Biologics and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: a review of evidence and mechanistic insights
Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1080/1744666X.2021.1899809. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease is a leading comorbidity in rheumatoid arthritis. Timely introduction of biologic therapies in a treat-to target approach has optimized disease-related outcomes and attenuated accrual of comorbidities, including cardiovascular risk.AREAS COVERED: A literature search in MEDLINE (via pubmed) was performed between January 2009 and November 2020. This manuscript explores recent developments in atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in RA compared with non-RA individuals; it synopsizes differe...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - March 6, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: George A Karpouzas Viet L Bui Nicoletta Ronda Ivana Hollan Sarah R Ormseth Source Type: research

Palindromic rheumatism: a unique and enigmatic entity with a complex relationship with rheumatoid arthritis
Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1080/1744666X.2021.1899811. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: Palindromic rheumatism (PR) is a form of relapsing/remitting arthritis that may evolve to chronic rheumatic disease, mainly rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The exact nature of PR is unclear, as it may be considered a disease in itself, an abortive form of RA or just a pre-RA stage.AREAS COVERED: The authors review the most relevant epidemiological and clinical aspects of PR, especially the pathogenetic role of autoimmunity in PR, with most patients having a characteristic autoantibody profile similar to that obse...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - March 5, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Raimon Sanmart í Isabel Haro Juan D Ca ñete Source Type: research

Pharmacoeconomics of allergy immunotherapy versus pharmacotherapy
Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2021 Feb 28:1-13. doi: 10.1080/1744666X.2021.1886079. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntroduction: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of allergy immunotherapy (AIT) in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, asthma, and other allergic conditions.Area covered: An extensive search of the PubMed and Medline database (January 1996 up to June of 2020) was conducted using the search terms allergy immunotherapy, pharmacoeconomics, cost-effectiveness, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. Studies were included if they included information on the economics of AIT in comparison to pharmacot...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - March 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Linda Cox Source Type: research

Novel approaches to develop biomarkers predicting treatment responses to TNF-blockers
Conclusions will be drawn about the possible development of predictive biomarkers for response to treatment.Expert opinion: No validated biomarker is currently available to predict treatment response in CID. New insight could be generated through the development of new bioinformatic modelling approaches to combine multidimensional biomarkers that explain the different genetic, immunological and environmental determinants of therapeutic responses.PMID:33622154 | DOI:10.1080/1744666X.2021.1894926 (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - February 24, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ikram Mezghiche Hanane Yahia-Cherbal Lars Rogge Elisabetta Bianchi Source Type: research

Clascoterone cream (1%) topical androgen receptor inhibitor for the treatment of acne in patients 12 years and older.
Authors: Gold MH Abstract INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of clascoterone cream was demonstrated in two phase three vehicle-controlled clinical trials that enrolled over 1,400 subjects. Its safety profile allowed it to be approved for treating patients as young as 12 years old. During clinical trials, the occurrence of local skin reactions (edema, erythema, pruritus, dryness) was similar to treatment with vehicle alone. AREAS COVERED: All publications describing the clinical development of clascoterone cream (cortexolone 17α-propionate) are reviewed and discussed in relation to with existing topical and system...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - February 23, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Sepsis, immunosuppression and the role of epigenetic mechanisms.
Authors: Córneo EDS, Michels M, Dal-Pizzol F Abstract Introduction: Sepsis has pro- and anti-inflammatory processes caused by infectious agents. Sepsis survivors have impaired immune response due to immunosuppression. Gene expression during the inflammatory process is guided by transcriptional access to chromatin, with post-translational changes made in histones that determine whether the loci of the inflammatory gene are active, balanced, or suppressed. For this, a review literature was performed in PubMed included 'sepsis' and 'epigenetic' and 'immunosuppression' terms until May 2020. Areas covered: This r...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - February 19, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Predicting risk of relapse in polymyalgia rheumatica: novel insights.
Authors: Prieto-Peña D, Castañeda S, Atienza-Mateo B, Blanco R, González-Gay MA Abstract Introduction: Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common inflammatory disease in people older than 50 years of Northern European descent. It is characterized by pain and stiffness in the shoulders, arms, hips, and neck. Relapses are common in patients with PMR. Areas covered: The review describes when and how relapses occur in patients with PMR. Potential predisposing factors associated with relapses and management are also discussed. An extensive literature search on PubMed database was conducted for publica...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - February 13, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Assessing and mitigating risk of infection in patients with multiple sclerosis on disease modifying treatment.
Authors: Otero-Romero S, Sánchez-Montalvá A, Vidal-Jordana A Abstract INTRODUCTION: The important development that the multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment field has experienced in the last years comes along with the need of dealing with new adverse event such as the increase risk of infections. In the shared therapeutic decision-making process, the MS expert neurologist should also balance the risks of specific infections under each particular treatment and be familiar with new mitigation strategies. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors provide an up-to-date review of the infection risk associ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - February 7, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Dangerous liaisons? The role of inflammation and comorbidities in HIV and SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Authors: Maggi P, Ricci E, Messina V, Salzillo A, Simeone F, Iodice A, Socio GV Abstract INTRODUCTION: In people living with HIV (PLWH), immune activation and inflammation levels are high even when viral suppression is maintained, potentially contributing to several comorbidities, and hampering the immune response to infections such as the recent SARS-CoV2 disease 2019 (COVID-19). AREAS COVERED: Immune activation and inflammation play a role in SARS-CoV2 infection. Severe COVID-19 patients may experience cytokine release syndrome (CRS), leading to alveolar damage, pulmonary fibrinolysis, dysregulated coagulatio...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - February 6, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

The interleukin-1 family cytokines in psoriasis: pathogenetic role and therapeutic perspectives.
Authors: Iznardo H, Puig L Abstract INTRODUCTION: IL-1 family cytokines play an important role in the innate immune system and their uncontrolled activation and expression can initiate a pathologic inflammatory response. Their role in psoriasis, pustular psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis has been studied, and offers potential interest as therapeutic targets. AREAS COVERED: This review focuses on the role that interleukin (IL)-1 family cytokines play in psoriasis pathogenesis, with a special focus in pustular psoriasis, and how these cytokines could be used as therapeutic targets. Using PubMed we reviewed the li...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - February 6, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Biomarkers of chronic spontaneous urticaria and their clinical implications.
Authors: Asero R, Cugno M Abstract Introduction: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a frequent disorder in which activation of effector cells and histamine release can be induced via several distinct pathogenetic mechanisms. Much work has been carried out to identify biomarkers useful to classifying CSU patients, and to predict their response to currently available treatments. Areas covered: The recent literature dealing with CSU biomarkers was screened in PubMed and Google Scholar using "chronic spontaneous urticaria", "biomarker", "diagnosis", "therapy" and "treatm...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 28, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

New frontiers in precision medicine for Sjogren's syndrome.
Authors: Chatzis L, Vlachoyiannopoulos PG, Tzioufas AG, Goules AV Abstract Introduction: Sjögren's syndrome is a unique systemic autoimmune disease, placed in the center of systemic autoimmunity and at the crossroad of autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation. The diverse clinical picture of the disease, the inefficacy of current biologic treatments and the co-existence with lymphoma conferring to the patients' morbidity and mortality, force the scientific community to review disease pathogenesis and reveal the major implicated cellular and molecular elements. Areas covered: Biomarkers for early diagnosis, predict...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 24, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell Therapy for Melanoma.
Authors: Razavi A, Keshavarz-Fathi M, Pawelek J, Rezaei N Abstract INTRODUCTION: In recent years, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has emerged for cancer treatment. After initial therapeutic success for hematologic malignancies, this approach has been extended for treatment of solid tumors including melanoma. AREAS COVERED: T cells need to be reprogramed to recognize specific antigens expressed only on tumor cells, a difficult problem since cancer cells are simply transformed normal cells. Tumor antigens, namely CSPG4, CD70, and GD2 have been targeted by CAR-T cells for melanoma. Moreover, differe...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 24, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

An updated overview on celiac disease: from immuno-pathogenesis and immuno-genetics to therapeutic implications.
Authors: D'Avino P, Serena G, Kenyon V, Fasano A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by ingestion of gluten. While presenting many similarities with other autoimmune diseases, celiac disease is unique in that the external trigger, gluten, and the genetic background necessary for disease development (HLA DQ2/DQ8) are well described. The prevalence of celiac disease is dramatically increasing over the years and new epidemiologic data show changes regarding age of onset and symptoms. A better understanding of celiac disease pathogenesis is fundamental to highlight the reasons o...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 23, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

The promise of machine learning to inform the management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
Authors: Eng SWM, Yeung RSM, Morris Q PMID: 33475006 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 23, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

The pathogenesis of the secondary forms of autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED): advancing beyond the audiogram data.
Authors: Corazzi V, Hatzopoulos S, Bianchini C, Skarżyńska MB, Pelucchi S, Skarżyński PH, Ciorba A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease (AIED) can be of a primary or secondary type. To date, a clear pathogenesis of the disease is still not available. Focusing on the secondary forms of AIED, the aim of this review is to (i) assess and describe the hearing involvement in patients affected by autoimmune diseases, (ii) describe the possible association between clinical features (among serological/laboratory data and disease activity/duration) and hearing impairment, (iii) show evidence connecting the...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 23, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

House dust mites-driven allergic rhinitis: could its natural history be modified?
Authors: Ciprandi G, Tosca MA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common IgE-mediated disease. House dust mites (HDM) sensitization is the main cause of AR. HDM-driven AR is characterized by a typical natural history consisting of possible progression to asthma. Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) is, at present, a unique treatment to modify the natural history of allergic diseases. Tablets AIT (TAIT) represents a new era in AIT. There is evidence that TAIT could prevent asthma in AR patients. AREAS COVERED: The literature search methodology was based on the articles cited by PubMed from 1980 to ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 21, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

The clinical implications of the microbiome in the development of allergy diseases.
Authors: Koidl L, Untersmayr E Abstract INTRODUCTION: A substantial number of patients worldwide is affected by allergies. Emerging evidence suggests that the individual microbial composition might contribute to the development of allergies or might even protect from allergic diseases. AREAS COVERED: This review provides a detailed summary regarding available knowledge on the composition of a healthy human microbiome at allergy relevant body sites. It highlights factors influencing the microbiota composition. Furthermore, recent findings on the mutual interaction of the microbiota with the innate and adaptive i...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 13, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Clinical management of patients with primary immunodeficiencies during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Authors: Quinti I, Mezzaroma I, Milito C Abstract Introduction: Patients affected by Inborn Errors of Immunity (IEI) represent a potential group-at-risk in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Studies on large and small cohorts of IEI reported a huge variability clinical manifestations associated to SARS-Cov-2, ranging from asymptomatic, mild, moderate/severe to death. A great impulse to improve remote assistance programs and to switch to home-based treatment to reduce mobility and face to face contacts has been implemented. Areas covered: The authors completed a comprehensive review of the literature by searching the Pu...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 10, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Predicting lupus flares: epidemiological and disease related risk factors.
Authors: Andrade S, Julio PR, Nunes de Paula Ferreira D, Simone A Abstract Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disorder, characterized by a relapsing and remitting pattern of disease activity in majority of the patients. Areas covered: This narrative review provides an overview of flare definition, major flare mimics and the burden of flares in SLE. The authors highlight epidemiology and disease-related risk factor for flares and discuss strategies to reduce flares in SLE. Articles were selected from Pubmed searches conducted between June 2020 and September 2020. Expert opinion:...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 5, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

The importance of transition from pediatric to adult rheumatology care in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
Authors: de Oliveira RJ, Kishimoto ST, de Souza DP, Fernandes PT, Marini R, Simone A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic inflammatory condition in childhood. The long-term morbidity, mortality and quality of life has improved with the earlier use of disease modifying drugs (DMARDs) and the availability of biology disease modifying drugs (bDMARDs). Despite improvement of treatment, around 50% of patients reach adulthood with articular and/or extra articular disease activity. A careful planned transition from pediatric to adult care is necessary to reduce loss of fo...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 5, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine enhanced the frequency of T Regulatory Cells from CD4+ na ïve T cells isolated from the peripheral blood of patients with chronic HBV infection.
CONCLUSIONS: 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine mediated demethylation has potential effects on enhancing the differentiation of naïve T cells to Tregs in chronic HBV infection. PMID: 33353450 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Natural history of COVID-19 and therapeutic options.
Authors: Gautret P, Million M, Jarrot PA, Camoin-Jau L, Colson P, Fenollar F, Leone M, La Scola B, Devaux C, Gaubert JY, Mege JL, Vitte J, Melenotte C, Rolain JM, Parola P, Lagier JC, Brouqui P, Raoult D Abstract Introduction: COVID-19 presents benign forms in young patients who frequently present with anosmia. Infants are rarely infected, while severe forms occur in patients over 65 years of age with comorbidities, including hypertension and diabetes. Lymphopenia, eosinopenia, thrombopenia, increased lactate dehydrogenase, troponin, C-reactive protein, D-dimers and low zinc levels are associated with severity...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

'Real-world' effectiveness of omalizumab in adults with severe allergic asthma: a meta-analysis.
Conclusion: 'Real-world' evidence continues to support the use of omalizumab as adjuvant treatment for severe allergic asthma. PMID: 33307892 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of subcutaneous infliximab versus adalimumab, etanercept and intravenous infliximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: CT-P13 SC offers an improved or similar benefit-to-harm ratio compared with infliximab (intravenous) and adalimumab/etanercept, for the treatment of moderate-to-severe RA. PMID: 33305638 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

The emerging role of Type 2 inflammation in asthma.
Authors: Andrea M, Susanna B, Francesca N, Enrico M, Alessandra V Abstract Introduction: Bronchial asthma (BA) is a chronic airways inflammatory disease characterized by an influx of cells such as lymphocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells. Based on the biological mechanisms that underline the disease, asthma has been classified as type 2 or non-type 2 phenotype. Th2 lymphocytes are able to release interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13 that are the main factors involved in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. Areas covered: More recently, an emerging role has been identified for group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Immunological mechanisms underlying sterile inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: potential sites for intervention.
Authors: Truong R, Thankam FG, Agrawal DK Abstract Introduction: Innate and adaptive immunity play a critical role in the underlying pathological mechanisms of atherosclerosis and potential target sites of sterile inflammation open opportunities to develop novel therapeutics. In response to oxidized LDL in the intimal layer, T cell subsets are recruited and activated at the site of atheroma to upregulate pro-atherogenic cytokines which exacerbate plaque formation instability. Areas covered: A systematic search of PubMed and the Web of Science was performed between January 2001- September 2020 and relevant articles ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Taking a stand against the politicization of medical research: How "swinging the pendulum" poses a hazard to clinical trials, study participants, and the progress of science.
Taking a stand against the politicization of medical research: How "swinging the pendulum" poses a hazard to clinical trials, study participants, and the progress of science. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2020 Dec 07;: Authors: Bershteyn A, Schwartz MD, Thorpe LE, Paasche-Orlow MK, Kissinger P, Stankiewicz Karita HC, Laufer MK, Hoffman RM, Landovitz RJ, Paolino K, Barnabas RV PMID: 33284056 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Reply to "Taking a stand against the politicization of medical research: How 'winging the pendulum' poses a hazard to clinical trials, study participants, and the progress of science".
Reply to "Taking a stand against the politicization of medical research: How 'winging the pendulum' poses a hazard to clinical trials, study participants, and the progress of science". Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2020 Dec 08;: Authors: Sattui SE, Graef ER, Liew JW, Sparks JA, Kim AHJ PMID: 33290667 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Therapeutic targeting of the IL-13 pathway in skin inflammation.
Authors: Tubau C, Puig L Abstract Introduction: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a heterogeneous, chronic, inflammatory skin disease with a non-negligible prevalence at present. Its pathogenesis is complex, but mainly characterized by constitutive T helper type 2 (Th2)-cell activation. Systemic therapies for moderate-to-severe AD can be associated with adverse events that encumber their satisfactory long-term use. Several drugs targeting relevant molecules in the immunopathogenesis of AD have been approved or are under clinical development for the treatment of moderate to severe AD. To elaborate this review, literature se...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 5, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Guselkumab: the first selective IL-23 inhibitor for active psoriatic arthritis in adults.
Authors: Boehncke WH, Brembilla NC, Nissen MJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Guselkumab is a subcutaneously administered human monoclonal antibody, selectively blocking IL-23 through binding to its p19 subunit. It was initially approved for the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe plaque-psoriasis who are candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. Pubmed and Embase databases were searched for publications, using the following search terms: psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, guselkumab, risankizumab, tildrakizumab, p19, interleukin 23, guidelines, treatment recommendations, DISCOVER, ECLIPSE, and VOYAGE. ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Diagnosis and treatment of non-allergic rhinitis: focus on immunologic mechanisms.
Authors: Meng Y, Wang C, Zhang L Abstract INTRODUCTION: Non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) is a heterogeneous nasal disease with high global prevalence. NAR can be subclassified as nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES), vasomotor rhinitis (VMR), and local allergic rhinitis (LAR). Although the precise factors involved in the etiology of NAR are not clear, there is evidence that immunological factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAR. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the immunological and neurogenic mechanisms involved in the diagnosis and treatment of NAR. AREAS COVERED...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Stumbles in Sj ögren's syndrome drug development: where to look for the next big leap?
Stumbles in Sjögren's syndrome drug development: where to look for the next big leap? Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2020 Nov 16;:1-3 Authors: Verstappen GM, Kroese FGM, Bootsma H PMID: 33196342 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - November 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Myosin light chain kinase regulates intestinal permeability of mucosal homeostasis in Crohn's disease.
Authors: Yao Y, Feng Q, Shen J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Researchers have investigated the potential role of intestinal permeability in Crohn's disease pathogenesis. Intestinal permeability is usually mediated by cytoskeleton and intercellular junctions. The myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is an enzyme that activates the myosin light chain to exert its function related to cytoskeleton contraction and tight junction regulation. The correlation between MLCK and Crohn's disease pathogenesis has been consistently proven. AREAS COVERED: The aim of this study is to expand the understanding of the regulation and functio...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - November 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Autism Spectrum Disorders and Natural Killer Cells: A Review on Pathogenesis and Treatment.
Authors: Ebrahimi Meimand S, Rostam-Abadi Y, Rezaei N Abstract Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders, is characterized by early-onset impairments in social-communication, repetitive behaviors, and restrictive interests. Areas covered: Although still unknown, there are some pieces of evidence suggesting altered immune function in the etiology of ASD. This review aims to summarize studies linking Natural Killer (NK) cells to ASD by searching through databases like MEDLINE and Scopus up to October 2020. NK cells play important roles in the innate immune system...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - November 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps: mechanistic insights from targeting IL-4 and IL-13 via IL-4R α inhibition with dupilumab.
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps: mechanistic insights from targeting IL-4 and IL-13 via IL-4Rα inhibition with dupilumab. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2020 Nov 05;: Authors: Kariyawasam HH Abstract Introduction: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a complex immunological disease of the upper airway. CRSwNP, particularly in Caucasians, often has a more distinct T2 inflammatory endotype. IL-4 and IL-13 are key upstream cytokines that help establish and sustain T2 inflammation as well as strongly influencing tissue remodeling. They have a shared signaling receptor IL-4Rα....
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - November 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Cancer risk in systemic sclerosis: identifying risk and managing high-risk patients.
Authors: Fragoulis GE, Daoussis D, Pagkopoulou E, Garyfallos A, Kitas GD, Dimitroulas T Abstract Introduction: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is associated with a heightened cancer risk compared to general population. Several pathways including immune system upregulation, cumulative inflammation, environmental factors and genetic predisposition contribute to the development of both cancer and autoimmunity. Areas covered: This paper provides an overview of studies investigating the relationship between SSc and various types of cancer with a special focus on the identification of patients at higher risk for malignancy deve...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - November 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Genomic and Transcriptional Changes in IFN γ Pathway Genes are Putative Biomarkers of Response to Ipilimumab Immunotherapy in Melanoma Patients.
Genomic and Transcriptional Changes in IFNγ Pathway Genes are Putative Biomarkers of Response to Ipilimumab Immunotherapy in Melanoma Patients. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2020 Nov 05;: Authors: Hargadon KM, Győrffy B, McGee TJ Abstract Evaluation of: Gao J, Shi LZ, Zhao H et al. Loss of IFN-γ pathway genes in tumor cells as a mechanism of resistance to anti-CTLA-4 therapy. Cell 167(2), 397-404 (2016). Tumor resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors limits therapeutic efficacy in many cancer patients. The study by Gao et al. highlighted herein describes a fundamental mechanism by which melan...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - November 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

The wide spectrum of Kawasaki-like disease associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Authors: Berardicurti O, Conforti A, Ruscitti P, Cipriani P, Giacomelli R Abstract Introduction: On June 2020, the first case of concurrent Covid-19 and Kawasaki disease (KD) was published. After this first description, further works reported new cases of children affected by KD and KD-like syndrome after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The clinical and biochemical features of these patients differed from the historical cohorts of KD, suggesting the possibility of a new multi-systemic inflammatory syndrome. Is still unclear if this new clinical entity, often referred as pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) or m...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - November 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

The role of Epstein-Barr virus in the etiology of multiple sclerosis: a current review.
Authors: Ruprecht K Abstract Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. While its exact etiology is unknown, it is generally believed that MS is caused by environmental triggers in genetically predisposed individuals. Strong and consistent evidence suggests a key role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a B lymphotropic human gammaherpesvirus, in the etiology of MS. Areas covered: This review summarizes recent developments in the field of EBV and MS with a focus on potential mechanisms underlying the role of EBV in MS. PubMed was searched for the te...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - November 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Coronavirus disease 2019: investigational therapies in the prevention and treatment of hyperinflammation.
Authors: Amigues I, Pearlman AH, Patel A, Reid P, Robinson PC, Sinha R, Kim AH, Youngstein T, Jayatilleke A, Konig MF Abstract Introduction: The mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is frequently driven by an injurious immune response characterized by the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), endotheliitis, coagulopathy, and multi-organ failure. This spectrum of hyperinflammation in COVID-19 is commonly referred to as cytokine storm syndrome (CSS). Areas covered: Medline and Google Scholar were searched up until 15th of August 2020 for relevant literature. Evidence supports a role o...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - November 5, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Mechanical ventilation in Guillain-Barr é syndrome.
Mechanical ventilation in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2020 Oct 28;: Authors: Shang P, Zhu M, Baker M, Feng J, Zhou C, Zhang HL Abstract INTRODUCTION: Up to 30% of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) develop respiratory failure requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation. Progressive weakness of the respiratory muscles is the leading cause of acute respiratory distress and respiratory failure with hypoxia and hypercarbia. Bulbar weakness may compromise airway patency and predispose patients to aspiration pneumonia. Mechanical venti...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - October 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Gut Microbiota in Celiac Disease: Microbes, Metabolites, Pathways and Therapeutics.
Authors: Olshan KL, Leonard MM, Serena G, Zomorrodi AR, Fasano A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Current evidence supports a vital role of the microbiota on human health outcomes, with alterations in an otherwise healthy balance linked to chronic medical conditions such as celiac disease (CD). Recent advances in microbiome analysis allow for unparalleled profiling of the microbes and metabolites. With the growing volume of data available, trends are emerging that support a role for the gut microbiota in CD pathogenesis. AREAS COVERED: In this article, the authors review the relationship between factors such as genes and...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - October 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research