Erratum: Psychosocial support interventions for cancer caregivers: reducing caregiver burden: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - February 4, 2021 Category: Palliative Care Tags: ERRATUM Source Type: research

Abstracts from the 5th Cancer Cachexia Society Meeting, Montreal, Canada, September 10-11, 2020
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - February 4, 2021 Category: Palliative Care Tags: ABSTRACTS FROM THE 5TH CANCER CACHEXIA SOCIETY MEETING, MONTREAL, CANADA, SEPTEMBER 10-11, 2020 Source Type: research

Editorial: Highlights from the 2020 virtual cancer cachexia conference
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - February 4, 2021 Category: Palliative Care Tags: ABSTRACTS FROM THE 5TH CANCER CACHEXIA SOCIETY MEETING, MONTREAL, CANADA, SEPTEMBER 10-11, 2020 Source Type: research

Measuring quality of life in older people with cancer
Purpose of review The number of individuals aged 65+ with cancer will double in the next decade. Attention to quality of life (QOL) is imperative to identify relevant endpoints/outcomes in research and provide care that matches individual needs. This review summarizes recent publications regarding QOL measurement in older adults with cancer, considering implications for research and practice. Recent findings QOL is a complex concept and its measurement can be challenging. A variety of measurement tools exist, but only one specific to older adults with cancer. QOL is frequently measured as functional health, adve...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - February 4, 2021 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GERIATRIC ONCOLOGY: Edited by Ines B. Menjak, Christopher Steer and Martine Puts Source Type: research

Biological aspects of aging that influence response to anticancer treatments
Purpose of review Cancer is a disease of older adults, where fitness and frailty are a continuum. This aspect poses unique challenges to the management of cancer in this population. In this article, we review the biological aspects influencing the efficacy and safety of systemic anticancer treatments. Recent findings The organ function decline associated with the ageing process affects multiple systems, including liver, kidney, bone marrow, heart, muscles and central nervous system. These can have a significant impact on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of systemic anticancer agents. Comorbidities also ...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - February 4, 2021 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GERIATRIC ONCOLOGY: Edited by Ines B. Menjak, Christopher Steer and Martine Puts Source Type: research

Palliative and end-of-life care for the older adult with cancer
Purpose of review Despite established benefits of palliative care in the oncology population, it remains an underutilized resource particularly among older adults. The illness trajectory and needs of an older adult with cancer are unique. The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature on providing comprehensive palliative and end-of-life care for the older adult with cancer. Recent findings Though the difficulties of applying traditional palliative care principles in the older patients with cancer have been discussed, this review reveals a clear gap in the literature in discussing the provision of...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - February 4, 2021 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GERIATRIC ONCOLOGY: Edited by Ines B. Menjak, Christopher Steer and Martine Puts Source Type: research

Methods for frailty screening and geriatric assessment in older adults with cancer
Purpose of review This review highlights the latest development in the use of geriatric assessment(GA) and frailty assessment for older adults with cancer. Recent findings From 2019, there were six large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) completed of GA for older adults with cancer, as well as several studies of frailty screening tools. Summary The findings in this review highlight the benefits of implementing GA, followed by interventions to address the identified issues (GA -guided interventions). Four of six RCTs that implemented GA for older adults with cancer showed positive impact on various outco...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - February 4, 2021 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GERIATRIC ONCOLOGY: Edited by Ines B. Menjak, Christopher Steer and Martine Puts Source Type: research

Cognitive impairment in older adults with cancer
Purpose of review Cognitive impairment is increasing in an ageing population and as people live longer, they are more likely to develop cancer therefore cognitive impairment and cancer are frequently co-occurring. We reviewed articles published since 2018 on cognitive impairment and cancer. Recent findings The current review has focused on diagnosis, treatment and palliative and end of life care. A comprehensive systematic review reported joint cancer and cognitive impairment prevalence from 0.2 to 45.6%. The review reported there was reduced likelihood of patients with co-occurring cognitive and cancer receivin...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - February 4, 2021 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GERIATRIC ONCOLOGY: Edited by Ines B. Menjak, Christopher Steer and Martine Puts Source Type: research

Predicting treatment toxicity in older adults with cancer
Purpose of review To provide an overview of the recent advancements in predicting toxicity associated with cancer treatment in older patients. Recent findings Various screening tools and validated risk calculators have been shown to help predict toxicity from surgery and chemotherapy. Radiation therapy has been more challenging to select the appropriate tool to reliably predict patients at risk for toxicity and noncompliance. Ongoing work on electronic geriatric assessment tools is showing promise in making comprehensive assessment more feasible. Summary Selecting appropriate cancer therapy is particularl...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - February 4, 2021 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GERIATRIC ONCOLOGY: Edited by Ines B. Menjak, Christopher Steer and Martine Puts Source Type: research

Editorial: Supportive and palliative care of older adults with cancer
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - February 4, 2021 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GERIATRIC ONCOLOGY: Edited by Ines B. Menjak, Christopher Steer and Martine Puts Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - February 4, 2021 Category: Palliative Care Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

The why and how of maintaining hydration during cancer therapy
Purpose of review To provide an overview of the role hydration plays in the oncology population while providing a synopsis of recent scientifically relevant published practice advancements. Recent findings Dehydration causes substantial symptom burden in cancer patients, secondary to both disease process and treatment complications. Maintaining fluid and electrolytes balance is the key to hydration therapy. When oral intake is diminished, artificial hydration can be delivered via enteral, intravenous and subcutaneous routes. Use of artificial hydration in end-of-life care for cancer patients remains a highly deb...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - November 22, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: CACHEXIA, NUTRITION AND HYDRATION: Edited by Aminah Jatoi and Barry J.A. Laird Source Type: research

New insights on how and where to measure muscle mass
This article will discuss different muscle mass assessment methods and emphasize their highlights. Recent findings Several measurement techniques can be used to evaluate muscle mass, recognized as important prognostic markers for adverse functional and clinical outcomes. Choosing the best method depends on the knowledge regarding their theoretical and practical limitations and the purpose of the assessment. Image techniques are considered the gold standards, with good accuracy and precision, but not always available in clinical settings. A new biological technique, the D3-creatinine dilution, can provide not only di...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - November 22, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: CACHEXIA, NUTRITION AND HYDRATION: Edited by Aminah Jatoi and Barry J.A. Laird Source Type: research

Computed tomography-derived body composition analysis in patients with advanced cancer: clinical utility and future research
Purpose of review With weight loss increasingly occurring against a background of obesity across a variety of advanced cancers, there has been increasing interest in computed tomography (CT)-derived body composition analysis. Various imaging software packages and thresholds are commonly in use in CT-derived body composition analysis. This review discusses the current research in field of body composition with emphasis on the information required for such measurements to be taken into routine clinical practice. Recent findings CT is widely used for tumour staging in patients with cancer. Over the last decade, thi...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - November 22, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: CACHEXIA, NUTRITION AND HYDRATION: Edited by Aminah Jatoi and Barry J.A. Laird Source Type: research

Optimising patient fitness: strategies to reduce the effects of cancer cachexia in patients with advanced lung cancer
Purpose of review Outcomes for patients with advanced lung cancer have traditionally been very poor. This patient group are often comorbid, less fit and experience multiple symptoms. This review discusses strategies for minimizing the impact of cachexia on patients with advanced lung cancer. This is timely, as in recent years there has been a rapid increase in available systemic therapy options, with the potential of long-term survival for some patients. Recent findings The review discusses current strategies in combating cachexia, including: symptom control, systemic therapy for cancer and for cachexia, nutriti...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - November 22, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: CACHEXIA, NUTRITION AND HYDRATION: Edited by Aminah Jatoi and Barry J.A. Laird Source Type: research

Editorial: What about weight? Advocating for simplicity in cancer cachexia trials
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - November 22, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: CACHEXIA, NUTRITION AND HYDRATION: Edited by Aminah Jatoi and Barry J.A. Laird Source Type: research

Editorial: Cancer cachexia – bridging the gap
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - November 22, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: CACHEXIA, NUTRITION AND HYDRATION: Edited by Aminah Jatoi and Barry J.A. Laird Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - November 22, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Impact of chemotherapy-induced enteric nervous system toxicity on gastrointestinal mucositis
Purpose of review Chemotherapy is a first-line treatment for many cancers; however, its use is hampered by a long list of side-effects. Gastrointestinal mucositis is a common and debilitating side-effect of anticancer therapy contributing to dose reductions, delays and cessation of treatment, greatly impacting clinical outcomes. The underlying pathophysiology of gastrointestinal mucositis is complex and likely involves several overlapping inflammatory, secretory and neural mechanisms, yet research investigating the role of innervation in gastrointestinal mucositis is scarce. This review provides an overview of the curren...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Management of cisplatin-associated toxicities in bladder cancer patients
Purpose of review Cisplatin remains the treatment cornerstone for bladder cancer, either in neoadjuvant or in metastatic (cisplatin-gemcitabine or dose-dense methotrexate, vinblastine, and doxorubicin). Timely and adequate management of cisplatin's adverse events is important in order to avoid dose reductions, treatment delays, or cessation. Over the last years, several randomized studies and updated guidelines have been published on this subject. Recent findings The incidence, physiopathology, risk factors, preventive treatment, and optimal management of such complications will be presented, with special focus on cis...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

Second-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor-therapy after immunotherapy-failure
Purpose of review Most contemporary metastatic renal-cell carcinoma patients receive first-line immunotherapy and tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) combination or immunotherapy–immunotherapy combination, as first-line standards of care. However, second-line therapy choices are less well established. To address this void, we examined existing evidence supporting second and subsequent-line treatment options after immunotherapy-based combination therapy. Recent findings Evidence regarding efficacy of second-line therapy after immunotherapy-based combination is mainly retrospective, except for axitinib, which is the o...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

The evolving options in metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer
Purpose of review Leading trials CHAARTED, STAMPEDE, GETUG-AFU15 and LATITUDE established docetaxel and abiraterone acetate addition to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) as a treatment guideline for patients with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer. Recent findings Two recent combinations, enzalutamide with ADT and apalutamide with ADT were tested in metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer in three randomized controlled trials. Both combinations provided survival gain, expanding our options of treatment. Moreover, additional evidence behind radiotherapy for the primary tumor in metastatic prostate...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

The role and value of family therapy for people living with cancer: a rapid review of recent evidence
Purpose of review Cancer impacts the whole family and relational system, not just the individual with the diagnosis. The present article identifies and reviews publications in the field of family therapy and cancer since 2019, to describe the theoretical models and techniques applied, and the outcomes achieved. Recent findings A search of databases and grey literature led to the identification of five articles from four studies. Four papers described primary research and one summarized a case example. Papers were published by teams in the USA, Sweden and Iceland. Each article described the benefits of adopting a famil...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: LIVING WITH CANCER AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF TREATMENT: Edited by Lynn Calman and Natasha Campling Source Type: research

Psychosocial support interventions for cancer caregivers: reducing caregiver burden
Purpose of review Informal caregivers of individuals affected by cancer undertake a range of activities and responsibilities throughout the course of the cancer care trajectory. This role is often undertaken alongside employment and other caring roles and can contribute to caregiver burden, which may be ameliorated through psychosocial intervention. Recent findings Fifteen new studies investigating the potential of psychosocial interventions for reducing caregiver burden were identified from the period January 2019 to February 2020. Studies were mostly quasi-experimental or randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Psychoe...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: LIVING WITH CANCER AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF TREATMENT: Edited by Lynn Calman and Natasha Campling Source Type: research

Prevalence and risk factors for suicidality in cancer patients and oncology healthcare professionals strategies in identifying suicide risk in cancer patients
Purpose of review The aim of this study was to summarize the literature on prevalence and risk factors for suicidality in cancer patients and to document the research on oncology healthcare professionals’ strategies in identifying this risk. Recent findings Cancer patients exhibit increased risk of suicidality compared with the general population. Various risk factors have been identified including sociodemographic factors such as poverty, being male and elderly as well as disease-related attributes such as cancer type and stage. The literature on how healthcare professionals identify suicide risk is sparse. Ten...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: LIVING WITH CANCER AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF TREATMENT: Edited by Lynn Calman and Natasha Campling Source Type: research

Schizophrenia and cancer
Purpose of review The cancer mortality rate in persons with schizophrenia is higher than it is in the general population. The purpose of this review is to determine why, and to identify solutions. Recent findings The recent literature points to three groups of reasons why mortality is high: patient reasons such as nonadherence to treatment, provider reasons such as diagnostic overshadowing, and health system reasons such as a relative lack of collaboration between medicine and psychiatry. Strategies for cancer prevention, early detection, and effective treatment are available but difficult to put into practice because...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: LIVING WITH CANCER AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF TREATMENT: Edited by Lynn Calman and Natasha Campling Source Type: research

Not seeing the forest for the trees: a systematic review of comprehensive distress management programs and implementation strategies
This article offers a review of current approaches to implementing and reporting the minimum components of distress screening and management interventions in cancer services. Recent findings Twenty-two relevant published articles were identified from January 2018 to February 2020. The reporting of recommended minimum components of distress screening and management interventions in these articles was not consistent. The majority of studies used validated tools to conduct initial screening. However, recommendations were either not reported or not followed regarding subsequent pathway components, secondary assessment, refe...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: LIVING WITH CANCER AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF TREATMENT: Edited by Lynn Calman and Natasha Campling Source Type: research

Editorial: Cancer, psychiatric disorders, distress and times of crisis: supporting patients, carers and families
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: LIVING WITH CANCER AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF TREATMENT: Edited by Lynn Calman and Natasha Campling Source Type: research

Informal carers and peer support in pulmonary rehabilitation: an underutilized resource?
Purpose of review The aim of this review is to discuss the recent literature relating to the involvement of informal carers and peer support in pulmonary rehabilitation. Recent findings Informal carers and peer support have been identified by both patients and healthcare workers as a crucial component in the care of those with chronic respiratory disease at home. Pulmonary rehabilitation, a cornerstone in the management of patients with breathlessness, is limited in its clinical effectiveness by poor referral, uptake and completion rates. Engagement of informal carers and support from peers may help maximize the utili...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by Magnus Ekström and Morag Farquhar Source Type: research

Supportive and palliative care for people with chronic respiratory disease and frailty
Purpose of review Frailty is a multidimensional syndrome associated with increased risk of poor outcomes. It is estimated that at least one in five people with chronic respiratory disease is also living with frailty. In this review, we consider recent advances in how frailty can be recognized, and its associated impact on people with chronic respiratory disease. We then discuss advances in supportive and palliative care for those with both chronic respiratory disease and frailty. Recent findings The interconnectedness of chronic respiratory disease and frailty is being better understood. An increasing number of factor...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by Magnus Ekström and Morag Farquhar Source Type: research

Supportive and palliative care of adults with respiratory problems experiencing structural vulnerability from homelessness, prison or other criminal justice system involvement
Purpose of review This review seeks to identify the current prevalence of potentially life-limiting respiratory conditions among those who have experienced homelessness, incarceration or had criminal justice involvement, and current developments in, and barriers to, delivery of supportive and palliative respiratory care to these populations. These structurally vulnerable populations are known to be growing, their health behaviours more risky, and their morbidity and mortality higher, with evidence of accelerated ageing. Recent findings Most studies identified investigated prevalence of respiratory conditions, which we...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by Magnus Ekström and Morag Farquhar Source Type: research

Supportive and palliative care for people with respiratory problems and preexisting serious mental illness
Purpose of review People living with serious mental illness are at a higher risk of developing respiratory problems that can lead to increased morbidity and early mortality. This review aimed to identify recent advances in care provision for people with respiratory problems and preexisting serious mental illness to ease symptom burden and reduce the risk of premature mortality. Recent findings Intervention-based studies in this area are scarce. The evidence reviewed originated from observational studies. Concluding comments from the synthesis suggest there are specific needs for proactive screening of respiratory func...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by Magnus Ekström and Morag Farquhar Source Type: research

Affective traits, states, and breathlessness
Purpose of review Breathlessness is a prevalent and aversive symptom in various conditions and closely related to affect. Here, we review recent literature from the previous 18 months examining the interactions between affective traits and states with breathlessness. Recent findings Available studies used various qualitative, quantitative, and experimental research designs in diverse samples of patients with breathlessness and in healthy individuals. Most studies clearly demonstrated that nonspecific forms of negative affective personality traits such as anxiety and depression, disease or symptom-specific forms such a...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by Magnus Ekström and Morag Farquhar Source Type: research

Morphine for the symptomatic reduction of chronic breathlessness: the case for controlled release
Purpose of review Clinicians who seek to reduce the symptomatic burden of chronic breathlessness by initiating regular low-dose morphine has the choice of immediate or sustained-release formulations – which will be better for this often frail population, and which has the more robust evidence to inform its prescription? Both formulations can be used. Recent findings For chronic breathlessness, three factors consistently favour the use of regular, low-dose, sustained-release morphine over immediate-release formulations: (1)Pharmacokinetics in steady state demonstrates lower peak and higher trough concentrations ...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by Magnus Ekström and Morag Farquhar Source Type: research

Use of short-acting opioids in the management of breathlessness: an evidence-based review
Purpose of review To provide an evidence-based review on the use of short-acting opioids for management of breathlessness in patients with advanced diseases. Recent findings We identified 28 randomized controlled trials that examined the effect of short-acting opioids on breathlessness under three study settings: as a prophylactic dose given prior to exertion; as a rescue dose for treatment of breathlessness at rest or episodic breathlessness; or as a scheduled medication for overall reduction of breathlessness. These trials varied widely in regard to patient population (opioid naive or tolerant), opioid (formulation,...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by Magnus Ekström and Morag Farquhar Source Type: research

Heart, lungs, and muscle interplay in worsening activity-related breathlessness in advanced cardiopulmonary disease
Purpose of review Activity-related breathlessness is a key determinant of poor quality of life in patients with advanced cardiorespiratory disease. Accordingly, palliative care has assumed a prominent role in their care. The severity of breathlessness depends on a complex combination of negative cardiopulmonary interactions and increased afferent stimulation from systemic sources. We review recent data exposing the seeds and consequences of these abnormalities in combined heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent findings The drive to breathe increases (‘excessive breathing’) s...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by Magnus Ekström and Morag Farquhar Source Type: research

Editorial: Respiratory problems
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by Magnus Ekström and Morag Farquhar Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 13, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

From cachexia to obesity: the role of host metabolism in cancer immunotherapy: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 5, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: ERRATUM Source Type: research

New therapeutic strategies for combatting gastrointestinal toxicity
Purpose of review An overwhelming majority of chemotherapy agents are known to cause gastrointestinal mucositis, an unwanted side effect of cancer treatment, for which no effective treatment currently exists. The pathological processes underlying the development of gastrointestinal mucositis are many and varied, with multiple pathways thought to be involved in initiation of inflammation and apoptosis. Physiological and or biochemical-based deficiencies, such as vitamin D deficiency and gut microbiome density and population, are also thought to have an impact on mucositis severity. Recent findings Recent studies invest...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 5, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Nicole Blijlevens and Andrea M. Stringer Source Type: research

Innate lymphoid cells in treatment-induced gastrointestinal pathogenesis
Purpose of review Tissue injury often occurs as collateral damage after chemotherapy and radiotherapy and is associated with significant comorbidity and mortality. The arsenal of options to prevent tissue injury other than dose reduction is limited, and treatment is mostly aimed at symptom relief and prevention of complications, such as bacterial translocation and malnourishment. Novel approaches directed at prevention and early repair of damaged tissues are highly anticipated. Recent findings Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are important in tissue homeostasis and wound healing. Most knowledge of ILC is based on studies i...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 5, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Nicole Blijlevens and Andrea M. Stringer Source Type: research

Pitfalls and novel experimental approaches to optimize microbial interventions for chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal mucositis
Purpose of review There is a growing number of studies implicating gut dysbiosis in mucositis development. However, few studies have shed light on the causal relationship limiting translational potential. Here, we detail the key supportive evidence for microbial involvement, candidate mechanisms by which the microbiome may contribute to mucositis and emerging approaches to model host–microbe interactions with clinical relevance and translational potential. Recent findings Synthesis of existing clinical data demonstrate that modulating the microbiome drastically alters the development and severity of mucositis, p...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 5, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Nicole Blijlevens and Andrea M. Stringer Source Type: research

Does circadian rhythm influence gastrointestinal toxicity?
Purpose of review The current review outlines the existing research on the impact of circadian rhythm on gastrointestinal toxicity associated with cancer treatment and explores clinical evidence for utilizing circadian-based approaches in addressing gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mucositis, and hepatotoxicity. Recent findings Recent evidence highlights circadian control of gastrointestinal physiology of appetite, digestion, nutrient absorption, and cellular proliferation in the digestive system. In addition, animal models support the mechanistic rationale of using chronotherapy (a type o...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 5, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Nicole Blijlevens and Andrea M. Stringer Source Type: research

Editorial: New innovations in therapeutic targets for gastrointestinal toxicity: exploring targets beyond the intestine
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 5, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Nicole Blijlevens and Andrea M. Stringer Source Type: research

Opioid analgesia: recent developments
Purpose of review Opioids are potent drugs for the treatment of severe pain, but they are burdened by detrimental side-effects, such as respiratory depression, addiction, sedation and constipation. Their clinical application is undisputed in acute (e.g. perioperative) and cancer pain, but their use in chronic nonmalignant pain has met increasing scrutiny and has contributed to the opioid crisis. Thus, novel analgesics with reduced side-effects are badly needed. Recent findings Current research topics include enkephalinase inhibitors, allosteric and multivalent ligands, biased opioid receptor signaling and selective ac...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 5, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: NON-MALIGNANT DISEASES: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Kirsty Bannister Source Type: research

Potential therapeutic treatments of cancer-induced bone pain
Purpose of review The treatment of cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) has been proven ineffective and relies heavily on opioids, the target of highly visible criticism for their negative side effects. Alternative therapeutic agents are needed and the last few years have brought promising results, detailed in this review. Recent findings Cysteine/glutamate antiporter system, xc−, cannabinoids, kappa opioids, and a ceramide axis have all been shown to have potential as novel therapeutic targets without the negative effects of opioids. Summary Review of the most recent and promising studies involving CIBP, specific...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 5, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: NON-MALIGNANT DISEASES: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Kirsty Bannister Source Type: research

Managing childhood cancer pain into survivorship: recognition and emerging principles
Purpose of review Continual refinement and further stratification of childhood cancer treatment has led to increased survivorship with recognized improvements in many long-term health outcomes. Despite this progress, persisting pain prevalence in childhood cancer survivors is increasing and emerging as a significant long-term health concern. Recent findings Currently, there is no guidance on how to approach and manage persisting pain in survivors of childhood cancer. Summary Clinicians should work with children and young people to optimize the management of pain and other symptoms on treatment. Focusing on an early...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 5, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: CANCER: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Paul Farquhar-Smith Source Type: research

Breakthrough cancer pain in 2020
Purpose of review An overview on breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP), including inherent limitations of the terminology, assessment, clinical presentation, and treatment options. Recent findings The estimated prevalence of BTCP is dependent on the defined cutoffs for controlled background pain and the magnitude of the pain flare. In addition, pain flares outside the definition of BTCP are prevalent. In the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases, the temporal characteristics of cancer pain are described as continuous background pain and intermittent episodic pain. BTCP should be assessed by validated...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 5, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: CANCER: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Paul Farquhar-Smith Source Type: research

Cannabis and cannabinoids in cancer pain management
Purpose of review An increasing number of patients are turning to cannabis and cannabinoids for management of their palliative and nonpalliative cancer pain and other cancer-related symptoms. Canadians have a legal framework for access to medical cannabis, which provides a unique perspective in a setting lacking robust clinical evidence. This review seeks to delineate the role of cannabis and cannabinoids in cancer pain management and offers insight into the Canadian practice. Recent findings A cohort study using nabiximols on advanced cancer pain in patients already optimized on opioids, over 3 weeks, demonstrated im...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 5, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: CANCER: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Paul Farquhar-Smith Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 5, 2020 Category: Palliative Care Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research