and hitting distance: A systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2651–2660, 2021—Resistance training is widely regarded within the golfing community to improve golf performance by increasing clubhead speed (CHS) and drive distance and can be classified into 3 categories: nonspecific, specific, and combined. However, it is currently unclear which resistance training methods are most effective in improving predictors of golf performance. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to compare the effective...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Brief Review Source Type: research

Oxygen Uptake of Wave Surfers and Complementary Parameters in Front Crawl and Surfing-Paddling Tests
Godoy, DF, Cadore, EL, Feitosa, WG, Correia, RdA, and Castro, FAdS. Oxygen uptake of wave surfers and complementary parameters in front crawl and surfing-paddling tests. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2645–2650, 2021—The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the oxygen uptake and complementary parameters (heart rate [HR], blood lactate concentration, and rate of perceived exertion [RPE]) obtained from surfers swimming and paddling in a swimming pool. Fourteen recreational male surfers (37.7 ± 4.7 years old) were evaluated in (a) a maximal 300-m front crawl test and (b) paddling in a surfboard te...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Validity and Reliability of a Light-Based Electronic Target for Testing Response Time in Fencers
De Giorgio, A, Iuliano, E, Turner, A, Millevolte, C, Cular, D, Ardigò, LP, and Padulo, J. Validity and reliability of a light-based electronic target for testing response time in fencers. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2636–2644, 2021—Response time (RT) is a fencing fundamental sensorimotor skill. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine the efficacy of a light-based electronic target in fencers, designed to measure and train this entity. Ninety-five fencers (M = 53; F = 42) were tested in regard to their RT, using a light-based electronic target, for 3 different attack types: simple attack, th...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of Sex and Age on Physical Testing Performance for Law Enforcement Agency Candidates: Implications for Academy Training
This study investigated the influence of sex and age on candidate performance before academy training. Retrospective analysis of 516 candidates was performed. Data were stratified into men (n = 432) and women (n = 84), and the pooled (men and women combined) data were stratified into age groups (20–24; 24–29; 30–34; 35–39; and 40+ years). The tests included the following: maximal push-ups and sit-ups in 60 seconds; a 75-yard pursuit run (75PR); arm ergometer revolutions completed in 60 seconds; and a 2.4-km run. To compare the sex and age groups, a 2 × 5 analysis of variance (with Bonferroni p...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Spinal and Pelvic Kinematics During Prolonged Rowing on an Ergometer vs. Indoor Tank Rowing
Trompeter, K, Weerts, J, Fett, D, Firouzabadi, A, Heinrich, K, Schmidt, H, Brüggemann, GP, and Platen, P. Spinal and pelvic kinematics during prolonged rowing on an ergometer vs. indoor tank rowing. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2622–2628, 2021—This investigation aimed to compare spinopelvic kinematics during rowing on an ergometer vs. in a rowing tank and to evaluate changes with progressing fatigue. Spinal and pelvic kinematics of 8 competitive scull rowers (19.0 ± 2.1 years, 179.9 ± 7.6 cm, and 74.8 ± 8.1 kg) were collected during 1 hour of rowing on an ergometer and in a rowing tank u...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effect of Postactivation Potentiation After Medium vs. High Inertia Eccentric Overload Exercise on Standing Long Jump, Countermovement Jump, and Change of Direction Performance
This study aimed to evaluate the postactivation potentiation (PAP) effects of an eccentric overload (EOL) exercise on vertical and horizontal jumps and change of direction (COD) performance. Twelve healthy physically active male subjects were involved in a crossover study. The subjects performed 3 sets of 6 repetitions of EOL half squats for maximal power using a flywheel ergometer. Postactivation potentiation using an EOL exercise was compared between a medium (M-EOL) vs. high inertia (H-EOL) experimental condition. Long jump (LJ) was recorded at 30 seconds, 3, and 6 minutes after both EOL exercises and compared with base...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Validity of Session-Rate of Perceived Exertion to Quantify Training Loads in Paralympic Swimmers
Sinnott-O'Connor, C, Comyns, TM, and Warrington, GD. Validity of session-RPE to quantify training loads in Paralympic swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2611–2615, 2021—Multiple measures may be used by coaches to quantify training load (TL). The application of heart rate (HR) has limitations in swimming and in Paralympic swimmers, and it may not always be a suitable measure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the session-rate of perceived exertion (sRPE) method for quantifying internal TL in Paralympic swimmers. A further aim was to examine the relationship betwe...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Quantifying Mean Peak Running Intensities in Elite Field Hockey
This study then aimed to quantify maximal mean running intensities during elite FH competition to facilitate enhanced training prescription. Ten-Hertz Global Positioning System data were collected from 17 male and 11 female FH athletes who competed in the 2016 and 2017 Australian Hockey League tournaments. Maximal mean values for speed, acceleration, and metabolic power (Pmet) were calculated over a 1- to 10-minute moving average by position. Summary match statistics were also analyzed. Linear mixed models were constructed to determine the effect of position on moving average and summary variables. Pairwise comparisons bet...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Importance of Joint Angle-Specific Hip Strength for Skating Performance in Semiprofessional Ice Hockey Athletes
Secomb, JL, Dascombe, BJ, and Nimphius, S. Importance of joint angle-specific hip strength for skating performance in semiprofessional ice hockey athletes. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2599–2603, 2021—Ice hockey athletes with faster sprint acceleration and change-of-direction (COD) skating performance possess a competitive advantage. However, it is unknown whether joint angle-specific hip strength, in combination with measures known to relate to skating performance (e.g., countermovement jump [CMJ]), better explains skating performance. The purpose of this research was to determine whether hip strength in joint a...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Combined Analysis of Blood Ammonia and Lactate Levels as a Practical Tool to Assess the Metabolic Response to Training Sessions in Male and Female Sprinters
Kantanista, A, Kusy, K, Pospieszna, B, Korman, P, Wieliński, D, and Zieliński, J. Combined analysis of blood ammonia and lactate levels as a practical tool to assess the metabolic response to training sessions in male and female sprinters. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2591–2598, 2021—Previous research has mainly focused on blood ammonia and lactate concentration changes in response to exercise in laboratory settings. The aim of this study was to present a combined analysis of blood ammonia and lactate levels obtained during various training sessions performed under real training conditions. Differences between ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effect of Match Play on Shoulder Strength in Amateur Rugby Union Players
Zelinski, S, Manvell, JJ, Manvell, N, Callister, R, and Snodgrass, SJ. Effect of match play on shoulder strength in amateur rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2584–2590, 2019—The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of match play on shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) strength in amateur Australian rugby union players. Maximal isometric shoulder IR and ER strength was measured in 18 male players using hand-held dynamometry before match, at half-time, after match, and 1, 3, and 7 days after match. Match stress was measured intrinsically (rating of perceived exerti...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Measures of Strength and Jump Performance Can Predict 30-m Sprint Time in Rugby Union Players
This study examined the reliability of, and relationship between, countermovement (CMJJH), squat (SJJH), and rebound (RBJJH) jump heights, rebound jump contact time (RBJCT), estimated 1 repetition maximum back squat relative to body mass (SQBM), and reactive strength index (RSI) to 30-m sprint time of subelite, semiprofessional Rugby Union players. Measurement reliability was very good, with high average intraclass correlation coefficients (≥0.9) and low coefficient of variation ( (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

External and Internal Load Measures During Preseason Training in Men Collegiate Soccer Athletes
Fields, JB, Merigan, JM, Gallo, S, White, JB, and Jones, MT. External and internal load measures during preseason training in men collegiate soccer athletes. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2572–2578, 2021—Collegiate athletes are exposed to high volume loads during preseason training. Monitoring training load can inform training and recovery periods. Therefore, the purpose was to examine changes in and bidirectional relationship between external and internal load metrics in men collegiate soccer athletes (n = 20; age, 20 ± 1 year). Internal load measures of heart rate variability (HRV), salivary testosterone ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Elasticity of the Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle After an Increased Number of Pitches Correlates With Increased Medial Elbow Joint Space Suppression
This study aimed to measure the medial elbow joint space and elasticity of the forearm flexor-pronator muscles in repetitive pitching and to determine which of the forearm flexor-pronator muscles contribute to elbow valgus stability during pitching. Twenty-six collegiate baseball players performed 7 sets of 15 pitches. The medial elbow joint space and elasticity of the pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) were measured using ultrasonography before pitching and after every 15 pitches. Correlations among the rate of change of these parameters were analyze...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Physiological Responses and Time-Motion Analysis of Kickboxing: Differences Between Full Contact, Light Contact, and Point Fighting Contests
This study investigated the physiological responses and time structure of kickboxing styles (full contact, light contact, and point fighting). Blood lactate [La] before and after combats, mean heart rate (HRmean), percentage of time spent in HR zones, and rating of perceived exertion were assessed. Time spent in high-intensity activities (HIAs), low-intensity activities (LIAs), and referee pauses (P) were recorded according to rounds (R) and kickboxing styles. [La] increased statistically significant after kickboxing combats (p (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Thermoregulation and Hydration in Female American Football Players During Practices
Lopez, RM, Ashley, CD, Zinder, SM, and Tritsch, AJ. Thermoregulation and hydration in female American football players during practices. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2552–2557, 2021—Little is known about hydration practices and thermoregulation in female tackle football players. The purpose of the study was to examine the thermoregulatory and hydration responses of female professional American football players. Fifteen females from the same tackle football team volunteered for this observational field study. Each subject was observed for 4 practices for the following measures: gastrointestinal temperature (TGI), ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Dietary Strategies of Modern Bodybuilders During Different Phases of the Competitive Cycle
Lenzi, JL, Teixeira, EL, de Jesus, G, Schoenfeld, BJ, and de Salles Painelli, V. Dietary strategies of modern bodybuilders during different phases of the competitive cycle. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2546–2551, 2021—Bodybuilders have used a wide array of nutritional strategies over the years. However, most information on the topic is anecdotal, with limited research about the nutritional habits of modern bodybuilders, especially those from new categories. Accordingly, we sought to compare the dietary routines of bodybuilders from the Men's Physique category during “bulking” and “cutting”...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Red Spinach Extract Supplementation Improves Cycle Time Trial Performance in Recreationally Active Men and Women
In conclusion, RSE supplementation significantly reduced time-to-completion, increased measures of power and speed, and lowered post-exercise diastolic blood pressure during a 4-km cycling time trial without altering subjects' perceived exertion or subjective measures of muscle fatigue. Finally, it is possible that women may be more responsive in regard to increasing performance after supplementation. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Appetite Is Suppressed After Full-Body Resistance Exercise Compared With Split-Body Resistance Exercise: The Potential Influence of Lactate and Autonomic Modulation
Conrado de Freitas, M, Ricci-Vitor, AL, de Oliveira, JVNS, Quizzini, GH, Vanderlei, LCM, Silva, BSA, Zanchi, NE, Cholewa, JM, Lira, FS, and Rossi, FE. Appetite is suppressed after full-body resistance exercise compared with split-body resistance exercise: the potential influence of lactate and autonomic modulation. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2532–2540, 2021—The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of full- vs. split-body resistance training on appetite and leptin response and to verify the potential involvement of lactate and autonomic modulation during this response in trained men. Twelve rec...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

World-Class Long-Distance Running Performances Are Best Predicted by Volume of Easy Runs and Deliberate Practice of Short-Interval and Tempo Runs
Casado, A, Hanley, B, Santos-Concejero, J, and Ruiz-Pérez, LM. World-class long-distance running performances are best predicted by volume of easy runs and deliberate practice of short-interval and tempo runs. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2525–2531, 2021—The aim of this novel study was to analyze the effect of deliberate practice (DP) and easy continuous runs completed by elite-standard and world-class long-distance runners on competitive performances during the first 7 years of their sport careers. Eighty-five male runners reported their best times in different running events and the amounts of different ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Comparisons of Mood States Associated With Outcomes Achieved by Female and Male Athletes in High-Level Judo and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Championships: Psychological Factors Associated With the Probability of Success
Brandt, R, Bevilacqua, GG, Crocetta, TB, Monteiro, CBdM, Guarnieri, R, Hobold, E, Flores, LJF, Miarka, B, and Andrade, A. Comparisons of mood states associated with outcomes achieved by female and male athletes in high-level judo and Brazilian jiu-jitsu championships: psychological factors associated with the probability of success. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2518–2524, 2019—Moods can be used to predict the performance of athletes in various sports; accordingly, we selected the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) to evaluate mood states of high-level judo and Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) athletes. The aims of this study wer...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Step Frequency Training Improves Running Economy in Well-Trained Female Runners
Quinn, TJ, Dempsey, SL, LaRoche, DP, Mackenzie, AM, and Cook, SB. Step frequency training improves running economy in well-trained female runners. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2511–2517, 2021—The purpose was to determine whether a short training program (15 minutes for 10 days) to increase step frequency to 180 steps per min would elicit improvements in running economy (RE). Experimental (n = 11) and control (n = 11) female subjects reported to the laboratory for 12 consecutive days and completed 2 RE tests at 3.4 and 3.8 m·s−1 (day 1 and 12), followed by a maximal oxygen uptake test (day 1 only), an...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Landing Impact Intensities for Jumping Exercises From the OPTIMA-Ex Trial in Trained and Untrained Women
Lambert, C, Beck, BR, and Weeks, BK. Landing impact intensities for jumping exercises from the OPTIMA-Ex trial in trained and untrained women. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2504–2510, 2021—High-intensity mechanical loads are required to elicit a positive adaptive bone response. Our aim was to quantify the mechanical loads of impact exercises used in each progressive stage of a bone-targeted exercise intervention (the OPTIMA-Ex trial) and to investigate differences in mechanical loads between untrained and trained subjects. A randomized repeated measures experimental design was used to quantify and compare the mech...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Multijoint Musculoarticular Stiffness Derived From a Perturbation Is Highly Variable
Schofield, M, Tinwala, F, Cronin, J, Hébert-Losier, K, and Uthoff, A. Multijoint musculoarticular stiffness derived from a perturbation is highly variable. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2498–2503, 2021—Testing musculoarticular stiffness may provide insights into multijoint elastic properties. Yet, most research has focused on quantifying stiffness, or elastic potential, at a single joint. The purpose of this study was to quantify the test-retest reliability of musculoarticular stiffness derived from the perturbation technique across the bench pull, bench press, and squat movements. Eight resistance-trained ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Impaired Isometric, Concentric, and Eccentric Rate of Torque Development at the Hip and Knee in Patellofemoral Pain
In conclusion, women with PFP presented deficits in both maximal strength and RTD of knee extensor and hip abductor during isometric, concentric, and eccentric contractions, which highlight the potential importance of addressing different aspects of muscle function through exercise therapy. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of Acute High-Intensity Exercise With the Elevation Training Mask or Hypoxicator on Pulmonary Function, Metabolism, and Hormones
Ott, T, Joyce, MC, and Hillman, AR. Effects of acute high-intensity exercise with the elevation training mask or hypoxicator on pulmonary function, metabolism, and hormones. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2486–2491, 2021—The elevation training mask (ETM) 2.0 is an increasingly popular hands-free respiratory muscle training modality proposing to mimic altitude; however, the degree to which this occurs has been questioned. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this modality in comparison with using a hypoxicator (HYP) during acute aerobic exercise. Eight regularly active subjects (age: 25 &plus...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Physiological and Perceptual Responses to Aerobic Exercise With and Without Blood Flow Restriction
Silva, JCG, Domingos-Gomes, JR, Freitas, EDS, Neto, GR, Aniceto, RR, Bemben, MG, Lima-dos-Santos, A, and Cirilo-Sousa, MS. Physiological and perceptual responses to aerobic exercise with and without blood flow restriction. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2479–2485, 2021—Although previous studies have demonstrated the potential benefits of aerobic exercise (AE) with blood flow restriction (BFR), these findings have been limited by the approaches used to determine the occlusive pressure. In addition, the physiological and perceptual responses of AE with BFR compared to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) remain un...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Anaerobic Threshold in a Water-Based Exercise: Agreement Between Heart Rate Deflection Point and Lactate Threshold Methods
Alberton, CL, Andrade, LS, Pinheiro, RB, and Pinto, SS. Anaerobic threshold in a water-based exercise: agreement between heart rate deflection point and lactate threshold methods. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2472–2478, 2021—The purpose of this study was to compare and assess the agreement of the heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) corresponding to the anaerobic threshold (AT) between HR deflection point (HRDP) and lactate threshold (LT) methods during a water-based exercise in young men. Sixteen young men (24 ± 6 years) performed the experimental protocol, which comprised the performanc...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effect of Concurrent Power Training and High-Intensity Interval Cycling on Muscle Morphology and Performance
Spiliopoulou, P, Zaras, N, Methenitis, S, Papadimas, G, Papadopoulos, C, Bogdanis, GC, and Terzis, G. Effect of concurrent power training and high-intensity interval cycling on muscle morphology and performance. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2464–2471, 2021—The aim of the study was to examine the effect of performing high-intensity interval cycling on muscle morphology and performance immediately after power training (PT). Twenty healthy female physical education students were assigned into 2 training groups. One group performed PT, and the other group performed the same PT followed by high-intensity interval aero...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Combined Squat and Light-Load Resisted Sprint Training for Improving Athletic Performance
This study aimed to analyze the effects of 5 training methods: squat (SQ), light-load sled towing (LST), heavy-load sled towing (HST), squat combined with LST (SQ + LST), and squat combined with HST (SQ + HST) on physical performance. Ninety-one physically active men were randomly assigned to one of the aforementioned training methods or a control group. Before and after the training period, a battery of tests was completed: 30-m sprint; change of direction (COD); countermovement jump (CMJ) and Abalakov jump (ABK); and estimated 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in squat. Training took place once per week for 8 weeks. SQ trained ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Autoregulation by “Repetitions in Reserve” Leads to Greater Improvements in Strength Over a 12-Week Training Program Than Fixed Loading
In this study, 31 resistance-trained men participated twice weekly in an AR or a FL squat program. For the FL group, the load was prescribed as a percentage of the pre-test 1-repetition maximum, whereas for the AR group, the load was prescribed based on the number of “repetitions in reserve,” such that the intensities were theoretically the same (volume was also matched). Both groups showed a significant increase in front squat (FS) and back squat (BS) performance, but the magnitude of this was significantly greater for the AR program (FS: AR +11.7%, FL +8.3%, p = 0.004, = 0.255; BS: AR +10.8%, FL +7.1%, p = 0....
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of Self-myofascial Release Using a Foam Roller on Range of Motion and Morphological Changes in Muscle: A Crossover Study
Yoshimura, A, Inami, T, Schleip, R, Mineta, S, Shudo, K, and Hirose, N. Effects of self-myofascial release using a foam roller on range of motion and morphological changes in muscle: a crossover study. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2444–2450, 2021—Self-myofascial release using a foam roller (FR) is effective in improving range of motion (ROM) in at least some conditions. However, its mechanism is still unclear. Therefore, this study investigated potential acute muscle morphological changes after the FR intervention and aimed to clarify the mechanism of increases in ROM by the FR intervention. We hypothesized that ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Does the Expectancy on the Static Stretching Effect Interfere With Strength-Endurance Performance?
Bertolaccini, AL, da Silva, AA, Teixeira, EL, Schoenfeld, BJ, and de Salles Painelli, V. Does the expectancy on the static stretching effect interfere with strength-endurance performance? J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2439–2443, 2021—Static stretching (SS) may interfere with strength performance. Such interference, however, may be partially attributed to the subjects' or researcher's expectancy about the SS effects. We aimed to examine whether the manipulation of subjects' expectancy of SS on force production could influence strength-endurance during unilateral knee extension exercise. Eighteen strength-trained me...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Acute Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Warm-up on Leg and Vertical Stiffness During Running
Paradisis, GP, Pappas, P, Dallas, G, Zacharogiannis, E, Rossi, J, and Lapole, T. Acute effects of whole-body vibration warm-up on leg and vertical stiffness during running. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2433–2438, 2021—Although whole-body vibration (WBV) has been suggested as a suitable and efficient alternative to the classic warm-up routines, it is still unknown how this may impact running mechanics. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a WBV warm-up procedure on lower-limb stiffness and other spatiotemporal variables during running at submaximal speed. Twenty-two males performed 30-...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of Exercise Structure and Modality on Physiological and Perceptual Responses to Exercise
This study examined the effect of exercise mode and intensity on physiological and perceptual responses to exercise. Twelve active adults (6 men and 6 women, age = 21.7 ± 1.6 years) initially performed incremental testing on the treadmill (TM) and cycle ergometer (CE) to assess maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) and ventilatory threshold (VT). During the next 4 visits in a randomized order, subjects performed 20 minutes of moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) at an intensity 20% below VT on the TM (TMMICE) and cycle ergometer (CEMICE) as well as time-matched high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 10 1-minute...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Insulin-like Growth Factor Axis Genetic Score and Sports Excellence
This study assessed genetic score based on 6 polymorphisms related to the Insulin-like growth factor axis (rs7136446, rs35767, rs6220, rs680, rs2854744, and rs1805086) among elite Israeli runners and swimmers. One hundred sixty-one track and field athletes (123 men and 38 women, age 17–50 years) and 94 swimmers (61 men and 33 women, age 16–49 years) participated in the study. Athletes were divided into short-distance runners (SDRs, major event: 100–200-m sprints and jumps, n = 63) and long-distance runners (LDRs, major event: 5,000 m and marathon, n = 98). Swimmers were divided into short-distance swimmer...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Set Configuration in Strength Training Programs Modulates the Cross Education Phenomenon
This study aimed to compare the strength gains in the nontrained arm after 2 independent unilateral training programs differing in the set configuration. Thirty-five subjects were randomly assigned to 3 groups: traditional training (TT; n = 12), cluster training (CT; n = 11), or control (CON; n = 12). The experimental groups performed a 5-week training program of a unilateral biceps curl exercise with the dominant limb using the 10 repetition maximum (10RM) load. Traditional training performed 5 sets of 6 repetitions and 135 seconds of rest between sets. Cluster training completed 30 repetitions with 18.5 seconds of rest b...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Comparison of Trunk Muscle Activity Between Traditional Plank Exercise and Plank Exercise With Isometric Contraction of Ankle Muscles in Subjects With Chronic Low Back Pain
This study aimed to compare the effects of 4 different ankle conditions on the activities of rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO), and erector spinae (ES) muscles during plank exercise in subjects with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Twenty-two subjects with CLBP participated in this study. The subjects performed the traditional plank and plank with 3 different ankle muscle contraction types (isometric contraction of ankle dorsiflexor, plantarflexor, and without ankle muscle contraction). Surface electromyography was used to measure the activities of RA, EO, TrA/IO, ES...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effect of Different Types of Loads on the Force-Velocity Relationship Obtained During the Bench Press Throw Exercise
This study aimed (a) to evaluate the degree of linearity of the force-velocity (F-V) relationship across different types of loads, (b) to compare the magnitude of the F-V relationship parameters (maximum values of force [F0], velocity [V0], and power [Pmax]) between the different types of loads, and (c) to explore the concurrent validity of F0 with traditional measures of maximal strength. The F-V relationships of 15 physically active men (age: 20.9 ± 2.0 years, bench press 1 repetition maximum relative to body mass: 1.20 ± 0.10 kg·kg−1) were determined during the bench press throw exercise using...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Impact of Spotter Sex on One Repetition Maximum Bench Press Performance
Nickerson, BS, Salinas, G, Garza, JM, Cho, S, and Snarr, RL. Impact of spotter sex on one repetition maximum bench press performance. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2397–2400, 2021—Resistance exercise is popular because of favorable health outcomes associated with increased muscular fitness. For these reasons, 1 repetition maximum (1RM), mean velocity (MV), and peak power (PP) are of interest during the bench press. However, research has yet to evaluate whether spotter sex impacts bench press performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the impact of spotter sex on bench press performance duri...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Comparing Biomechanical Time Series Data During the Hang-Power Clean and Jump Shrug
Kipp, K, Comfort, P, and Suchomel, TJ. Comparing biomechanical time series data during the hang-power clean and jump shrug. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2389–2396, 2021—The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the force-, velocity-, displacement-, and power-time curves during the hang-power clean (HPC) and the jump shrug (JS). To this end, 15 male lacrosse players were recruited from a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division-I team, and performed one set of 3 repetitions of the HPC and JS at 70% of their HPC 1 repetition maximum (1RM HPC). Two in-ground force plates were used to measu...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Analysis of Record Scores in the Clean and Its Variations in the Long-Term Training of Young Weightlifters
Szyszka, P and Czaplicki, A. Analysis of record scores in the clean and its variations in the long-term training of young weightlifters. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2383–2388, 2021—The main objectives of this study were to determine the time trajectories of record scores in the clean lift (C) and its derivatives achieved by young weightlifters in a 2-year training cycle and to estimate the quantitative relationships between these scores. The study involved 17 weightlifters who were tested 7 times at 3-month intervals. The computations were based on an individual growth curve approach. The study found statistical...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Predicting Temporal Gait Kinematics From Running Velocity
Gray, A, Price, M, and Jenkins, D. Predicting temporal gait kinematics from running velocity. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2379–2382, 2021—The manner in which stride frequency (f) changes in response to running velocity (v) is well established. Notably, as running velocity increases, duty factor (d, the % of the stride in stance) decreases, concomitantly with higher stride frequencies. Mathematical descriptions of this relationship do not exist, limiting our ability to reasonably predict gait-based metrics from wearable technologies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish prediction equations for s...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Technical Report Source Type: research

Transference Effect of Short-Term Optimum Power Load Training on the Punching Impact of Elite Boxers
This study examined the changes in bench press (BP), jump squat (JS), and half-squat (HS) power outputs induced by a short-term (1 week) training scheme based on the optimum power load (OPL) applied to national boxing athletes and measured the transference effect coefficient (TEC) of these exercises on punching impact. Eight elite boxing athletes from the Brazilian National team participated in this study. Athletes were tested before and after 3 power-oriented training sessions performed at the OPL. The physical assessments comprised punching impact measures (jabs and crosses) at fixed and self-selected distances, and bar-...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - September 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Research Notes Source Type: research

Periodization and Block Periodization in Sports: Emphasis on Strength-Power Training—A Provocative and Challenging Narrative
Stone, MH, Hornsby, WG, Haff, GG, Fry, AC, Suarez, DG, Liu, J, Gonzalez-Rave, JM, and Pierce, KC. Periodization and block periodization in sports: emphasis on strength-power training—a provocative and challenging narrative. J Strength Cond Res 35(8): 2351–2371, 2021—Periodization can be defined as a logical sequential, phasic method of manipulating fitness and recovery phases to increase the potential for achieving specific performance goals while minimizing the potential for nonfunctional over-reaching, overtraining, and injury. Periodization deals with the micromanagement of timelines and fitness phases...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Brief Review Source Type: research

Implementation of an Educational Fueling Station for a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III Athletic Program
Gomez-Hixson, K, and Brown, ML. Implementation of an educational fueling station for a NCAA division III athletic program. J Strength Cond Res 35(8): 2346–2350, 2021—The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of an educational fueling station for National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III student-athletes. Subjects included student-athletes participating in the fall 2018 athletic season (n = 82). Once the mobile fueling station was established, the athletes were informed of the mobile fueling station policies and educated on the appropriate use and timing ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Technical Report Source Type: research

Exercise-Intensity Adherence During Aerobic Training and Cardiovascular Response During Resistance Training in Cancer Survivors
Quevedo-Jerez, K, Gil-Rey, E, Maldonado-Martín, S, and Herrero-Román, F. Exercise-intensity adherence during aerobic training and cardiovascular response during resistance training in cancer survivors. J Strength Cond Res 35(8): 2338–2345, 2021—Combined aerobic-resistance training has shown the best benefits has proved beneficial for cancer survivors (CS). To understand the adherence to the aerobic training program (in terms of the intensity and duration of the sessions) and the cardiovascular response to the resistance training program, heart rate (HR) of 48 CS was monitored in each training sess...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Sports Participation, Physical Activity, and Health-Related Fitness in Youth With Chronic Diseases or Physical Disabilities: The Health in Adapted Youth Sports Study
In conclusion, participation in sports is associated with both higher levels of PA and health-related fitness in youth with CDPD. Promotion and stimulation of participation in sports seems a good way to promote health-related fitness as well as a healthy active lifestyle in youth with CDPD. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Prevalence of Normal Weight Obesity and Health Risk Factors for the Female Collegiate Dancer
Brown, AF, Alfiero, CJ, Brooks, SJ, Kviatkovsky, SA, Smith-Ryan, AE, and Ormsbee, MJ. Prevalence of normal weight obesity and health risk factors for the female collegiate dancer. J Strength Cond Res 35(8): 2321–2326, 2021—The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of normal weight obesity (NWO) and evaluate the relationship between NWO and health risk factors in a collegiate dancer population. Reanalysis of data of female dancers (N = 42) from 2 larger studies was used to assess prevalence and health risk factors of NWO. Dancers completed a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan to assess fat m...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Training Demands and Physiological Profile of Cross-Disciplined Collegiate Female Dancers
Sanders, DJ, Walker, AJ, Prior, KE, Poyssick, AN, and Arent, SM. Training demands and physiological profile of cross-disciplined collegiate female dancers. J Strength Cond Res 35(8): 2316–2320, 2021—Little is known about the physical demands of high-level dance training. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological demands of a typical ballet and modern class through training load (TL) and to assess differences in TL between the 2 class types. In addition, a physiological profile of cross-disciplined collegiate female dancers was determined. Seventeen college-aged female dancers wer...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research