Therapeutic targeting of the IL-13 pathway in skin inflammation.
Authors: Tubau C, Puig L Abstract Introduction: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a heterogeneous, chronic, inflammatory skin disease with a non-negligible prevalence at present. Its pathogenesis is complex, but mainly characterized by constitutive T helper type 2 (Th2)-cell activation. Systemic therapies for moderate-to-severe AD can be associated with adverse events that encumber their satisfactory long-term use. Several drugs targeting relevant molecules in the immunopathogenesis of AD have been approved or are under clinical development for the treatment of moderate to severe AD. To elaborate this review, literature se...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 5, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Guselkumab: the first selective IL-23 inhibitor for active psoriatic arthritis in adults.
Authors: Boehncke WH, Brembilla NC, Nissen MJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Guselkumab is a subcutaneously administered human monoclonal antibody, selectively blocking IL-23 through binding to its p19 subunit. It was initially approved for the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe plaque-psoriasis who are candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. Pubmed and Embase databases were searched for publications, using the following search terms: psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, guselkumab, risankizumab, tildrakizumab, p19, interleukin 23, guidelines, treatment recommendations, DISCOVER, ECLIPSE, and VOYAGE. ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Diagnosis and treatment of non-allergic rhinitis: focus on immunologic mechanisms.
Authors: Meng Y, Wang C, Zhang L Abstract INTRODUCTION: Non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) is a heterogeneous nasal disease with high global prevalence. NAR can be subclassified as nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES), vasomotor rhinitis (VMR), and local allergic rhinitis (LAR). Although the precise factors involved in the etiology of NAR are not clear, there is evidence that immunological factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAR. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the immunological and neurogenic mechanisms involved in the diagnosis and treatment of NAR. AREAS COVERED...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Stumbles in Sj ögren's syndrome drug development: where to look for the next big leap?
Stumbles in Sjögren's syndrome drug development: where to look for the next big leap? Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2020 Nov 16;:1-3 Authors: Verstappen GM, Kroese FGM, Bootsma H PMID: 33196342 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - November 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Myosin light chain kinase regulates intestinal permeability of mucosal homeostasis in Crohn's disease.
Authors: Yao Y, Feng Q, Shen J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Researchers have investigated the potential role of intestinal permeability in Crohn's disease pathogenesis. Intestinal permeability is usually mediated by cytoskeleton and intercellular junctions. The myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is an enzyme that activates the myosin light chain to exert its function related to cytoskeleton contraction and tight junction regulation. The correlation between MLCK and Crohn's disease pathogenesis has been consistently proven. AREAS COVERED: The aim of this study is to expand the understanding of the regulation and functio...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - November 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Autism Spectrum Disorders and Natural Killer Cells: A Review on Pathogenesis and Treatment.
Authors: Ebrahimi Meimand S, Rostam-Abadi Y, Rezaei N Abstract Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders, is characterized by early-onset impairments in social-communication, repetitive behaviors, and restrictive interests. Areas covered: Although still unknown, there are some pieces of evidence suggesting altered immune function in the etiology of ASD. This review aims to summarize studies linking Natural Killer (NK) cells to ASD by searching through databases like MEDLINE and Scopus up to October 2020. NK cells play important roles in the innate immune system...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - November 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps: mechanistic insights from targeting IL-4 and IL-13 via IL-4R α inhibition with dupilumab.
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps: mechanistic insights from targeting IL-4 and IL-13 via IL-4Rα inhibition with dupilumab. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2020 Nov 05;: Authors: Kariyawasam HH Abstract Introduction: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a complex immunological disease of the upper airway. CRSwNP, particularly in Caucasians, often has a more distinct T2 inflammatory endotype. IL-4 and IL-13 are key upstream cytokines that help establish and sustain T2 inflammation as well as strongly influencing tissue remodeling. They have a shared signaling receptor IL-4Rα....
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - November 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Cancer risk in systemic sclerosis: identifying risk and managing high-risk patients.
Authors: Fragoulis GE, Daoussis D, Pagkopoulou E, Garyfallos A, Kitas GD, Dimitroulas T Abstract Introduction: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is associated with a heightened cancer risk compared to general population. Several pathways including immune system upregulation, cumulative inflammation, environmental factors and genetic predisposition contribute to the development of both cancer and autoimmunity. Areas covered: This paper provides an overview of studies investigating the relationship between SSc and various types of cancer with a special focus on the identification of patients at higher risk for malignancy deve...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - November 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Genomic and Transcriptional Changes in IFN γ Pathway Genes are Putative Biomarkers of Response to Ipilimumab Immunotherapy in Melanoma Patients.
Genomic and Transcriptional Changes in IFNγ Pathway Genes are Putative Biomarkers of Response to Ipilimumab Immunotherapy in Melanoma Patients. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2020 Nov 05;: Authors: Hargadon KM, Győrffy B, McGee TJ Abstract Evaluation of: Gao J, Shi LZ, Zhao H et al. Loss of IFN-γ pathway genes in tumor cells as a mechanism of resistance to anti-CTLA-4 therapy. Cell 167(2), 397-404 (2016). Tumor resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors limits therapeutic efficacy in many cancer patients. The study by Gao et al. highlighted herein describes a fundamental mechanism by which melan...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - November 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

The wide spectrum of Kawasaki-like disease associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Authors: Berardicurti O, Conforti A, Ruscitti P, Cipriani P, Giacomelli R Abstract Introduction: On June 2020, the first case of concurrent Covid-19 and Kawasaki disease (KD) was published. After this first description, further works reported new cases of children affected by KD and KD-like syndrome after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The clinical and biochemical features of these patients differed from the historical cohorts of KD, suggesting the possibility of a new multi-systemic inflammatory syndrome. Is still unclear if this new clinical entity, often referred as pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) or m...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - November 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

The role of Epstein-Barr virus in the etiology of multiple sclerosis: a current review.
Authors: Ruprecht K Abstract Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. While its exact etiology is unknown, it is generally believed that MS is caused by environmental triggers in genetically predisposed individuals. Strong and consistent evidence suggests a key role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a B lymphotropic human gammaherpesvirus, in the etiology of MS. Areas covered: This review summarizes recent developments in the field of EBV and MS with a focus on potential mechanisms underlying the role of EBV in MS. PubMed was searched for the te...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - November 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Coronavirus disease 2019: investigational therapies in the prevention and treatment of hyperinflammation.
Authors: Amigues I, Pearlman AH, Patel A, Reid P, Robinson PC, Sinha R, Kim AH, Youngstein T, Jayatilleke A, Konig MF Abstract Introduction: The mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is frequently driven by an injurious immune response characterized by the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), endotheliitis, coagulopathy, and multi-organ failure. This spectrum of hyperinflammation in COVID-19 is commonly referred to as cytokine storm syndrome (CSS). Areas covered: Medline and Google Scholar were searched up until 15th of August 2020 for relevant literature. Evidence supports a role o...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - November 5, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Mechanical ventilation in Guillain-Barr é syndrome.
Mechanical ventilation in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2020 Oct 28;: Authors: Shang P, Zhu M, Baker M, Feng J, Zhou C, Zhang HL Abstract INTRODUCTION: Up to 30% of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) develop respiratory failure requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation. Progressive weakness of the respiratory muscles is the leading cause of acute respiratory distress and respiratory failure with hypoxia and hypercarbia. Bulbar weakness may compromise airway patency and predispose patients to aspiration pneumonia. Mechanical venti...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - October 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Gut Microbiota in Celiac Disease: Microbes, Metabolites, Pathways and Therapeutics.
Authors: Olshan KL, Leonard MM, Serena G, Zomorrodi AR, Fasano A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Current evidence supports a vital role of the microbiota on human health outcomes, with alterations in an otherwise healthy balance linked to chronic medical conditions such as celiac disease (CD). Recent advances in microbiome analysis allow for unparalleled profiling of the microbes and metabolites. With the growing volume of data available, trends are emerging that support a role for the gut microbiota in CD pathogenesis. AREAS COVERED: In this article, the authors review the relationship between factors such as genes and...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - October 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

The power of the EUSTAR cohort: key findings to date and implicationsfor management of systemic sclerosis patients.
Authors: Benvenuti F, Zanatta E, Avouac J, Müller-Ladner U, Cozzi F, Hoffmann-Vold AM, Gabrielli A, Distler O, Matucci-Cerinic M, Allanore Y, Doria A Abstract INTRODUCTION: The rarity of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and its widely heterogeneous presentation and disease course are the main limitations for clinical research. The European Scleroderma Trials and Research group (EUSTAR) was launched in 2004, aiming to unify research efforts in the field of SSc. The central EUSTAR database has grown exponentially over the years, promoting new research and clinical trials, shedding new light on SSc diagnosis, its clinica...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - October 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Evaluation of different classification criteria in children with Behcet disease: results from a single referral center.
CONCLUSION: ICBD and PEDBD reached higher sensitivity for pediatric BD diagnosis and ICBD had the highest specificity. The authors speculate that the utilization of ICBD may provide early diagnosis of BD in childhood, prevent related morbidities and misdiagnosis. PMID: 33047996 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - October 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Association between gene polymorphisms of TGF- β and Smad3 and susceptibility to arthritis: a meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: This research showed that genetic variants of the TGF-β pathway impact arthritis. The polymorphisms rs1800470, rs1800471 and rs12901499 were correlated with a higher prevalence of arthritis. PMID: 33012198 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - October 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Local Bacteriotherapy - a promising preventive tool in recurrent respiratory infections.
Authors: Ciprandi G, La Mantia I, Damiani V, Passali D Abstract INTRODUCTION: Children with recurrent respiratory infections (RRI) represent a social issue for the economic burden and the negative family impact. Local Bacteriotherapy is an attractive therapeutic strategy that could be potentially effective in preventing infections. The current article remarks on the existing evidence of preventing RRI by Local Bacteriotherapy. AREAS COVERED: The literature search methodology was based on the articles cited by PubMed from 1980 to 2020. Respiratory infections include rhino-pharyngitis, otitis media, rhinosinusiti...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - October 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Diagnostic and prognostic markers and treatment of connective tissue disease-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension: current recommendations and recent advances.
Authors: Kato M, Sugimoto A, Atsumi T Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), also referred to as group 1 pulmonary hypertension, occurs either primarily or in association with other diseases such as connective tissue diseases (CTD). Of CTD, systemic sclerosis (SSc), systemic lupus erythematosus and mixed connective tissue disease are commonly accompanied with PAH. It is of note that SSc-PAH is associated with distinctive histopathology, an unfavorable outcome, and a blunted responsiveness to modern PAH therapies. AREAS COVERED: The data in articles published until May 2020 in peer-reviewe...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - September 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy for pediatric and young adult B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Authors: Myers RM, Dolan JG, Teachey DT Abstract INTRODUCTION: Though 85% of children and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are cured, the prognosis of relapsed or refractory disease is poor, with little progress made until recently. The advent of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has transformed treatment of relapsed/refractory ALL. The most well-studied, successful CARs are autologous, murine-based anti-CD19 CARs, but new CAR constructs are currently under clinical investigation. AREAS COVERED: This review describes the history and design of CAR T cells, clinical trial outcomes...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - September 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Abrocitinib for the treatment of atopic dermatitis.
Authors: Crowley EL, Nezamololama N, Papp K, Gooderham MJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors are emerging treatments in dermatology. Also known as JAKinibs, these agents target JAK-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway for intracellular signaling. Among the various immune-mediated inflammatory skin diseases that the JAK-STAT pathway plays a role in, atopic dermatitis (AD) is an important one. AD has a complex and multifactorial pathophysiology that is not fully understood. Immune dysregulation can result in epidermal barrier disruption and intensify atopic dermatiti...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - September 26, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Thunderstorm asthma: an overview of mechanisms and management strategies.
Authors: Thien F, Davies JM, Hew M, Douglass JA, O'Hehir RE Abstract INTRODUCTION: Epidemic thunderstorm asthma (ETSA) is due to a complex interaction of environmental and individual susceptibility factors, with outbreaks reported globally over the last four decades. Australia has been particularly susceptible with nearly half of episodes reported internationally, culminating in the catastrophic Melbourne 2016 event. AREAS COVERED: This narrative review focuses on primary research articles on thunderstorm asthma published since 2017 and relevant historical studies. Reported ETSA episodes are reviewed for common...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - September 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Cardiac involvement in the adult primary vasculitides.
Authors: Pazzola G, Pipitone N, Salvarani C Abstract INTRODUCTION: Heart involvement in vasculitis is rare, but potentially severe. The ascertainment of cardiac disease in vasculitis is complex and requires an integrated multidisciplinary approach involving the Rheumatologist, Radiologist, Cardiologist and Heart surgeon. AREAS COVERED: the authors searched PubMed using the key words "heart"[Mesh] and vasculitis"[Mesh]. EXPERT OPINION: Virtually any vasculitis can affect the heart, but cardiac involvement is more common in some vasculitides such as Takayasu arteritis, polyarteritis nodosa and ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - September 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Biosimilar switching in inflammatory bowel disease: from evidence to clinical practice.
This article summarizes the evidence on efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of biosimilars currently approved in Europe for IBD treatment, by reviewing the literature on PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases up to mid-July 2020. Particular emphasis was placed on the need to further improve communication with patients and physicians' knowledge on biosimilars. EXPERT OPINION: Adoption of biosimilars in clinical practice represents a great opportunity from an economic point of view, reducing healthcare costs and increasing patients' access to effective biologic treatments. Clinicians should be aware and confident ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - September 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Multimorbidity and comorbidity in psoriatic arthritis - a perspective.
Authors: Lubrano E, Scriffignano S, Perrotta FM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) is a multifaceted disease in which various musculoskeletal and skin manifestations are involved. Beyond these features, PsA is associated with comorbidities that might increase the burden of the disease. AREAS COVERED: In the last years a growing interest has come out for the concept of multimorbidity in rheumatology. Multimorbidity was defined as the "co-existence of two or more chronic diseases in the same individual". In the multimorbidity concept, the patient is of central concern and all coexisting di...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - September 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Systematic review of the antiviral properties of TRIM56: a potential therapeutic intervention for COVID-19.
Authors: Heidary F, Gharebaghi R Abstract INTRODUCTION: The tripartite motif (TRIM) plays various roles in pathological and physiological functions, including neurological diseases, genetic disorders, carcinogenesis, innate immune signaling, and antiviral activity. TRIM56 is a cytoplasmic protein whose expression is stimulated by type I interferon and may function as an antiviral agent. Here, the authors conducted a systematic search on papers that reported antiviral effects of TRIM56. AREAS COVERED: The authors conducted a comprehensive search of the PubMed database without time or language limitation, after u...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - September 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of imatinib mesylate in systemic sclerosis. A systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: The significant change within the range of clinical relevance of mRSS suggests the possible use of imatinib mesylate in SSc, whereas it's still not possible to draw firm conclusions regarding the efficacy of the drug on lung involvement. Specifically designed and powered studies are needed to investigate imatinib mesylate therapy in SSc. PMID: 32893688 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - September 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Effect of cardiovascular disease on chronic inflammatory joint disease: reverse causality?
Authors: Castañeda S, Vicente-Rabaneda EF, Valero C, Remuzgo-Martínez S, López-Mejías R, González-Gay MA PMID: 32867563 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - September 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Atopic phenotypes and their implication in the atopic march.
Authors: Custovic A, Custovic D, Kljajic-Bukvic B, Fontanella S, Haider S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma are traditionally considered atopic (or allergic) diseases. They are complex, multifactorial and caused by a variety of different mechanisms, which result in multiple heterogeneous clinical phenotypes. Atopic march is usually interpreted as the sequential development of symptoms from eczema in infancy, to asthma, and then allergic rhinitis.Areas covered: The authors reviewed evidence on the multimorbidity of eczema, asthma and rhinitis, and the implication of results of data-driven a...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - August 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Diagnosis and management of hypersensitivity reactions to vaccines.
Authors: Sarti L, Lezmi G, Mori F, Giovannini M, Caubet JC Abstract INTRODUCTION: Many countries in Europe now recommend and enforce mandatory vaccinations to improve vaccination coverage. Thus, the number of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) may show an increase. Among these events, severe hypersensitivity reactions to vaccines are rare. However, it is important that they be identified and recognized so that they may be adequately managed. AREAS COVERED: The literature search was undertaken through PubMed and Embase to identify English-language papers focusing on hypersensitivity to vaccines. EX...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - August 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

A 2020 update on the use of genetic testing for patients with primary immunodeficiency.
Authors: Chinn IK, Orange JS Abstract INTRODUCTION: Genetic testing of patients with clinically diagnosed or suspected primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) constitutes standard of care. Choice of testing modality and patient attributes can impact the likelihood of securing a diagnosis. AREAS COVERED: Published diagnostic rates for gene panel testing, exome sequencing (WES), and whole genome sequencing are compared among cohorts identified within PubMed. Performance of the testing platforms is reviewed in PIDs taken as a whole, followed by separate cohorts of patients with suspected PIDs, specific PIDs, and clinica...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - August 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

The prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in autoimmune connective tissue diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
This study aimed to compare the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in ACTD patients without known ATD and controls based on systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: All case-control design studies published between 1980 and 2019 in English was searched from Medline, Embase, Web of Science, PubMed databases based on defined keywords. Meta-analysis and subgroup analyses were performed. RESULTS: Total 10,321 ACTD cases and 12,949 healthy controls were included, and the prevalence of thyroid autoantibody positivity was higher in ACTD patients than in controls (TgAb: OR=2.17, 95% CI=1.88-2.51,p
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - August 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Ataxia-telangiectasia: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Clinical Phenotype, Diagnosis, Prognosis and Management.
Authors: Amirifar P, Ranjouri MR, Lavin M, Abolhassani H, Yazdani R, Aghamohammadi A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, variable immunodeficiency, radiosensitivity, and cancer predisposition. Mutations cause A-T in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene encoding a serine/threonine-protein kinase. AREAS COVERED: The authors reviewed the literature on PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases to collect comprehensive data related to A-T. This review aims to discuss various...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - August 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

A systematic literature review of the effects of immunoglobulin replacement therapy on the burden of secondary immunodeficiency diseases associated with hematological malignancies and stem cell transplants.
Authors: Monleón Bonet C, Waser N, Tzivelekis S, Edgar JDM, Sánchez-Ramón S, Cheng K Abstract INTRODUCTION: Secondary immunodeficiency diseases (SID) caused by hematological malignancies (HMs), stem cell transplant (SCT), and associated therapies are mainly characterized by the presence of hypogammaglobulinemia or antibody production deficits. AREAS COVERED: The authors summarized the scientific literature on disease burden of SIDs in patients who had HMs or SCT. Systematic searches were conducted to identify English-language articles from 1994-2020, reporting on clinical, humanistic, and e...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - August 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Vitamin D: does it help Tregs in active rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Authors: El-Banna HS, Gado SE Abstract BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in the maintenance of immunological tolerance, so Tregs deficiency or suppressor functions reduction may be associated with development of autoimmune diseases. Objectives: To estimate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the level of Tregs in the peripheral blood of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods: 40 patients with active RA were randomly assigned into two groups. Group I received methotrexate (MTX) plus hydroxychloroquine, group II received MTX and hydroxychloroquine plus vitamin D suppleme...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - August 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

New insights into the progression from cutaneous lupus to systemic lupus erythematosus.
NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE PROGRESSION FROM CUTANEOUS LUPUS TO SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2020 Aug 04;: Authors: Zhou W, Wu H, Zhao M, Lu Q Abstract INTRODUCTION: Between 5 and 25% of patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) can progress to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) during the course of the disease. There is no clear predictive guideline for the progression of CLE to SLE. AREAS COVERED: Lupus erythematosus (LE), a chronic autoimmune disease, has a wide spectrum of manifestations. On one side of the spectrum is CLE, in which patients only display skin lesions...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - August 13, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Induced Inflammatory Arthritis: Identification and Management.
Authors: Williams SG, Mollaeian A, Katz JD, Gupta S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have proved to be groundbreaking in the field of oncology and immunotherapy. However, immune system overactivation from ICIs has introduced a novel medical entity known as immune related adverse events (irAEs), that can affect any organ or tissue. ICI-induced inflammatory arthritis (ICI-IIA) is the most common musculoskeletal irAE and can lead to significant morbidity and limitation in anti-cancer therapy. AREAS COVERED: In this Review the authors focus on ICI-IIA. Relevant articles were identified thr...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - August 13, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Early-life exposure to air pollution and childhood allergic diseases: An update on the link and its implications.
Authors: Lu C, Norbäck D, Li Y, Deng Q Abstract INTRODUCTION: Although mounting evidence has linked environmental factors with childhood allergies, some specific key issues still remain unclear: what is the main environmental factor? what is the critical timing window? And whether these contribute to the development of disease? AREAS COVERED: This selective review summarizes recent epidemiological studies into the association between early-life exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollution, and childhood allergic diseases. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed and Web of Science for peer-reviewed ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - August 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Ixekinumab for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis.
Authors: Huang JX, Lee YH, Wei JC Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ixekinumab (IXE) is a high affinity IgG4 approved for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Recently, two phase III randomized clinical trials (COAST-V, COAST-W) showed significant and sustained improvements in signs and symptoms of AS as evaluated by ASAS40 response. Areas covered: The authors performed a comprehensive literature search on this topic, by a review of published articles to date. The authors introduced the structure and the mechanism of action of IXE, and critically reviewed data from clinical trials, concerning its efficacy and safety ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - August 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Elimination diets for eosinophilic esophagitis: making the best choice.
This article covers the benefits and challenges of dietary elimination therapies for patients with EoE. It outlines factors to consider before opting for an elimination diet, and for choosing which specific elimination diet to follow. Efficacy rates and pros and cons of each specific elimination diet are also discussed. Peer-reviewed published studies testing various elimination diets in patients with EoE were used for that purpose. EXPERT OPINION: Dietary elimination therapy is a long-term management option for patients with EoE. Shared decision making involving the patient and the medical provider is important. Multi...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - August 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Current concepts underlying the pathophysiology of acute Charcot neuroarthropathy in the diabetic foot and ankle.
Authors: Yates TH, Cooperman SR, Shofler D, Agrawal DK Abstract INTRODUCTION: With a complex and often misunderstood etiology, acute Charcot neuroarthropathy (ACN) is a devastating complication of peripheral neuropathy. In patients with diabetes, timely diagnosis of ACN in the foot and ankle is essential to prevent loss of both limb and life. AREAS COVERED: Herein, the authors evaluate the growing body of evidence in identifying targeted pathways for future therapeutic interventions. A literature search was conducted through the PubMed research database. Searched terms included 'Charcot,' 'foot and ankle,' 'neu...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - August 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Pathogenesis and treatment of idiopathic and rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial pneumonia. The possible lesson from COVID-19 pneumonia.
Authors: Manfredi A, Luppi F, Cassone G, Vacchi C, Salvarani C, Sebastiani M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Main clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection are characterized by fever, cough, dyspnoea and interstitial pneumonia frequently evolving in an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). AREAS COVERED: Features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia presents some common points with interstitial lung disease (ILD) both idiopathic and related to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), typically characterized by a chronic progression over some years and possibly complicated by acute exacerbation. The study of so...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - July 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Dupilumab for the treatment of adolescents with atopic dermatitis.
This report is based on a systematic literature search of the PubMed Database. AREAS COVERED: Dupilumab showed promising results in improving AD signs, symptoms and quality of life in adolescents with moderate to severe AD. The safety profile of dupilumab in adolescents with moderate to severe AD closely resembled the known safety profile of dupilumab in adults with moderate to severe AD. Injection-site reactions and conjunctivitis were the most relevant side-effects. Skin infections were less frequently observed compared to placebo. EXPERT COMMENTARY: Dupilumab was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in M...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - July 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Global systematic review of primary immunodeficiency registries.
Authors: Abolhassani H, Azizi G, Sharifi L, Yazdani R, Mohsenzadegan M, Delavari S, Sohani M, Shirmast P, Chavoshzadeh Z, Mahdaviani SA, Kalantari A, Tavakol M, Jabbari-Azad F, Ahanchian H, Momen T, Sherkat R, Sadeghi-Shabestari M, Aleyasin S, Esmaeilzadeh H, Al-Herz W, Bousfiha AA, Condino-Neto A, Seppänen M, Sullivan KE, Hammarström L, Modell V, Modell F, Quinn J, Orange JS, Aghamohammadi A Abstract INTRODUCTION: During the last 4 decades, registration of patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PID) has played an essential role in different aspects of these diseases worldwide including epidemiological...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - July 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Teprotumumab for the treatment of thyroid eye disease.
Authors: Ju Y, Yang J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Thyroid eye disease is a debilitating, disfiguring, and potentially blinding periocular condition. Teprotumumab is a human insulin-like growth factor-I receptor monoclonal inhibitor antibody which indicated for treating thyroid eye disease. AREAS COVERED: The authors performed a systematic review of the literature using the PubMed database, and the following keywords were used: 'teprotumumab', 'thyroid eye disease', and 'insulin-like growth factor I receptor'. The chemical property, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and safety of teprotumumab ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - July 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

The current status of biological treatment for uveitis.
THE CURRENT STATUS OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT FOR UVEITIS. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2020 Jul 23;: Authors: Gaggiano C, Sota J, Gentileschi S, Caggiano V, Grosso S, Tosi GM, Frediani B, Cantarini L, Fabiani C Abstract INTRODUCTION: Noninfectious uveitis represents one of the leading causes of blindness in developed Countries, compromising patients' quality of life and social functioning. The main treatment goals are the control of ocular inflammation, to avert and treat sight-threatening complications, thus preserving and/or restoring visual function. AREAS COVERED: This manuscript deals with systemic ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - July 25, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Update on pollen-food allergy syndrome.
Authors: Poncet P, Sénéchal H, Charpin D Abstract INTRODUCTION: Allergies affect 20-30% of the population and respiratory allergies are mostly due to pollen grains from anemophilous plants. One to 5% of people suffer from food allergies and clinicians report increasing numbers of pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS), such that the symptoms have broadened from respiratory to gastrointestinal, and even to anaphylactic shock in the presence of cofactors. Thirty to 60% of food allergies are associated with pollen allergy while the percentage of pollen allergies associated to food allergy varies according t...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - July 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Reducing lupus flares: should we be more careful about stopping glucocorticoids?
Authors: Mathian A, Pha M, Yssel H, Amoura Z PMID: 32666853 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - July 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

A new case of congenital ficolin-3 deficiency with primary immunodeficiency.
CONCLUSION: Our case and literature review indicate Ficolin-3 deficiency should be considered in early-onset, premature neonate with a bacterial infection, neurological manifestation and systemic lupus erythematosus like presentations. PMID: 32634042 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - July 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Swinging the pendulum: lessons learned from public discourse concerning hydroxychloroquine and COVID-19.
Authors: Sattui SE, Liew JW, Graef ER, Coler-Reilly A, Berenbaum F, Duarte-García A, Harrison C, Konig MF, Korsten P, Putman MS, Robinson PC, Sirotich E, Ugarte-Gil MF, Webb K, Young KJ, Kim AHJ, Sparks JA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Several months into the COVID-19 pandemic, safe and effective treatments against this global health disaster have yet to be identified. Clinical research trials around the world are underway testing a wide array of possible medications. In particular, the off-label use of hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 prophylaxis and treatment has created many unprecedented challenges for the scien...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - July 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research