In search of pathobiological endotypes: a systems approach to early rheumatoid arthritis.
Authors: Tarn JR, Lendrem DW, Isaacs JD Abstract INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease. Early referral and treatment are key to the effective management of the disease. This makes imperative the identification of biomarkers and of pathobiological endotypes. AREAS COVERED: This review describes recent efforts to integrate large-scale datasets for the identification of disease endotypes for precision medicine in early, seropositive RA. We conducted a search for systems and multi-omics papers in early RA patients through to 1 January 2020. We reviewed investigations of m...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - May 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Malignancy post-hematopoietic stem cell transplant in patients with primary immunodeficiency.
This article reviews recently published literature focusing on the pattern of malignancy in children with PID, incidence, and risk factors for developing malignancy post-HCT for PID and possible strategies to reduce the risks. EXPERT OPINION: Survival post HCT for PID has improved dramatically in the last 20 years and the genomic revolution has led to an expanding number of indications. To improve long-term quality of life attention needs to focus on late effects, including the possibility of malignancy occurring more frequently than expected in the general population, understand the risks and improve the process ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - May 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

TNF- α inhibitors biosimilars as first line systemic treatment for moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis.
TNF-α inhibitors biosimilars as first line systemic treatment for moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2020 May 18;: Authors: Gisondi P, Geat D, Conti A, Dapavo P, Piaserico S, De Simone C, Bianchi L, Costanzo A, Malagoli P, Malara G, Micali G, Naldi L, Offidani A, Patrizi A, Prignano F, Parodi A, Rongioletti F, Calzavara-Pinton P, Girolomoni G Abstract Introduction: Biologics have revolutionized the therapy of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Yet, despite their greater efficacy over conventional systemic therapies their high cost has represented a burden for ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - May 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Food allergy severity prediction: quite a way to go yet?
Authors: Santos AF PMID: 32406766 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - May 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Nanoparticle-based immunotherapy: state of the art and future perspectives.
Authors: Di Gioacchino M, Petrarca C, Gatta A, Scarano G, Farinelli A, Della Valle L, Lumaca A, Del Biondo P, Paganelli R, Di Giampaolo L Abstract Introduction: For several years now, medicine has been benefiting from the contribution of nanoparticles (NPs) technology for both diagnosis and therapy. They can be used as adjuvants, being capable per se of immune-modulating activity, or as carriers for molecules to be transported to a specific target, eventually loaded with specific ligands favoring specific uptake.Areas covered: The review focuses on experimental use of NPs as adjuvants/carriers for allergen immunoth...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - April 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Cancer risk in patients with psoriasis: should we be paying more attention?
Authors: Loft ND, Vaengebjerg S, Skov L Abstract Introduction: Psoriasis is a chronic-immune-mediated disease affecting 2-4% of the western population. The disease is associated with several co-morbidities including an increased risk of cancer. Concerns have been raised whether psoriasis itself, the psoriasis-associated risk factors, or the treatment of psoriasis might lead to an increased risk of cancer.Areas covered: We reviewed the literature on cancers associated with psoriasis and discuss some of the potential mechanisms behind the observed associations.Expert opinion: Patients with psoriasis have an increased...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - April 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

HMGB1 in nasal inflammatory diseases: a reappraisal 30 years after its discovery.
Authors: Ciprandi G, Bellussi LM, Passali GC, Damiani V, Passali D Abstract Introduction: High mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1) is a protein belonging to the alarmin family. HMGB1 has a relevant role in starting the inflammatory cascade by means of receptors, such as RAGE and TLR. HMGB1 supports transcription of many genes in interactions with many transcription factors, including NF-kB. The axis HMGB1-RAGE-NF-kB has, therefore, a pivotal role in the inflammatory cascade. HMGB1 controls the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and the proliferation and activation of many inflammatory cells.Areas cov...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - April 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Pathway to biomarker discovery in psoriatic arthritis.
Authors: Chandran V Abstract Introduction: Biomarkers may help influence long-term outcomes of psoriatic disease by improving the objective assessment of the presence and severity of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and by guiding treatment selection. However, there are no validated biomarkers for PsA.Areas covered: Beginning with a brief overview of the clinical features of PsA and concepts about biomarkers and risk prediction in medicine, this narrative review covers the recent developments in the field of PsA biomarker research including biomarkers for identifying patients with psoriasis who are at high risk for develo...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - April 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

A focus on the use of subcutaneous C1-inhibitor for treatment of hereditary angioedema.
Authors: Villavicencio MF, Craig T Abstract Introduction: HAE is a very debilitating disease that causes significant distress for patients not only during an acute attack but also constant fear for a subsequent attack. It is important to address long-term prophylactic (LTP) therapy to prevent attacks, decrease morbidity and increase quality of life. When discussing LTP, the drug burden, convenience and efficacy must be taken into account.Areas covered: We review the literature and the different phases of clinical trials leading up to approval by the US FDA of subcutaneous highly concentrated C1-Inhibitor (SC-C1-INH...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - April 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Immune-epidemiological parameters of the novel coronavirus - a perspective.
Authors: Saghazadeh A, Rezaei N Abstract Introduction: At the end of 2019, Wuhan, a city in China with a population of about 11 million, witnessed the outbreak of unusual pneumonia. As of March 29, 2020, the disease has spread to more 199 countries and territories worldwide. The 2019 novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, is known as the probable causative agent of the illness.Areas covered: Here, the epidemiological dynamics of the disease that stand in close relation to distinct immunogenetic characters of the pathogen are discussed, to understand the ability and inability of the immune system in combatting the 2019-nCoV ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - April 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Revisiting the complement system in systemic lupus erythematosus.
Authors: Sharma M, Vignesh P, Tiewsoh K, Rawat A Abstract Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease involving multiple organ systems, characterized by the production of autoantibodies. Numerous mechanisms contribute to the pathogenesis and development of autoantibodies and autoimmunity in SLE. One of the most important mechanisms is the defective function of the early complement components that are involved in clearing the immune-complexes and apoptotic debris. Major evidence supporting this hypothesis is the development of severe forms of lupus in individuals with monogenic defects ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - April 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Placebo responses in ankylosing spondylitis patients worldwide: variations and possible explanations.
Authors: Wei JC, Zhang LJ, Huang JX PMID: 32213079 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - March 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Personalized medicine in rheumatic diseases: how close are we to being able to use genetic biomarkers to predict response to TNF inhibitors?
Authors: Sutcliffe M, Radley G, Barton A Abstract Introduction: A genetic biomarker to select which drug will work best for which patients with rheumatic diseases is a goal of pharmacogenetic precision medicine approaches and one that patients and the public support. However, studies to date have yielded inconsistent findings with no robustly replicated or clinically useful genetic biomarkers emerging.Areas covered: Using studies investigating biomarkers to predict response to tumor necrosis factor inhibitor therapies in rheumatoid arthritis as an exemplar, we consider factors that reduce the power to detect such p...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - March 17, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Recent advances in potential targets for eosinophilic esophagitis treatments.
Authors: Oliva S, Azouz NP, Stronati L, Rothenberg ME Abstract Introduction: Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) are constantly evolving. Recently, the improved understanding of EoE pathogenesis has led to identification of a variety of other potential targets that have never been considered before.Areas covered: In September 2019, we performed structured literature searches in Medline and PubMed, Cochrane meta-analyses, and abstracts of international congresses to review new potential therapeutic approaches for EoE.Expert opinion: The advent of omics disciplines has been helping...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - March 13, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Ruxolitinib for the treatment of graft-versus-host disease.
Authors: Ali H, Salhotra A, Modi B, Nakamura R Abstract Introduction: Ruxolitinib is an oral selective JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, initially approved by the FDA for the treatment of intermediate-2 or high-risk myelofibrosis and patients with polycythemia vera who have had an inadequate response or are intolerant to hydroxyurea.Areas Covered: Accumulating evidence supports the role of JAK1/JAK2 pathways in the pathogenesis of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and preclinical studies have demonstrated promising efficacy of ruxolitinib in treatment/prevention of GVHD. Early clinical observations that ruxolitinib was effectiv...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - March 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: risk factors, causality assessment and potential prevention strategies.
Authors: Lin CC, Chen CB, Wang CW, Hung SI, Chung WH Abstract Introduction: The clinical manifestations of cutaneous adverse drug reactions are variable with different severity. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are life-threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) majorly caused by drugs and mediated by cytotoxic T cells.Areas covered: In this review, we focus on risk factors that contribute to the development of SJS/TEN and review the updated immune mechanism, preventive strategies as well as current therapeutic approaches for SJS/TEN.Expert opinion: SJS/TEN research to...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - March 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Metabolic syndrome and psoriatic arthritis: considerations for the clinician.
Authors: Caso F, Chimenti MS, Navarini L, Ruscitti P, Peluso R, Girolimetto N, Del Puente A, Giacomelli R, Scarpa R, Costa L Abstract Introduction: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is strictly interconnected with systemic inflammation and increased evidence have described a close link between this condition and Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA).Areas covered: This review summarizes main studies exploring clinical aspects and prevalence of MetS in PsA cohorts. Further, there is accumulating evidence showing shared inflammatory pathways between MetS, its components and PsA.Expert opinion: The high prevalence of MetS in PsA highligh...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - March 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Genomic opportunities for drug repositioning in systemic seropositive rheumatic diseases.
Authors: Casares-Marfil D, Martín J, Acosta-Herrera M PMID: 32130050 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - March 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Harnessing immunotherapy for pediatric T-cell malignancies.
We present a review of current challenges in the development of immunotherapies for T-cell hematologic malignancies, potential solutions and therapies under investigation. We include a particular focus on T-ALL and ALCL. Immunotherapies offer promising strategies to improve outcomes in children with T-cell malignancies, particularly in the setting of relapse. Optimizing efficacy, mitigating toxicity, and safely integrating with conventional therapies are key considerations as immunotherapies are translated into the clinic. PMID: 32103690 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - February 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Genetic and epigenetic regulation of natural resistance to HIV-1 infection: new approaches to unveil the HESN secret.
Authors: Fenizia C, Saulle I, Clerici M, Biasin M Abstract Introduction: Since the identification of HIV, several studies reported the unusual case of small groups of subjects showing natural resistance to HIV-infection. These subjects are referred to as HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals and include people located in different regions of the world, with diverse ethnic backgrounds and routes of exposure. The mechanism/s responsible for protection from infection in HESN individuals are basically indefinite and most likely are multifactorial.Areas covered: Host factors, including genetic background as well...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - February 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

The clinical, humanistic, and economic burden of palmoplantar pustulosis: a structured review.
Authors: Kharawala S, Golembesky AK, Bohn RL, Esser D Abstract Introduction: Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a chronic, relapsing and refractory disease characterized by sterile pustules appearing on the palms and/or soles, accompanied by erythema, blistering, scales and/or keratinization. The overall burden of PPP in terms of its clinical impact, effect on patients and families, and economic consequences has not previously been investigated in a structured manner.Areas covered: A structured search focused on identification of studies in PPP using specific search terms in PubMed and EMBASE® from 2005 onwards, ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - February 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

The clinical, humanistic, and economic burden of generalized pustular psoriasis: a structured review.
Authors: Kharawala S, Golembesky AK, Bohn RL, Esser D Abstract Introduction: Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is characterized by widespread erythema and edema, superficial sterile coalescing pustules, and lakes of pus. Although the impact of GPP is thought to be substantial, emerging literature on its clinical, humanistic, and economic burden has not previously been described in a structured way.Areas covered: A structured search focused on the identification of studies in GPP using specific search terms in PubMed and EMBASE® from 2005 onwards, with additional back-referencing and pragmatic searches. Outco...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - February 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Correlation of serum protein biomarkers with disease activity in psoriatic arthritis.
Conclusions: These data suggest biomarker analysis can reflect disease activity across disease domains in PsA. Certain domains would likely benefit from evaluation of additional biomarkers. PMID: 32067517 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - February 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Measurement properties of instruments assessing psoriatic arthritis symptoms for psoriasis clinical trials: a systematic literature review.
Authors: Perez-Chada LM, Balak D, Cohen JM, Ogdie A, Merola JF, Gottlieb AB Abstract Introduction: The International Dermatology Outcome Measures (IDEOM) identified 'Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) Symptoms' as a core domain to be measured in psoriasis clinical trials. This domain includes the measurement of pain, patient global and physical function. Herein, we evaluated the quality (i.e. measurement properties) of five candidate 'PsA Symptoms' measures: Patient Global Assessment (PGA) for Joints, PGA for PsA, the Routine Assessment Patient Index 3 (RAPID3), the PsA Impact of Disease 9 (PsAID9) and PsAID12.Areas covered...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - February 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis with severe ocular complications.
Authors: Ueta M Abstract Introduction: Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and its severe phenotype, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), are acute inflammatory vesiculobullous reactions of the skin, the mucosa of the ocular surface, the oral cavity, and the genitals. Approximately 50% of SJS/TEN patients diagnosed by dermatologists and in burn units suffer from severe ocular complications (SOC) such as severe conjunctivitis with pseudomembrane and ocular surface epithelial defects in the acute stage.Areas covered: Earlier studies on patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and its severe phenotype, toxic epidermal necrolysi...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - February 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the gonadotoxic effects of cyclophosphamide and benefits of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) in women of child-bearing age with autoimmune rheumatic disease.
Authors: Luong SN, Isaacs A, Liu Z, Sin FE, Giles I Abstract Objectives: To systematically review the risk of sustained amenorrhoea with intravenous (IV) cyclophosphamide in autoimmune rheumatic disease (ARD), and evaluate the efficacy of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) to reduce this risk.Methods: Systematic search for papers reporting the incidence of sustained amenorrhoea ≥ 12 months in ARD following: IV cyclophosphamide; or GnRHa and IV cyclophosphamide compared to IV cyclophosphamide alone.Results: From 31 articles and 1388 patients with a mean age of 27.7 years, sustained amenorrhoea occurr...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - February 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

The epithelium-derived inflammatory mediators of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.
Authors: Wang C, Yan B, Zhang L Abstract Introduction: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is an inflammatory airway disease characterized as tight junction loosening, inflammation, and mucosal remodeling. Epithelial cells form a barrier against allergens, bacteria, and proteases, and can also trigger or enhance the immune response by releasing various inflammatory mediators including cytokines, chemokines, and secreted proteins to promote the pathogenesis of CRSwNP.Areas covered: We review the epithelium-derived cytokine and secreted protein networks driving CRSwNP, and discuss these mediators in a c...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Hypersensitivity and adverse reactions to biologics for asthma and allergic diseases.
Authors: Jackson K, Bahna SL Abstract Introduction: The development of new biologic agents has provided definite therapeutic advances but, like with any new medications, safety remains a concern.Areas covered: Using PubMed, we reviewed the literature on the adverse effects (AE) to five biologics approved for asthma and/or allergic diseases: one anti-IgE (omalizumab), three anti-IL5 (mepolizumab, reslizumab, benralizumab), and one anti-IL4 (dupilumab).Expert opinion: Biologic agents approved for asthma and allergic diseases are generally safe. Most common AE are benign and tolerated, though long-term safety is lacki...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

The case for narcolepsy as an autoimmune disease.
Authors: Kornum BR, Jennum P PMID: 31961748 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Epidemiology of major chronic inflammatory immune-related skin diseases in 2019.
Authors: Pezzolo E, Naldi L Abstract Introduction: "Chronic inflammatory immune-related skin disease" (ISDs) is an umbrella term grouping together heterogeneous entities characterised by chronic inflammation potentially involving the whole skin. We are not covering all ISDs in this review, but take a few as the most representative, including nonbullous and bullous diseases. The question we are aiming to address can be summarised as follows: "despite the differences, is it possible to define some unifying epidemiologic characteristics and shared progression pathways which can guide the organization of...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Canakinumab for the treatment of adult-onset Still's disease.
Authors: Sfriso P, Bindoli S, Doria A, Feist E, Galozzi P Abstract Introduction: Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare multisystem autoinflammatory disorder of unknown etiology, with clinical and biological similarities with the juvenile form (sJIA).The pivotal role of interleukin (IL)-1 gives rise to the use of IL-1 inhibitors in treating resistant cases.Areas covered: This review focuses on canakinumab, a fully human anti-IL-1β antibody, as treatment for AOSD. The data obtained from case reports and case series on AOSD and two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled Phase III trial on sJIA are an...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Immunosuppressive therapy post-transplantation in children: what the clinician needs to know.
Authors: Tönshoff B Abstract Introduction: The goal of immunosuppressive therapy post-transplantation in pediatric renal transplant recipients is to prevent acute and chronic rejection while minimizing drug side effects. Most therapies alter immune response mechanisms but are not immunologically specific, and a careful balance is required to find the dose that prevents rejection of the graft, while minimizing the risks of over-immunosuppression leading to infection and cancer.Areas covered: This review article focuses on immunosuppressive therapy in pediatric renal transplant recipients, but many aspects can b...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 20, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Immunotherapy approaches for peanut allergy.
Authors: Kim EH, Patel C, Burks AW Abstract Introduction: Peanut allergy has continued to increase in prevalence and despite efforts to prevent the allergy with early peanut introduction, treatments for those already with the allergy have been lacking. While the physical effects of peanut allergy have been well known, what has more recently begun to be discussed are the broad psychosocial and financial implications that are also related to the allergy. Oral (OIT), epicutaneous (EPIT), and sublingual (SLIT) immunotherapy have been developed as potential treatments for peanut allergy.Areas covered: Pivotal clinical t...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Should patients with rheumatic diseases take pain medication in order to engage in exercise?
Authors: Metsios GS, Kitas GD PMID: 31928254 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

The NLRP3 inflammasome: a therapeutic target for inflammation-associated cancers.
Authors: Gouravani M, Khalili N, Razi S, Keshavarz-Fathi M, Khalili N, Rezaei N Abstract Introduction: Inflammasomes are large multimeric intracellular complexes that are capable of maturation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, in response to danger signal molecules. As a member of the inflammasome family, the NLRP3 inflammasome has recently been under intense investigation revealing its possible role in several human diseases especially cancers.Areas covered: In this review, we will discuss the biology and mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, its role in specific types of tum...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Certolizumab pegol for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis and plaque psoriasis.
Authors: Esposito M, Carubbi F, Giunta A, Alunno A, Giacomelli R, Fargnoli MC Abstract Introduction: Certolizumab pegol (CZP) is a Fc-free PEGylated TNF-α inhibitor approved for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and plaque psoriasis in many countries. It demonstrated favorable results in PsA in terms of improvement in peripheral arthritis, dactylitis and enthesitis in a phase III trial (RAPID-PSA) and in real-life experiences. Recently, 3 phase III randomized clinical trials (CIMPASI-1, CIMPASI-2, CIMPACT) showed significant, clinically meaningful, and sustained improvements in signs and symptoms of ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Is precision medicine possible in rheumatic diseases? Lessons from selective use of targeted therapies in patients with psoriatic arthritis.
Authors: Miyagawa I, Tanaka Y Abstract Introduction: Treatment of rheumatic diseases has been greatly advanced by the introduction of biological molecular-targeted therapies. However, owing to their high heterogeneity at the molecular and clinical levels, treatment of rheumatic diseases can often be challenging. Hence, it especially important to select the most optimal targeted therapy for individual patients. There are ten biologics available for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis; however, how each of these can be used most effectively is unclear.Areas covered: We conducted a narrative review to elucidate wheth...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - January 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Statement of Retraction.
Authors: PMID: 31868040 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 24, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Infection risk in patients undergoing treatment for inflammatory arthritis: non-biologics versus biologics.
Authors: Chiu YM, Chen DY Abstract Introduction: Despite the therapeutic effectiveness of biologics targeting immune cells or cytokines in patients with inflammatory arthritis, which reflects their pathogenic roles, an increased infection risk is observed in those undergoing biological treatment. However, there are limited data regarding the comparison of infection risks in inflammatory arthritis patients treated with non-biologics (csDMARDs), biologics (bDMARDs), including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors and non-TNF inhibitors, or targeted synthetic (ts)DMARDs.Areas covered: Through a review of English-lang...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Novel and emerging treatments for Aicardi-Gouti ères syndrome.
Novel and emerging treatments for Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2019 Dec 19;: Authors: Tonduti D, Fazzi E, Badolato R, Orcesi S Abstract Introduction: Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is the prototype of the type I interferonopathies, a new heterogeneous group of autoinflammatory disorders in which type I interferon plays a pivotal role. The disease usually manifests itself during infancy, primarily affecting the brain and the skin, and is characterized by cerebrospinal fluid chronic lymphocytosis and raised levels of interferon-alpha and by cardinal neuroradiologic...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

The potential of fecal microbiota transplantation in systemic sclerosis.
Authors: Hoffmann-Vold AM, Fretheim H, Didriksen H, Molberg Ø PMID: 31858856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Avoiding infections in transplant recipients: does the gut microbiota have a key role?
Authors: Satlin MJ, Westblade LF, Lee JR PMID: 31851851 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Beh çet's disease in Iraq: New insights into the clinical and epidemiologic features in Middle-Euphrates region.
Conclusion: both doctors' and patients' awareness of BD is increased in Iraq. Early-onset BD tends to involve females more than males with significant drop of male-to-female ratio as compared to previously reported in national and other Middle-Eastern studies. The clinical characteristics are comparable to those reported from other countries with higher neurologic involvement as compared to previous national reports. PMID: 31851853 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Pharmacological treatments for eosinophilic esophagitis: current options and emerging therapies.
This article provides an up-to-date discussion of current therapies and investigational options for EoE. Established anti-inflammatory treatments for EoE at present include dietary therapy, proton pump inhibitors and swallowed topic steroids, which should be combined with endoscopic dilation in case of strictures. Refractoriness, high recurrence rates and need for long-term therapies has promoted the investigation of novel, esophageal-targeted formulas of topic corticosteroids, and monoclonal antibodies (including mepolizumab, reslizumab, QAX576, RPC4046, dupilumab, omalizumab, infliximab and vedolizumab) for EoE, with som...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Periodontitis: a newly identified comorbidity in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
Authors: Dalmády S, Kemény L, Antal M, Gyulai R Abstract Introduction: Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune skin disease with strong genetic background and environmental triggers. Patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis are at greater risk of developing other chronic and potentially severe comorbidities, such as psoriatic arthritis, hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases or depression. Recently, accumulating epidemiologic, genetic and pathogenetic evidence indicates that psoriasis is also associated with periodontitis, a chronic progressive ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Time to modify the DAS28 to make it fit for purpose(s) in rheumatoid arthritis?
Authors: Hensor EMA, Conaghan PG PMID: 31790310 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 4, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Managing pregnancy-associated clinical emergencies in systemic lupus erythematosus: a case-based approach.
Authors: Choi M, Butler E, Clarke A, Girard LP, Gibson P, Skeith L Abstract Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related thrombocytopenia during pregnancy and the postpartum period have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and perinatal complications. In this case report, we present two SLE patients with thrombocytopenia emergencies secondary to HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets) syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP).Areas covered: The first case involved a 26-year-old woman, G1P0 at 26 weeks gestation (GA), with high-titre antiphospholipid antibodie...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 4, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Current understanding and recent advances in myositis-specific and -associated autoantibodies detected in patients with dermatomyositis.
Authors: Gono T, Kuwana M Abstract Introduction: Dermatomyositis (DM) is characterized by skin lesions, such as heliotrope rash and Gottron's papules/sign, and skeletal myopathy. Patients with DM often have arthritis, cardiomyopathy, interstitial lung disease (ILD), and concomitant malignancy. Since clinical characteristics, treatment response, and prognosis are highly variable among patients, it is critical to predict future outcomes in DM patients before the initiation of management. Recently, a number of myositis-specific and -associated autoantibodies (MSAs/MAAs) have been identified and well characterized, and...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Unmet needs in the management of cardiovascular risk in inflammatory joint diseases.
Authors: Castañeda S, Vicente-Rabaneda EF, García-Castañeda N, Prieto-Peña D, Dessein PH, González-Gay MA Abstract Introduction: Increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality is observed in inflammatory joint diseases (IJDs) such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis. However, the management of CV disease in these conditions is far from being well established.Areas covered: This review summarizes the main epidemiologic, pathophysiological and clinical risk factors of CV disease associated with IJDs. Less common aspects on early diagnosis a...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Protocols for drug allergy desensitization in children.
Authors: Diaferio L, Giovannini M, Clark E, Castagnoli R, Caimmi D Abstract Introduction: When a drug hypersensitivity reaction is proven, desensitization protocols allow the reintroduction of the molecule in patients for whom such therapy is essential. Through drug desensitization, a temporary immune tolerance is maintained for the single course of a specific therapy. In pediatrics, indications for such a procedure include children with chronic diseases, severe infectious diseases and/or malignancies, who have a proven drug hypersensitivity.Areas covered: We ran a search on PubMed and Web of Science for papers on ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - November 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research