Prevalence and characterization of plasmid mediated quinolone resistance determinants qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr in ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli isolates from commercial layer in Korea.
Abstract Prevalence and characterization of plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance (PMQR) determinants genes of ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli in Korea commercial layer farm was studied. Total of 45 ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates were recovered and all isolates were multidrug-resistance. Eight-isolates have the PMQR genes aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrS1, and qnrB4 and seven-isolates exhibited double amino acid exchange at both gyrA and parC, and have high fluoroquinolone minimum inhibitory concentrations. Five transconjugants demonstrated transferability of PMQR and β-lactamase genes and similar antim...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 15, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Seo K, Lee Y Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 contaminated maize using human CYP3A4.
Abstract Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). AFB1 is reported to have high thermal stability and is not decomposed by heat treatment during food processing processes. Therefore, in this study, knowing that AFB1 is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP), our aim was to develop a method to detoxify A. flavus contaminated maize, under normal temperature and pressure, using E. coli expressing human CYP3A4. First, the metabolic activity of AFB1 by recombinant human CYP3A4 was evaluated. As a result, we confirmed that recombinant human CYP3A4 metabolizes 98% of AFB1. Next, we found...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yamada M, Hatsuta K, Niikawa M, Imaishi H Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) alleviates experimental colitis in mice by gut microbiota regulation.
In conclusion, FMT intervention could be suitable for UC control, but further validations via clinical trials are recommended. PMID: 32423189 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang W, Zou G, Li B, Du X, Sun Z, Sun Y, Jiang X Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

A bioactive fraction from Streptomyces sp. enhances maize tolerance against drought stress.
Abstract Drought stress is known to threaten the growth and productivity of many economical crops. Therefore, it is necessary to establish innovative and efficient approaches for improving crop growth and productivity. In the current study, we investigated the potentials of the cell-free extract of actinobacteria (Ac) isolated from a semi-arid habitat (Al-Jouf region, Saudi Arabia) to recover the reduction in maize growth and improve the physiology stress induced by drought. Three Ac isolates screened for production of secondary metabolites, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the isolate Ac3 revealed the hi...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Warrad M, Hassan YM, Mohamed MSM, Hagagy N, Al-Maghrabi OA, Selim S, Saleh AM, AbdElgawad H Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Fermented unpolished black rice (Oryza sativa L.) inhibits melanogenesis via ERK, p38, and AKT phosphorylation in B16F10 melanoma cells.
Abstract Melanin is a major factor that darkens skin color as one of the defense systems to prevent the harmful effects of UV light. However, darkened skin from the localized or systemic accumulation of melanin is viewed in many cultures as an esthetic problem. Consequentially, searching for anti-melanogenic agents from natural sources is very popular worldwide. Previous screening of fermented rice products, obtained from various rice cultivars fermented with different sources of loogpang, revealed that the highest ability to reduce the melanin content in B16F10 melanoma cells was from unpolished black rice fermen...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 8, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sangkaew O, Yompakdee C Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Changes in the microbial community of the mottled skate (Beringraja pulchra) during alkaline fermentation.
Abstract Beringraja pulchra, Cham-hong-eo in Korean, is a mottled skate which is belonging to the cartilaginous fish. Although this species is economically valuable in South Korea as an alkaline-fermented food, there are few microbial studies on such fermentation. Here, we analyzed microbial changes and pH before, during, and after fermentation and examined the effect of inoculation by a skin microbiota mixture on the skate fermentation (control vs. treatment). To analyze microbial community, the V4 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from the skates were amplified, sequenced and analyzed. During the skate ferment...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 8, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Park J, Kim SJ, Kim EB Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Development of the mammalian expression vector system that can be induced by IPTG and/or lactose.
Abstract Techniques used for the regulation of gene expression facilitate studies of gene function and treatment of diseases via gene therapy. Many tools have been developed for the regulation of gene expression in mammalian cells. The Lac operon system induced with isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) is one of the employed inducible systems. IPTG mimics the molecular structure of allolactose and has a strong affinity for the corresponding repressor. IPTG is known to rapidly penetrate into mammalian cells and exhibits low toxicity. In the present study, we developed an inducible expression system tha...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 8, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Myung SH, Park J, Han JH, Kim TH Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Current Status and Applications of Adaptive Laboratory Evolution in Industrial Microorganisms.
Abstract Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) is an evolutionary engineering approach in artificial conditions that improves organisms through the imitation of natural evolution. Due to the development of multi-level omics technologies in recent decades, ALE can be performed for various purposes at the laboratory level. This review delineates the basics of the experimental design of ALE based on several ALE studies of industrial microbial strains and updates current strategies combined with progressed metabolic engineering, in silico modeling and automation to maximize the evolution efficiency. Moreover, the review...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 8, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lee S, Kim P Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Industrial Optimization and Pretreatment for Hot Water Extraction of Korean Deer (Cervus canadensis Erxleben) Velvet Antlers.
The objectives for this study were to optimize the hot water extraction (HWE) of VA for the Korean VA industry, and to determine the most effective pretreatment method among microwave (MW), ultrasonication (US), and enzymatic (EZ) techniques. Using response surface methodology, optimum extraction temperatures and times were determined by central composite design configuration based on extraction yield and sialic acid content. Various quality parameters of VA extract including yield, soluble solid, protein, and sialic acid contents were also compared with the conjunction of HWE and pretreatment. The yield and sialic acid co...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 8, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jang DW, Ameer K, Oh JH, Park MK Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Lactobacillus reuteri NK33 and Bifidobacterium adolescentis NK98 alleviate Escherichia coli-induced depression and gut dysbiosis in mice.
Abstract Lactobacillus reuteri NK33 (NK33) and Bifidobacterium adolescentis NK98 (NK98) alleviate immobilization stress-induced depression. To understand gut microbiota-mediated mechanism of NK33 and NK98 against depression, we examined their effects on Escherichia coli K1 (K1)-induced depression and gut dysbiosis in mice. NK33, NK98, and their mixtures (1:1, 4:1, and 9:1) mitigated K1-induced depression and colitis. NK33 and NK98 additively or synergistically increased BDNF+/NeuN+ cell populations and suppressed NF-κB action in the hippocampus. They alleviated gut dysbiosis by reducing the Proteobacteria po...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Han SK, Kim JK, Joo MK, Lee KE, Han SW, Kim DH Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Cloning and functional characterization of putative Escherichia coli ABC multidrug efflux transporter YddA.
Abstract A putative multidrug efflux gene, yddA, was cloned from the Escherichia coli K-12 strain. A drug-sensitive strain of E. coli missing the main multidrug efflux pump AcrB was constructed as a host and the yddA gene was knocked out in wild type(WT)and drug-sensitive E. coli△acrB to study the yddA function. Sensitivity to different substrates of WT E.coli, E. coli△yddA, E. coli△acrB and E. coli△acrB△yddA strains was compared with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays and fluorescence tests. MIC assay and fluorescence test results showed that YddA protein was a multidrug efflux pump that ...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Feng Z, Liu D, Liu Z, Liang Y, Wang Y, Liu Q, Liu Z, Zang Z, Cui Y Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Aucklandia lappa causes cell wall damage in Candida albicans by reducing chitin and (1,3)- β-D-glucan.
In this study, we report the antifungal activity of an ethanol extract from Aucklandia lappa against Candida albicans. We found that the extract caused cell wall injury by decreasing chitin synthesis or assembly and (1,3)-β-D-glucan synthesis. A sorbitol protection assay demonstrated that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the A. lappa extract against C. albicans cells increased eight-fold from 0.78 to 6.24 mg/ml in 72 h. Cell aggregates, which indicate damage to the cell wall or membrane, were commonly observed in the A. lappa-treated C. albicans cells through microscopic analysis. In addition, the relativ...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 29, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lee HS, Kim Y Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Fluorometric detection of low-abundance EGFR exon 19 deletion mutation using tandem gene amplification.
Abstract Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are not only genetic markers for diagnosis but also biomarkers of clinical-response against tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Among the EGFR mutations, the in-frame deletion mutation in EGFR exon 19 kinase domain (EGFR exon 19-del) is the most frequent mutation, accounting for about 45% of EGFR mutations in NSCLCs. Development of sensitive method for detecting the EGFR mutation is highly required to make a better screening for drug-response in the treatment of NSCLC patients. Here, we developed a fluorometric tandem g...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kim DM, Zhang S, Kim M, Kim DE Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Screening of high temperature tolerant oleaginous diatoms.
Abstract Screening suitable strains with high temperature adaptability is of great importance for reducing the cost of temperature control in microalgae cultivation especially in summer. To obtain high temperature tolerant diatoms, water samples were collected in summer from 7 different regions of China across the Northeast, North and East. A total of 731 water samples was collected and from them 131 diatom strains were isolated and identified based on the 18S rRNA sequences. Forty-nine strains out of the 131 diatoms could survive at 30 °C, and 6 strains with relatively high biomass and lipid content at high t...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 23, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang L, Hu F, Wan X, Pan Y, Hu H Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Novel Bacterial Surface Display System Based on the Escherichia coli Protein MipA.
In this study, an efficient display system on Escherichia coli was developed using novel anchoring motifs designed from the E. coli mipA gene. Using the C-terminal fusion system of an industrial enzyme, Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase, six possible fusion sites, V140, V176, K179, V226, V232, and K234, which were truncated from the C-terminal end of the mipA gene (MV140, MV176, MV179, MV226, MV232, and MV234) were examined. The whole-cell lipase activities showed that MV140 was the best among the six anchoring motifs. Furthermore, the lipase activity obtained using MV140 as the anchoring motif was approximately 20-fold highe...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 23, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Han MJ Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Heterologous expression of recombinant transglutaminase in Bacillus subtilis SCK6 with optimized signal peptide and codon, and its impact on gelatin properties.
In this study, the MTG gene of Streptomyces sp. TYQ1024 was cloned and expressed in a food-grade bacterial strain Bacillus subtilis SCK6. Extracellular activity of MTG after codon and signal peptide (SP Ync M) optimization was 20 times that of the pre-optimized enzyme. After purification, the molecular weight of MTG was 38 kDa and the specific activity was 63.75 U/mg. The optimal temperature and pH for recombinant MTG activity were 50 °C and 8.0, respectively. MTG activity increased 1.42-fold in the presence of β-ME and 1.6-fold in the presence of DTT. Besides, 18% sodium chloride still resulted in 83% enzyme acti...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 23, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shiting W, Zhigang Y, Zhenjiang L, Yongqiang T Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Effect of Polar Amino Acid Residue Substitution by Site-directed Mutagenesis in the N-terminal Domain of Pseudomonas sp. Phytase on Enzyme Activity.
In this study, the three-dimensional structure of the N-terminal domain was predicted and substitutions for the amino acid residues of the region assumed to be the active site were made. The activity of mutants, in which alanine (A) was substituted for the original residue, was investigated at various temperatures and pH values. Significant differences in enzymatic activity were observed only in mutant E263A, suggesting that the amino acid residue at position 263 of the N-terminal domain is important in enzyme activity. PMID: 32325546 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 23, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lee GH, Jang WJ, Kim S, Kim Y, Kong IS Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Diversity and functions of endophytic fungi associated with roots and leaves of Stipa purpurea in an alpine steppe at Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
Abstract Stipa purpurea is a unique and dominant herbaceous plant species in the alpine steppe and meadows on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). In this work, we analyzed the composition and diversity of the culturable endophytic fungi in S. purpurea according to morphological and molecular identification. Then, we investigated the bioactivities of these fungi against plant pathogenic fungi and ACC deaminase activities. A total of 323 fungal isolates were first isolated from S. purpurea, and 33 fungal taxa were identified by internal transcribed spacer primers and grouped into Ascomycota. The diversity of endophytic...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 23, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yang X, Jin H, Xu L, Cui H, Xin A, Liu H, Qin B Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Pancastatin A and B have selective cytotoxicity on glucose-deprived PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells.
Abstract Glucose deprivation and hypoxia frequently occur in solid tumor cells, including pancreatic cancer cells. Glucose deprivation activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) and causes the up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). Induction of GRP78 has been shown to protect cancer cells. Therefore, shutting down of GRP78 expression may be a novel strategy in anticancer drug development. Based on this understanding, a screening system established for anticancer agents that exhibit selective cytotoxicity on pancreatic cancer cells under glucose-deprived conditions. To test this hypothesis, the n...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 9, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Park HR Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Effect of Rosemary Essential Oil and Trichoderma koningiopsis VOCs on Pathogenic Fungi Responsible for Ginseng Root-rot Disease.
This study may hurry the application of antifungal natural substances from rosemary andTrichoderma in the prevention and control of phytopathogenic strains in ginseng root infections.. PMID: 32270657 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 9, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hussein KA, Lee YD, Joo JH Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Microbiome Study of Initial Gut Microbiota from Newborn Infants to Children Reveals that Diet Determines Its Compositional Development.
Abstract To understand the formation of initial gut microbiota, three initial fecal samples were collected from two groups of two breast milk fed (BM1) and seven formula milk-fed (FM1) infants, and the compositional changes in gut microbiota were determined using metagenomics. Compositional change analysis during week one showed that Bifidobacterium increased from the first to the third fecal samples in the BM1 group (1.3% to 35.1%), while Klebsiella and Serratia were detected in the third fecal sample of the FM1 group (4.4% and 34.2%, respectively), suggesting the beneficial effect of breast milk intake. To furth...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 9, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ku HJ, Kim YT, Lee JH Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Isolation and characterization of kimchi starter Leuconostoc mesenteroides PBio03 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides PBio104 for manufacture of commercial kimchi.
This study was focused on development of useful kimchi starter to obtain for commercial kimchi. The kimchi using selected starter has a high quality by high production of mannitol, shelf life extension. The starters were screened by several properties such as mannitol production, low gas/acid production and acid resistance. Finally, the kimchi fermentation test was performed using selected LAB starter. Kimchi samples were prepared with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starters, including Leuconostoc mesenteroides PBio03 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides PBio104. The LAB starters, isolated from kimchi, can grow under pH 3.0 and low t...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 9, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lee KW, Kim GS, Baek AH, Hwang HS, Kwon DY, Kim SG, Lee SY Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

The Antimelanogenic Effect of Inularin Isolated from Flowers of Inula britannica on B16F10 Melanoma Cells and Zebrafish Embryos.
Abstract In the search for novel, natural melanogenesis inhibitors, a new sesquiterpene, inularin, was isolated from the flowers of Inula britannica, and the structure was determined using spectroscopic and chemical methods. The antimelanogenic effects of inularin on B16F10 melanoma cells and zebrafish embryos were evaluated. Inularin dose-dependently reduced melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced melanin production and L-DOPA oxidation in B16F10 cells. Zebrafish embryos were used to confirm the antimelanogenic activity. Inularin significantly decreased the pigmentation of embryos compared with untreated controls....
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 2, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jang DK, Jung SH, Jeong JH, Yoo HM, Lee IS, Shin HS Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Endomicrobial community profiles of two different mealybugs: Paracoccus marginatus and Ferrisia virgata.
In this study we aimed to reveal microbial communities associated with two different mealybugs, papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus) and two-tailed mealybug (Ferrisia virgata) collected from the same host plant. Comparative analysis of microbial communities associated with these mealybugs revealed differences that appear to stem from phylogenetic associations and different nutritional requirements. This first report on both bacterial and fungal communities associated with these mealybugs provides a preliminary insight on factors affecting the endomicrobial communities. . PMID: 32238776 [PubMed - as supplied by publ...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 2, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jose PA, Krishnamoorthy R, Gandhi PI, Senthilkumar M, Jamahiraman V, Kumutha K, Roy Choudhury A, Samaddar S, Anandham R, Sa T Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

An aqueous extract of a Bifidobacterium species induces apoptosis and inhibits invasiveness of non-small cell lung cancer cells.
This study analyzed the anticancer effects of aqueous extracts of probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium bifidum (BB), Bifidobacterium longum (BL), Bifidobacterium lactis (BLA), Bifidobacterium infantis 1 (BI1), and Bifidobacterium infantis 2 (BI2) on NSCLC cell lines. When the aqueous extracts of probiotic Bifidobacterium species were applied to the NSCLC cell lines A549, H1299, and HCC827, cell death increased considerably; in particular, the aqueous extracts from BB and BLA markedly reduced cell proliferation. p38 phosphorylation induced by BB aqueous extract increased the expression of cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved poly (A...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 2, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: An J, Kim HS, Yang KM Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Omega Rhodopsins: A Versatile Class of Microbial Rhodopsins.
Abstract Microbial rhodopsins are a superfamily of photoactive membrane proteins with covalently bound retinal cofactor. Isomerization of the retinal chromophore upon absorption of a photon triggers conformational changes of the protein to function as ion pumps or sensors. After the discovery of proteorhodopsin in an uncultivated γ-proteobacterium, light-activated proton pumps have been widely detected among marine bacteria and, together with chlorophyll-based photosynthesis, are considered as an important axis responsible for primary production in the biosphere. Rhodopsins and related proteins show a high l...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 2, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kwon SK, Jun SH, Kim JF Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Melanin bleaching and melanogenesis inhibition effects of Pediococcus acidilactici PMC48 isolated from Korean perilla leaf kimchi.
Abstract Overproduction and accumulation of melanin in the skin will darken the skin and cause skin disorders. So far, components that can inhibit tyrosinase, a melanin synthase of melanocytes, have been developed and used as ingredients of cosmetics or pharmaceutical products. However, most of existing substances can only inhibit the biosynthesis of melanin while melanin that is already synthesized and deposited is not directly decomposed. Thus, their effects in decreasing melanin concentration in the skin are weak. To overcome the limitation of existing therapeutic agents, we started to develop a substance that ...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 2, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kim S, Seo H, Mahmud HA, Islam MI, Sultana OF, Lee Y, Kim M, Song HY Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Current Status of Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Therapeutics, and Vaccines for Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes serious respiratory illness such as pneumonia and lung failure, was first reported in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei, China. The etiological agent of COVID-19 has been confirmed as a novel coronavirus, now known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is most likely originated from zoonotic coronaviruses, like SARS-CoV, which emerged in 2002. Within a few months of the first report, SARS-CoV-2 had spread across China and worldwide, reaching a pandemic level. As COVID-19 has triggered enormous human casualties and serious economi...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ahn DG, Shin HJ, Kim MH, Lee S, Kim HS, Myoung J, Kim BT, Kim SJ Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Analogs of Periplanetasin-4 Exhibit Deteriorated Membrane-Targeted Action.
In conclusion, arginine substitution could not maintain the membrane disruption ability of periplanetasin-4. The results indicated that the attenuation of hydrophobic interactions with the plasma membrane caused a reduction in the accumulation of the analogs on the membrane before the formation of electrostatic interactions. Our findings will assist in the further development of antimicrobial peptides for clinical use. PMID: 32238758 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 28, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lee H, Hwang JS, Lee DG Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Characterization of vaginal microbiota associated with pregnancy outcomes of artificial insemination in dairy cows.
Abstract Profitability of dairy and beef industries have been largely affected by the actually achieved reproductive efficiency. Although a large proportion of cows worldwide have been bred by artificial insemination (AI) services, many potential factors affecting the pregnancy outcome of AI have remained to be addressed. In the present study, we investigated the vaginal microbiota by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and analyzed their association with differential pregnancy outcomes (i.e., pregnant vs. nonpregnant) of multiple AI services in dairy cows. Sequencing of V3-V4 region totally produced 512,0...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chen SY, Deng F, Zhang M, Jia X, Jia SJ Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

H-NS Silences Gene Expression of LeuO, the Master Regulator of 4 the Cyclic(Phe-Pro)-dependent Signal Pathway, in Vibrio vulnificus.
Abstract The histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) is an abundant global regulator of environmentally controlled gene expression. Herein, we demonstrate that H-NS represses the expression of LeuO, the master regulator of the cyclic(Phe-Pro)-dependent signaling pathway, by directly binding to the upstream region of the gene. H-NS binds to a long stretched region (more than 160-bp long), which overlaps with binding sites for ToxR and LeuO. A high quantity of H-NS outcompetes ToxR for binding to the cis-acting element of leuO. However, our footprinting analyses suggests that the binding of H-NS is relative...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Park NY, Lee KW, Kim KS Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Enhancement of Apx toxin production in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2, and 5 by optimizing culture conditions.
Abstract Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) is a causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. Therefore, the development of an effective vaccine for APP is necessary. Here, we optimized the culture medium and conditions to enhance the production yields of Apx toxins in APP serotype 1, 2, and 5 cultures. The use of Mycoplasma Broth Base (PPLO) medium improved both the quantity and quality of the harvested Apx toxins compared with Columbia Broth (CB) medium. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) was first demonstrated as a stimulation factor for the production of Apx toxins in APP serotype 2 cultures. Cultivation of APP seroty...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dao HT, Do VT, Truong QL, Hahn TW Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Smilax guianensis Vitman extract prevents LPS-induced inflammation by inhibiting the NF- κB pathway in RAW 264.7 cells.
In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of Smilax guianensis Vitman extract (SGE) were examined. SGE suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated nitrite production in RAW 264.7 cells. SGE also prevented the LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) but not cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Western blot analysis showed that SGE attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylation of IκB kinase, inhibitor of kappa B (IκB), and p65. Additionally, SGE inhibited LPS-induced IκB degradation in RAW 264.7 cells. Western blot analysis of the cytosolic and nuclear fractions, as well as immunofluorescence assay...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kim JG, Kim MJ, Lee JS, Sydara K, Lee S, Byun S, Jung SK Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum KU15149 Derived from Korean Homemade Diced-Radish Kimchi.
Abstract Lactobacillus plantarum KU15149 was demonstrated to have probiotic behavior and functions, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. L. plantarum KU15149 obtained from homemade diced-radish kimchi and has a high survival rate under artificial gastric acid (pH 2.5, 0.3% pepsin) and bile salt (0.3% oxgall) conditions. However, L. plantarum KU15149 did not produce β-glucuronidase, which is known to be a carcinogenic enzyme with resistance to several antibiotics, such as gentamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin. L. plantarum KU15149 strongly adhered to HT-29 cells ...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 24, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Han KJ, Lee JE, Lee NK, Paik HD Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Immune-stimulating Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Ln1 Isolated from the Traditional Korean Fermented Food, Kimchi.
This study aimed to determine the immune-stimulating effects of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum Ln1 (HK-Ln1) through the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokine achieved by inducing NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-signaling pathways in macrophages. HK-Ln1 showed higher NO and cytokine production compared to control (non-stimulated lipopolysaccharide); in addition, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was induced through HK-Ln1treatment. The phosphorylation of IκB-α and p65 increased following treatment by HK-Ln1, which implicates IκB-&a...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 20, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jang HJ, Yu HS, Lee NK, Paik HD Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Removal of chromium (VI) by Escherichia coli cells expressing cytoplasmic or surface-displayed ChrB: a comparative study.
In this study, several constructs were prepared for expressing intracellular and surface-displayed Ochrobactrum tritici 5bvl1 ChrB in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells. E. coli cells expressing surface-displayed ChrB removed more Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions than cells with cytoplasmic ChrB under the same conditions. However, intracellular ChrB was less susceptible to variation in extracellular conditions (pH and ionic strength), and more effectively removed Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater than the surface-displayed ChrB at low pH (
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 20, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhou X, Li J, Wang W, Yang F, Fan B, Zhang C, Ren X, Liang F, Cheng R, Jiang F, Zhou H, Yang J, Tan G, Lyu J, Wang W Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Acinetobacter pullorum sp. nov., isolated from chicken meat.
Abstract A bacterial strain, designated B301T, isolated from raw chicken meat obtained from a local market in Korea, was characterized and identified using a polyphasic taxonomy approach. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, obligate-aerobic coccobacilli, catalase-positive, and oxidase-negative. The optimum growth conditions were 30°C, pH 7.0, and 0% NaCl in tryptic soy broth. Colonies were round, convex, smooth, and cream-colored on tryptic soy agar. Strain B301T has a genome size of 3,102,684 bp, with 2,840 protein-coding genes and 102 RNA genes. The 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that the strain B30...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 20, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Elnar AG, Kim MG, Lee JE, Han RH, Yoon SH, Lee GY, Yang SJ, Kim GB Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Characterization of Rajath Bhasma and Evaluation of Its Toxicity in Zebrafish Embryos and Its Antimicrobial Activity.
This study aimed to characterize the physical composition and morphology of Rajath Bhasma and its suitability for use as a non-toxic antimicrobial agent. First, Rajath Bhasma was physically characterized via i) Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to analyze the surface functional groups, ii) scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to observe the morphology and elemental composition, and iii) X-ray diffraction to determine the crystalline phases. Thereafter, functional characterization was performed through toxicity screening using zebrafish embryos and through antimicrobial activi...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 20, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kalimuthu K, Kim JM, Subburaman C, Kwon WY, Hwang SH, Jeong S, Cho MG, Kim HJ, Park KS Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Exploring the Nucleophilic N-and S-glycosylation Capacity of Bacillus licheniformis YjiC Enzyme.
Abstract YjiC, a glycosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis, is a well- known versatile enzyme for glycosylation of diverse substrates. Although a number of O-glycosylated products have been produced using YjiC, no report has been updated for nucleophilic N-, S-, and C- glycosylation. Here, we report the additional functional capacity of YjiC for nucleophilic N- and S- glycosylation using broad substrate spectrum including UDP-α-D-glucose, UDP-N-acetyl glucosamine, UDP-N-acetyl-galactosamine, UDP-α-D-glucuronic acid, TDP-α-L-rhamnose, TDP-α-D-viosamine, and GDP-α-L-fucose as dono...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 20, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bashyal P, Thapa SB, Kim TS, Pandey RP, Sohng JK Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Comparison of Ethanol Yield Coefficients Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida lusitaniae, and Kluyveromyces marxianus Adapted to High Concentrations of Galactose with Gracilaria verrucosa as Substrate.
In this study, 61.0 g/L monosaccharides were obtained from 120.0 g dw/L G. verrucosa. The fermentation inhibitors such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), levulinic acid, and formic acid were produced during pretreatment. Activated carbon was used to remove HMF. Wild-type and adaptively evolved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida lusitaniae, and Kluyveromyces marxianus were used for fermentation to evaluate ethanol production. PMID: 32238769 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 20, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Park Y, Sunwoo IY, Yang J, Jeong GT, Kim SK Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Transcriptional and mycolic acids profiling in Mycobacterium bovis BCG in vitro show an effect for c-di-GMP and overlap between dormancy and biofilms.
ute;guez-Campos J, Bravo-Madrigal J Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis produce mycolic acids which are relevant for persistence, recalcitrance to antibiotics and defiance to host immunity. c-di-GMP is a second messenger involved in transition from planktonic cells to biofilms, whose levels are controlled by diguanylate cyclases (DGC) and phosphodiesterases (PDE). The transcriptional regulator dosR, is involved in response to low oxygen, a condition likely happening to a subset of cells within biofilms. Here, we found that in M. bovis BCG, expression of both BCG1416c and BCG1419c genes, which codes for a DGC and a...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: De la Cruz-Villegas MA, Ares M, Rodríguez-Valverde D, Vallejo-Cardona AA, Flores-Valdez MA, Cota-Núñez ID, Aceves-Sánchez MJ, Lira-Chávez J, Rodríguez-Campos J, Bravo-Madrigal J Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Biotransformation of glycosylated saponins in balloon flower root extract into 3-O- β-D-glucopyranosyl platycosides by deglycosylation of pectinase from Aspergillus aculeatus.
Biotransformation of glycosylated saponins in balloon flower root extract into 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl platycosides by deglycosylation of pectinase from Aspergillus aculeatus. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020 Mar 13;: Authors: Ju JH, Kang SH, Kim TH, Shin KC, Oh DK Abstract Platycodon grandiflorum root (Platycodi radix) saponins, platycosides, have been used as health supplements and food items for the treatment of respiratory disorders and pulmonary diseases. Deglycosylated saponins have been known to exert stronger biological effects than their glycosylated forms. In the present study, glycosylated ...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ju JH, Kang SH, Kim TH, Shin KC, Oh DK Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Trends In Monoclonal Antibody Production Using VARIOUS BIOREACTOR SYSTEMS.
Abstract Monoclonal antibodies are widely used as diagnostic reagents and for therapeutic purposes, and their demand is increasing extensively. To produce these proteins in sufficient quantities for commercial use, it is necessary to raise the output by scaling up the production processes. This review describes recent trends in high-density cell culture systems established for monoclonal antibody production that are excellent methods to scale up from the lab-scale cell culture. Among the reactors, hollow fiber bioreactors contribute to a major part of high-density cell culture as they can provide a tremendous amou...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: I J, N S J Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

β-Carotene Production from Dunaliella salina Cultivated with Bicarbonate as Carbon Source.
In this study, the culture conditions, including NaHCO3, Ca2+, Mg2+ and microelements' concentrations, were optimized when bicarbonate was used as carbon source. Under optimized condition, the maximum biomass concentration of 0.71 g·L-1 and corresponding β-carotene content of 4.76% was obtained, with β-carotene yield of 32.0 mg·L-1, much higher than previous studies with NaHCO3. Finally, this optimized conditions with bicarbonate were compared with CO2 bubbling by online monitoring. There is notable difference in Fv/Fm value between cultivations with bicarbonate and CO2, but there was no difference ...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xi Y, Wang J, Xue S, Chi Z Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance sea buckthorn growth in coal mining subsidence areas in northwest China.
Abstract Land subsidence induced by underground coal mining leads to severe ecological and environmental problems. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the potential to improve plant growth and soil properties. We aimed to assess the effects of AM fungi on the growth and soil properties of sea buckthorn under field conditions at different reclamation times. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi significantly promoted the survival rate over a 50-month time period. Inoculation significantly increased plant height after 14, 26, and 50 months. Crown width after 14 months and ground diameter after 50 months o...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang Y, Bi Y, Shen H, Zhang L Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Identification of a Second Type of AHL-lactonase from Rhodococcus sp. BH4, belonging to the α/β Hydrolase Superfamily.
This study affirms that the AHL degrading activity and biofilm inhibition ability of Rhodococcus sp. BH4 may be due to the presence of multiple quorum quenching enzymes, including two types of AHL-lactonases, in addition to AHL-acylase and oxidoreductase, for which the genes have yet to be described. PMID: 32160697 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 9, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ryu DH, Lee SW, Mikolaityte V, Kim YW, Jeong HY, Lee SJ, Lee CH, Lee JK Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

p-Anisaldehyde exerts its antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum by disrupting the cell wall integrity and membrane permeability.
Abstract Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum are the two important postharvest pathogens in citrus, which cause about 90% of the total loss of citrus fruit during the storage and transportation. The natural fungicides such as essential oils were widely used for preventing and controlling the postharvest diseases instead of chemical fungicides. In this research, p-anisaldehyde exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on P. digitatum and P. italicum, with the MIC and MFC values of both being 2.00 µL/mL. Additionally, p-anisaldehyde visibly inhibited both the green mold and blue mold development of citru...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 9, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Che J, Chen X, Ouyang Q, Tao N Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

A Sporolactobacillus-, Clostridium-, and Paenibacillus- dominant microbial consortium improved anaerobic RDX detoxification by starch addition.
Abstract In the present study, an anaerobic microbial consortium for the degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was selectively enriched with the co-addition of RDX and starch under nitrogen-deficient conditions. Microbial growth and anaerobic RDX biodegradation were effectively enhanced by the co-addition of RDX and starch, which resulted in increased RDX biotransformation to nitroso-derivatives at a greater specific degradation rate than those for previously reported anaerobic RDX-degrading bacteria (isolates). The accumulation of the most toxic RDX degradation intermediate (MNX [hexahydro-...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 9, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Khan MI, Yoo K, Kim S, Cheema SA, Bashir S, Park J Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

The flower extract of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) increases cyclin D1 expression and activates cell proliferation.
In this report, we sought to determine the effect of the flower extract of Amelmoschus manihot (FA) on cell proliferation. Based on our findings, FA increased the proliferation of human diploid fibroblast (HDF) and HEK293 cells. Through cell cycle analysis, FA was found to increase the number of HDF cells in the S phase and G2/M phase. FA also increased the expression of cyclin D1 and enhanced the migration of HDF cells. By administering FA to HDF cells with ≥30 passages, a decrease in the number of senescence-associated β galactosidase-positive cells was observed, thereby indicating that FA can ameliorate cellular...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 9, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Park YI, Cha YE, Jang M, Park R, Sim N, Kwak J, Jang IS, Park J Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Sulfate Reduction for Bioremediation of AMD Facilitated by an Indigenous Acid- and Metal-tolerant Sulfate-Reducer.
In this study, an acid-tolerant sulfate reducing bacterium, strain S4 was isolated from the mud of an AMD storage pond in Vietnam via enrichment in anoxic mineral medium at pH5. Comparative analyses of sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and dsrB gene involving in sulfate reduction revealed that the isolate belonged to the genus Desulfovibrio, most closely related to Desulfovibrio oxamicus (with 99% homology in 16S rDNA sequence and 98% homology in dsrB gene sequence). DGGE analyses of dsrB genes showed that strain S4 represented one of the two most abundant groups developed in the enrichment culture. Notably, strain S4 was cap...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 9, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nguyen HT, Nguyen HL, Nguyen MH, Nguyen TKN, Dinh HT Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research