A Novel Method to Determine Optimal Load in Elastic-Based Power Training
Buskard, AN, Oh, J, Eltoukhy, M, Brounstein, SR, and Signorile, JF. A novel method to determine optimal load in elastic-based power training. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2401–2408, 2018—The benefits of muscular power on sport performance and older adults' abilities to live independently and resist falls is well documented. Consequently, a substantial volume of research has focused on establishing the optimal loading patterns for improving muscular power using resistance exercise; however, to date, this research has only targeted optimal loading during training with free weights or selectorized exercise machines....
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Game Responses During Young Padel Match Play: Age and Sex Comparisons Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Influence of Clothing on Thermoregulation and Comfort During Exercise in the Heat: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Influence of Dehydration on Intermittent Sprint Performance: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Heart Rate Monitoring in Basketball: Applications, Player Responses, and Practical Recommendations
Berkelmans, DM, Dalbo, VJ, Kean, CO, Milanović, Z, Stojanović, E, Stojiljković, N, and Scanlan, AT. Heart rate monitoring in basketball: applications, player responses, and practical recommendations. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2383–2399, 2018—The aims of this review were to collate the existing literature encompassing heart rate (HR) monitoring in basketball to (a) identify the applications of HR measurement; (b) report HR responses in male and female players during training and game-play; (c) evaluate use of current HR-based training load models; and (d) provide recommendations for future research and best ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Brief Review Source Type: research

Practical Model of Low-Volume Paddling-Based Sprint Interval Training Improves Aerobic and Anaerobic Performances in Professional Female Canoe Polo Athletes
Sheykhlouvand, M, Khalili, E, Gharaat, M, Arazi, H, Khalafi, M, and Tarverdizadeh, B. Practical model of low-volume paddling-based sprint interval training improves aerobic and anaerobic performances in professional female canoe polo athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2375–2382, 2018—Brief, intense exercise training using running and cycling as exercise interventions may induce aerobic and anaerobic adaptations in athletes from a wide range of sports. However, this has not been studied extensively for those sports in which the upper body is predominantly involved. Our purpose was to examine the effects of kay...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Ranking Prediction Model Using the Competition Record of Ladies Professional Golf Association Players
Chae, JS, Park, J, and So, W-Y. Ranking prediction model using the competition record of ladies professional golf association players. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2363–2374, 2018—The purpose of this study was to suggest a ranking prediction model using the competition record of the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA) players. The top 100 players on the tour money list from the 2013–2016 US Open were analyzed in this model. Stepwise regression analysis was conducted to examine the effect of performance and independent variables (i.e., driving accuracy, green in regulation, putts per round, driving d...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Positional Anthropometric and Performance Profile of Elite Gaelic Football Players
Shovlin, A, Roe, M, Malone, S, and Collins, K. Positional anthropometric and performance profile of elite gaelic football players. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2356–2362, 2018—The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the variation in the anthropometric and performance characteristics of elite Gaelic football players with respect to position. One hundred forty-eight elite Gaelic footballers underwent anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of 7 skinfolds, and % adipose tissue) and performance (counter movement jump [CMJ] height, CMJ peak power, CMJ relative peak power, squat jump [SJ] height, SJ peak po...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Can Squat Jump Performance Differentiate Starters vs. Nonstarters in Division I Female Soccer Players?
Magrini, MA, Colquhoun, RJ, Sellers, JH, Conchola, EC, Hester, GM, Thiele, RM, Pope, ZK, and Smith, DB. Can squat jump performance differentiate starters vs. nonstarters in division I female soccer players? J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2348–2355, 2018—Although soccer is predominately an endurance sport, high velocity movements may be an important indicator of athletic success. The purpose of this investigation was to establish whether squat jumps (SJs) can differentiate starters from nonstarters with a female collegiate division I soccer team. Eighteen female division I soccer athletes were separated into 2 group...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Validity of Heart Rate-Based Indices to Measure Training Load and Intensity in Elite Football Players
This study aimed to identify the most sensible heart rate-based indices to physical measures of training load and intensity. Twenty professional football players competing in the Russian league and in the UEFA Champions League were monitored during 15 training sessions (270 individual records) using global positioning systems devices (10 Hz) and heart rate telemetry. Expert knowledge and a collinearity r 2.5 m·s−2 and the number of high-intensity bursts remained in the final multivariate model for training load. The adjusted correlations with Banister's training impulse (TRIMP) were r = 0.49 and r = 0.3, respe...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Influence of Tactical and Situational Variables on Offensive Sequences During Elite Football Matches
This study examined the influence of tactical and situational variables on offensive sequences during elite football matches. A sample of 68 games and 1,694 offensive sequences from the Spanish La Liga, Italian Serie A, German Bundesliga, English Premier League, and Champions League were analyzed using χ2 and logistic regression analyses. Results revealed that counterattacks (odds ratio [OR] = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–1.83; p (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Quantifying Changes in Squat Jump Height Across a Season of Men's Collegiate Soccer
Sams, ML, Sato, K, DeWeese, BH, Sayers, AL, and Stone, MH. Quantifying changes in squat jump height across a season of men's collegiate soccer. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2324–2330, 2018—The purposes of this study were to examine the effectiveness of an athlete monitoring program in managing athlete neuromuscular fatigue across a men's collegiate soccer season as measured by changes in squat jump (SJ) height and to compare possible changes with the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) training load (TL). Eighteen outfield Division I men's college soccer players performed SJ testing before each game of th...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Normative Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Values for Female, Healthy, Elite Handball and Football Players
This study presents normative values for isokinetic knee extension and flexion muscle strength tests in 350 elite, female, handball (n = 150) and football (n = 200) players. Isokinetic concentric muscle strength tests at 60°·sec−1 were recorded bilaterally using a dynamometer. Peak torque (in Newton meter [N·m]), body mass normalized peak torque (N·m·kg−1), and hamstring to quadriceps ratio (H:Q ratio) for dominant and nondominant legs were recorded. The female elite players were 20.9 ± 4.0 years, started playing at the elite level at the age of 18.2 ± 2.7 years, wi...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Maturity Status as a Determinant of the Relationships Between Conditioning Qualities and Preplanned Agility in Young Handball Athletes
This study aimed to examine how determinants of preplanned agility are affected by the period of peak height velocity (PHV) regarding the anthropometrics and conditioning qualities in young handball players. The sample comprised 56 handball players (male; 12–14 years of age), allocated into 2 groups according to their biological age of maturity: Pre-PHV (N = 34) and Post-PHV (N = 22). Players were evaluated on handball-specific tests of preplanned agility (CODAT and T-HALF). Predictors included anthropometrics, sprinting, horizontal and vertical jumps, and reactive strength index (RSI). The reliability of the tests w...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Anthropometric Characteristics, Physical Fitness, and Throwing Velocity in Elite women's Handball Teams
Saavedra, JM, Kristjánsdóttir, H, Einarsson, IÞ, Guðmundsdóttir, ML, Þorgeirsson, S, and Stefansson, A. Anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness, and throwing velocity in elite women's handball teams. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2294–2301, 2018—The aims of this study were (a) to analyze anthropometric, physical fitness, and throwing speed in women elite handball players of different ages and (b) to develop a multivariate model explaining handball performance from a multidimensional perspective. Eighty women handball players (18.2 ± 4.0 years in age) from nation...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Longitudinal Changes in Body Composition Throughout Successive Seasonal Phases Among Canadian University Football Players
Kim, J, Delisle-Houde, P, Reid, RER, and Andersen, RE. Longitudinal changes in body composition throughout successive seasonal phases among Canadian university football players. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2284–2293, 2018—The purpose of this study was to assess changes in body composition during seasonal phases of the training year among Canadian Inter-University Sport (CIS) football players. Forty university football players were assessed for anthropometry, total body composition, regional body composition, and central adiposity over a 7-month period including the summer off-season and the in-season. Baseline t...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Evaluation of Skating Top Speed, Acceleration, and Multiple Repeated Sprint Speed Ice Hockey Performance Tests
Bond, CW, Bennett, TW, and Noonan, BC. Evaluation of skating top speed, acceleration, and multiple repeated sprint speed ice hockey performance tests. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2273–2283, 2018—Skating speed, acceleration (ACC), and economy are important attributes related to ice hockey success and should ideally be tested on the ice in a reliable and time efficient manner that is accessible to coaches at all levels of the sport. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of certain on-ice tests and further, to use these results to evaluate changes in performance across a season. It was hypothes...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Energy Cost of Continuous Shuttle Running: Comparison of 4 Measurement Methods
Ciprandi, D, Lovecchio, N, Piacenza, M, Limonta, E, Esposito, F, Sforza, C, Zago, M. Energy cost of continuous shuttle running: Comparison of 4 measurement methods. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2265–2272, 2018—Assessing runs with frequent turns (shuttle run) is a viable option to evaluate the energy cost associated with sport-specific high-intensity intermittent activities. To date, no study investigated the extent to which the computation of energy cost of exercise is affected by the following factors: procedure and duration of oxygen uptake measurement during exercise, oxygen uptake measurement during recovery,...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

An Assessment of Running Power as a Training Metric for Elite and Recreational Runners
This study sought to investigate a novel training tool, the Stryd Running Power Meter, and the applicability of running power (and its individually calculated run mechanics) to be a useful surrogate of metabolic demand (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), across different running surfaces, within different caliber runners. Recreational (n = 13) and elite (n = 11) runners completed a test assessing V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at 3 different paces, while wearing a Stryd Power Meter on both an indoor treadmill and an outdoor track, to investigate relationships between estimated running power and metabolic demand. A weak but significant r...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Deception of Ambient Temperature Does Not Elicit Performance Benefits During a 5 km Run in Hot, Humid Conditions
Hanson, NJ, Carriveau, DM, Morgan, HE, Smith, AR, Michael, TJ, and Miller, MG. Deception of ambient temperature does not elicit performance benefits during a 5 km run in hot, humid conditions. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2250–2257, 2018—The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of deception of ambient temperature on 5 km performance in recreational runners. Eleven participants (6 men, 5 women) each performed three 5 km runs in a random order consisting of a control trial (CON) in temperate conditions (21° C, 43% RH), a hot humid trial (HOT; 31° C, 65% RH) and a deception trial (DEC; 31°...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Repeated High-Intensity Cycling Performance Is Unaffected by Timing of Carbohydrate Ingestion
Shei, R-J, Paris, HL, Beck, CP, Chapman, RF, and Mickleborough, TD. Repeated high-intensity cycling performance is unaffected by timing of carbohydrate ingestion. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2243–2249, 2018—To determine whether carbohydrate (CHO) feeding taken immediately before, early, or late in a series of high-intensity cycling exercises affected cycling performance. A total of 16 trained, male cyclists (>6 hours postprandial) performed 3-, 4-km cycling time trials (TT1, TT2, and TT3) separated by 15 minutes of active recovery on 4 separate occasions. Carbohydrate feeding (80 g) was given either before TT...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The Effects of Beef, Chicken, or Whey Protein After Workout on Body Composition and Muscle Performance
Sharp, MH, Lowery, RP, Shields, KA, Lane, JR, Gray, JL, Partl, JM, Hayes, DW, Wilson, GJ, Hollmer, CA, Minivich, JR, and Wilson, JM. The effects of beef, chicken, or whey protein after workout on body composition and muscle performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2233–2242, 2018—The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of postworkout consumption of beef protein isolate (Beef), hydrolyzed chicken protein (Chx), or whey protein concentrate (WPC), compared with a control on body composition and muscle performance during 8 weeks of resistance training. Forty-one men and women were randomized into 4 gr...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Acute Capsaicin Supplementation Improves Resistance Training Performance in Trained Men
Conrado de Freitas, M, Cholewa, JM, Freire, RV, Carmo, BA, Bottan, J, Bratfich, M, Della Bandeira, MP, Gonçalves, DC, Caperuto, EC, Lira, FS, and Rossi, FE. Acute capsaicin supplementation improves resistance training performance in trained men. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2227–2232, 2018—The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of capsaicin supplementation on performance, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentrations during resistance exercise in healthy trained young men. Ten resistance-trained men (age = 22.7 ± 4.0 years, mass = 82.3 ± 9.6 kg, and...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effect of Caffeine on Sprint Cycling in Experienced Cyclists
Anderson, DE, LeGrand, SE, and McCart, RD. Effect of caffeine on sprint cycling in experienced cyclists. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2221–2226, 2018—Research regarding the ergogenic effects of caffeine (CAF) in anaerobic activity remains inconclusive. However, some researchers have found significant improvements in anaerobic performance when testing specifically trained athletes. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, cross-over design was implemented to assess the impact of CAF on a 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) in experienced cyclists. Nine experienced cyclists volunteered to participat...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

A Comparison of Bilateral Muscular Imbalance Ratio Calculations Using Functional Tests
This study aimed to compare the bilateral muscular imbalance ratio calculations, using the absolute difference between limbs as the numerator and the 5 different options as reference values. Twenty-three males (21.6 ± 1.9 years, 1.80 ± 0.06 m, 80.5 ± 13.8 kg) and 11 females (20.8 ± 1.5 years, 1.62 ± 0.03 m, 68.0 ± 6.5 kg) performed the one-legged 6-m timed test and the one-legged triple-hop distance test. The 5 possible combinations were compared with a 2 (sex) × 2 (functional test) × 5 (calculation method) analysis of variance for each test. Significant differences (p ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Acute Effect of Foam Rolling and Dynamic Stretching on Flexibility and Jump Height
Smith, JC, Pridgeon, B, and Hall, MC. Acute effect of foam rolling and dynamic stretching on flexibility and jump height. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2209–2215, 2018—Dynamic stretching (DS) can acutely improve vertical jump (VJ) performance but its effect lasts no more than 5 minutes. Foam rolling (FR), a form of self-myofascial release, can acutely increase range of motion (ROM) with this effect lasting less than 10 minutes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of these effects, separately and combined, on VJ height and ROM. Twenty-nine university students completed 4 different s...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Acute Effects of Active, Ballistic, Passive, and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Sprint and Vertical Jump Performance in Trained Young Soccer Players
Oliveira, LP, Vieira, LHP, Aquino, R, Manechini, JPV, Santiago, PRP, and Puggina, EF. Acute effects of active, ballistic, passive, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on sprint and vertical jump performance in trained young soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2199–2208, 2018—The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of active (AC), ballistic (BA), passive (PA), and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching methods on performance in vertical jumping, sit and reach, and sprinting in young soccer players. Twelve trained soccer players (17.67 ± 0.87 y...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Stretch Could Reduce Hamstring Injury Risk During Sprinting by Right Shifting the Length-Torque Curve
Ruan, M, Li, L, Chen, C, and Wu, X. Stretch could reduce hamstring injury risk during sprinting by right shifting the length-torque curve. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2190–2198, 2018—It was hypothesized that static stretch would shift the length-torque curve to the right, which may reduce the risk of muscle strain injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of static stretching of hamstring (SSH) on the risk of hamstring injury during sprinting indicated by the shift of the length–torque relationship. Twelve female college athletes (age: 20.8 ± 0.7 years; height: 1.61 &plus...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The Effects of Recovery Duration During High-Intensity Interval Exercise on Time Spent at High Rates of Oxygen Consumption, Oxygen Kinetics, and Blood Lactate
In conclusion, aerobic metabolism attains its upper functional limits with either 2, or 3 or 4 minutes of recovery during the 4 × 4-minute HIIE; thus, all rest durations could be used for the enhancement of aerobic capacity in sports, fitness, and clinical settings. The short (2 minutes) compared with longer (4 minutes) recovery, however, evokes greater cardiovascular and metabolic stress and activates to a greater extent anaerobic glycolysis and hence, could be used by athletes to induce greater overall physiological challenge. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Hypoxia During Resistance Exercise Does Not Affect Physical Performance, Perceptual Responses, or Neuromuscular Recovery
This study aimed to determine whether performing resistance exercise in hypoxia affects markers of physical performance, perceptual responses, and neuromuscular function. Fourteen male subjects (age: 24.6 ± 2.7 years; height: 179.7 ± 5.9 cm; body mass: 84.6 ± 11.6 kg) with>2 years resistance training experience performed moderate-load resistance exercise in 2 conditions: normoxia (FIO2 = 0.21) and hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.16). Resistance exercise comprised 3 sets of 10 repetitions of back squats and deadlifts at 60% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM), with 60 seconds inter-set rest. Physical performance was ass...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Can Neck Strength be Measured Using a Single Maximal Contraction in a Simulated Contact Position?
Salmon, DM, Handcock, PJ, Sullivan, SJ, Rehrer, NJ, and Niven, BE. Can neck strength be measured using a single maximal contraction in a simulated contact position? J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2166–2173, 2018—Neck strengthening has been postulated to potentially reduce the incidence and severity of concussions and neck injuries in collision-based sports. A quick and reliable method to assess neck strength would permit identification of those at risk and tracking of progress after injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if neck strength could be reliably assessed in a simulated contact posture using a ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effect of Three Different Muscle Action Training Protocols on Knee Strength Ratios and Performance
Ruas, CV, Brown, LE, Lima, CD, Costa, PB, and Pinto, RS. Effect of three different muscle action training protocols on knee strength ratios and performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2154–2165, 2018—Hamstring to quadriceps (H:Q) ratios are often used to assess strength imbalances. The aims of this study were to compare 3 different muscle action training protocols on H:Q strength balance and functional performance. Forty untrained men (age: 22.87 ± 2.28 years, mass: 70.66 ± 11.049 kg, ht: 174.29 ± 6.90 cm) performed 6 weeks of training on an isokinetic dynamometer. They were randomly assign...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effort Index as a Novel Variable for Monitoring the Level of Effort During Resistance Exercises
This study aimed to analyze the acute mechanical and metabolic response to resistance exercise protocols (REPs) defined by 2 variables: the first repetition's mean velocity and the percentage of velocity loss (%VL) over the set. The product of these 2 variables was termed the effort index (EI) and was used as an indicator of the degree of fatigue induced during each REP. Twenty-one resistance-trained men (11 in full squat [SQ] and 10 in bench press [BP]) performed 16 REPs separated by 72 hours. Relative loads used (50, 60, 70, and 80% 1-repetition maximum) were determined from the load-velocity relationship for the SQ and ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Comparison of Acute Physiological and Psychological Responses Between Moderate-Intensity Continuous Exercise and Three Regimes of High-Intensity Interval Training
This study compared physiological and perceptual responses between MICT and 3 regimes of HIIT. Nineteen active adults (age = 24.0 ± 3.3 years) unfamiliar with HIIT initially performed ramp exercise to exhaustion to measure maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) and determine workload for subsequent sessions, whose order was randomized. Sprint interval training (SIT) consisted of six 20-second bouts of “all-out” cycling at 140% of maximum watts (Wmax). Low-volume HIIT (HIITLV) and high-volume HIIT (HIITHV) consisted of eight 60-second bouts at 85% Wmax and six 2-minute bouts at 70% Wmax, resp...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

An Investigation Into the Effects of Excluding the Catch Phase of the Power Clean on Force-Time Characteristics During Isometric and Dynamic Tasks: An Intervention Study
This study clearly demonstrates that neither the inclusion nor exclusion of the catch phase of the PC derivatives results in any preferential adaptations over two 4-week, in-season strength and power, mesocycles. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Improved Functional Power Over a 5-Week Period: Comparison of Combined Weight Training to Flexible Barbell Training
Caterisano, A, Hutchison, R, Parker, C, James, S, and Opskar, S. Improved functional power over a 5-week period: Comparison of combined weight training with flexible barbell training. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2109–2115, 2018—Previous studies demonstrated increased power development with various resistance-training modes over short training periods of 4–7 weeks through neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to compare 2 different power-training regimens over a 5-week period: combined weight training program (CT) using speed-lifts and plyometrics vs. flexible barbell (FB) training. Colle...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Restrictive Breathing Mask Reduces Repetitions to Failure During a Session of Lower-Body Resistance Exercise
Andre, TL, Gann, JJ, Hwang, PS, Ziperman, E, Magnussen, MJ, and Willoughby, DS. Restrictive breathing mask reduces repetitions to failure during a session of lower-body resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2103–2108, 2018—The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of restrictive breathing mask (RBM) on muscle performance, hemodynamic, and perceived stress variables during a session of lower-body resistance exercise. In a crossover design, 10 participants performed 2 separate testing sessions, RBM and no mask, consisting of squat, leg press, and leg extension. The paired-samples t-test was ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Author Response to: Is Elevation Training Mask a Strategy to Increase Lactate Clearance Through Respiratory Muscle Loading?
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Manuscript Clarification Source Type: research

Sexual Dimorphism in the Estimation of Upper-Limb Blood Flow Restriction in the Seated Position
Borges, A, Teodósio, C, Matos, P, Mil-Homens, P, Pezarat-Correia, P, Fahs, C, and Mendonca, GV. Sexual dimorphism in the estimation of upper-limb blood flow restriction in the seated position. J Strength Cond Res 32(7): 2096–2102, 2018—Arterial occlusion pressure (AOP) is typically used to normalize blood flow restriction (BFR) during low-intensity BFR exercise. Despite strong evidence for sexual dimorphism in muscle blood flow, sex-related differences in AOP estimation remain a controversial topic. We aimed at determining whether the relationship of upper-limb AOP with arm circumference and systolic blo...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Low Second-To-Fourth Digit Ratio Has High Explosive Power? A Prepubertal Study
This study analyzed the relationship between the 2D:4D ratio and explosive power. Explosive power of the lower limbs was assessed using the standing long jump (SLJ) test. The lengths of the second and fourth fingers of the right hand were measured to calculate the 2D:4D ratio. The SLJ length was correlated with the 2D:4D ratios (r = −0.144, p = 0.015) in boys. After controlling for age and the body mass index, this correlation remained significant (r = −0.134, p = 0.024). For girls, 2D:4D ratios were not significantly correlated with SLJ scores. These results indicate that the SLJ distance was negatively correl...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Resistance Exercise Training Is More Effective than Interval Aerobic Training in Reducing Blood Pressure During Sleep in Hypertensive Elderly Patients
In conclusion, resistance training promoted a greater nocturnal fall in BP among hypertensive elderly subjects under treatment compared with IA subjects. (Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research)
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Positional Differences in Running and Nonrunning Activities During Elite American Football Training
Ward, PA, Ramsden, S, Coutts, AJ, Hulton, AT, and Drust, B. Positional differences in running and nonrunning activities during elite American football training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2017—The aim of this investigation was to describe differences in training loads between position groups within professional American football. Integrated micro technology data were collected on 63 NFL football players during an American football training camp. Five key metrics (total distance, high-speed distance, player load (PL), PL per minute, and total inertial movement analysis [IMA]) served to quantify both run...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of 2% Dehydration on Lactate Concentration During Constant-Load Cycling
This study examined effects of dehydration on [La] response during constant-load cycling. Recreationally fit (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak = 48.7 ± 5.2 ml·kg−1·min−1) male participants (n = 9) completed 2 × 40-minute constant-load cycling trials; euhydrated (HYD) and after previous evening passive (water bath) dehydration (2% body weight, DEH) (HYD and DEH counterbalanced). Lactate, heart rate (HR), 10-point Omni ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and rectal temperature (Trec) were measured after warm-up (WU) and at 10, 20, 30, and 40 minutes. Before cycling, urine specific gravity ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Hydration Status and Thermoregulatory Responses in Drivers During Competitive Racing
This study quantified the degree of fluid losses during a competitive event in hot conditions. Nine male stock car drivers (29.6 ± 9.4 years, 177.8 ± 3.0 cm, 81.5 ± 18.5 kg) were studied during a Pro Series Division NASCAR race. Sweat rate (SR) and dehydration was determined through nude body weights (BWs). Prerace BW was 81.5 ± 18.5 kg and decreased to 81.1 ± 18.5 kg after race (p = 0.001). Body weight loss after race was 0.77 ± 0.3% and mean SR was 0.63 ± 0.4 L·h−1. Intestinal core temperature increased from 38.0 ± 0.4 to 38.5 ± 0.4° C after ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Race Profiles of Rowers During the 2014 Youth Olympic Games
Cerasola, D, Cataldo, A, Bellafiore, M, Traina, M, Palma, A, Bianco, A, and Capranica, L. Race profiles of rowers during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games. J Strength Cond Res 32(7): 2055–2060, 2018—Among the different factors affecting the outcome of elite rowing competitions, pacing strategy plays a relevant role. The purpose of this study was to analyze the race profiles of youth athletes competing at the 2014 Youth Olympic Games over a distance of 1,000 m. According to the competition outcome of sculling and sweep events, 96 youth (17–18 years) rowers (48 male and 48 female) were divided into winner (W), n...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Time Course of Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Muscle Damage Markers for 5 Days After a Soccer Match: Effects of Sex and Playing Position
This study examined the influence of sex and playing position on the time course of selected oxidative stress, inflammation, and muscle damage markers after an official soccer match. Sixty professional soccer players (30 men and 30 women) were divided into 3 groups, according to their playing position: defenders, midfielders, and attackers. Each group consisted of 10 male and 10 female players. Sixty healthy volunteers (30 men and 30 women) served as control. Blood samples were taken before and after the match and daily for 5 days after the match. Analysis of variance revealed different responses over time between sex and ...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Manipulating Field Dimensions During Small-sided Games Impacts the Technical and Physical Profiles of Australian Footballers
This study investigated the effect of manipulating field dimensions on the technical and physical profiles of Australian football (AF) players during small-sided games (SSGs). A total of 40 male players (23.9 ± 3.5 years) participated in 3, five-a-side SSGs; defined as “small” (20 × 30 m; 600 m2), “medium” (30 × 40 m; 1,200 m2), and “large” (40 × 50 m; 2,000 m2). Notational analyses enabled the quantification of technical skill indicators, whereas physical activity profiles were measured using microtechnology, resulting in 18 criterion variables. A multivariate a...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Elite Junior Australian Football Players Experience Significantly Different Loads Across Levels of Competition and Training Modes
Lathlean, TJH, Gastin, PB, Newstead, S, and Finch, CF. Elite junior Australian football players experience significantly different loads across levels of competition and training modes. J Strength Cond Res 32(7): 2031–2038, 2018—Well-developed physical qualities such as high jumping ability, running endurance, acceleration, and speed can help aspiring junior elite Australian football (AF) players transition to the Australian Football League competition. To do so, players need to experience sufficient load to enhance their physical resilience without increasing their risk of negative outcomes in terms of impaire...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Most Reliable Procedure of Determining Jump Height During the Loaded Countermovement Jump Exercise: Take-Off Velocity vs. Flight Time
This study aimed to compare the reliability of jump height between the 2 standard procedures of analyzing force-time data (take-off velocity [TOV] and flight time [FT]) during the loaded countermovement (CMJ) exercise performed with a free-weight barbell and in a Smith machine. The jump height of 17 men (age: 22.2 ± 2.2 years, body mass: 75.2 ± 7.1 kg, and height: 177.0 ± 6.0 cm) was tested in 4 sessions (twice for each CMJ type) against external loads of 17, 30, 45, 60, and 75 kg. Jump height reliability was comparable between the TOV (coefficient of variation [CV]: 6.42 ± 2.41%) and FT (CV: 6....
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Research Note Source Type: research

Lower Extremity Horizontal Work But Not Vertical Power Predicts Lower Extremity Injury in Female Collegiate Dancers
We examined whether these measures were interrelated and whether they predicted LE injury status in dancers using binary logistic regressions and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Forty-three collegiate female dancers (18 ± 0.7 years; 162.6 ± 5.9 cm; 59.4 ± 7.1 kg) performed single leg hop (SLH, m) and vertical jump (VJ, cm) tests. Single leg hop and VJ distances were used to calculate SLH norm (as a % of body height) and vertical power (vPower, watts). Lower extremity injuries and dance exposure hours (DEhrs) were recorded for 16 weeks. Dancers had 51 injuries resulting in a 3.7/1...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research