Discovering and targeting the epigenetic pathways to treat muscle loss: working toward a paradigm shift in cancer therapeutics
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - October 30, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: CACHEXIA, NUTRITION AND HYDRATION: Edited by Aminah Jatoi and Florian Strasser Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - October 30, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Why continual update of clinical practice guidelines for cytotoxic therapy-induced mucositis is essential
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: Special Commentary Source Type: research

Pain: nonmalignant disease
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: Special Commentary Source Type: research

Spirituality and religiosity in supportive and palliative care
Purpose of reviewTo provide an updated overview about the role of spirituality and religiosity in the way patients with life-threatening illnesses cope, and the importance of providing a comprehensive spiritual assessment and spiritual care in an interdisciplinary team work setting, such as supportive and palliative care. Recent FindingsSpirituality is a lifelong developmental task, lasting until death. Spirituality and religion continue to play an important role across cultures globally. Spirituality is seen as a vital element connected to seeking meaning, purpose, and transcendence in life. Many individuals recognize the...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GENERAL SUPPORTIVE AND PALLIATIVE CARE: Edited by Eduardo Bruera Source Type: research

Supportive and palliative care for patients with chronic mental illness including dementia
Purpose of reviewPeople with preexisting mental illness are known to have difficulty accessing healthcare services including palliative care and people with dementia have similar issues accessing palliative care. Recent findingsThe review addressed the time period from January 2013 to March 2014. There were few articles addressing issues for palliative and supportive care for patients with preexisting mental health issues. The main factor that would improve care is interdisciplinary working between mental healthcare teams and palliative care teams. In contrast, there were many published articles on the palliative and suppo...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GENERAL SUPPORTIVE AND PALLIATIVE CARE: Edited by Eduardo Bruera Source Type: research

Supportive and palliative care of children with metabolic and neurological diseases
This article aims to review literature relevant to this group of children, as well as provide a framework when considering specific palliative care needs. SummaryPPC for children with metabolic and neurological diseases can lessen a child's physical discomfort and enhance parental certainty with decision-making. These areas along with other needs throughout the illness trajectory and bereavement are being increasingly met by the growing availability of PPC programmes. (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GENERAL SUPPORTIVE AND PALLIATIVE CARE: Edited by Eduardo Bruera Source Type: research

Delirium diagnosis, screening and management
Purpose of reviewOur review focuses on recent developments across many settings regarding the diagnosis, screening and management of delirium, so as to inform these aspects in the context of palliative and supportive care. Recent findingsDelirium diagnostic criteria have been updated in the long-awaited Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition. Studies suggest that poor recognition of delirium relates to its clinical characteristics, inadequate interprofessional communication and lack of systematic screening. Validation studies are published for cognitive and observational tools to screen for deliri...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GENERAL SUPPORTIVE AND PALLIATIVE CARE: Edited by Eduardo Bruera Source Type: research

The assessment and management of cancer cachexia: hypogonadism and hypermetabolism among supportive and palliative care patients
Purpose of reviewTo update the healthcare providers on the potential contribution of increased basal metabolic rate, hypermetabolism, and low testosterone in the development of weight loss in cancer patients. Recent findingsCancer cachexia, the loss of skeletal muscle with or without the loss of fat, is a multifactorial syndrome. A wide variation in the frequency of hypermetabolism exists in cancer patients and can only be accurately identified by an indirect calorimeter. The frequency of hypermetabolism increases depending on the histology and stage of tumor, associated with the presence of an acute inflammatory response,...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GENERAL SUPPORTIVE AND PALLIATIVE CARE: Edited by Eduardo Bruera Source Type: research

Opioid management of pain: the impact of the prescription opioid abuse epidemic
Purpose of reviewThe greater emphasis on pain control over the last decade has been accompanied by increased opioid prescriptions and an epidemic of opioid abuse. This review examines the financial, regulatory, and clinical practice impact of the epidemic, the factors contributing to its growth, and strategies that may counter this public health crisis. Recent findingsDespite the call for urgent practice change and the introduction of new initiatives such as electronic prescription monitoring and additional education programs for providers and patients, the evidence for improved outcomes are limited. There are also concern...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GENERAL SUPPORTIVE AND PALLIATIVE CARE: Edited by Eduardo Bruera Source Type: research

The growing body of knowledge in palliative care
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GENERAL SUPPORTIVE AND PALLIATIVE CARE: Edited by Eduardo Bruera Source Type: research

New developments in the imaging of metastatic prostate cancer
Purpose of reviewIn the last 10 years, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treatment has completely changed. Several new agents have been shown to increase mCRPC patients’ overall survival. The importance to define castration-resistant prostate cancer as metastatic and to enable earlier detection of cancer progression set a renewed role for prostate cancer (PCa) imaging. Recent findingsRecently published data on molecular imaging of metastatic PCa have focused on diagnostic accuracy, clinical impact and prognostic value of newer techniques using PET and MRI. SummaryMolecular imaging techniques are...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

The emerging roles of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma
Purpose of reviewTo discuss the emerging roles of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Recent findingsRCC tumours are not as radio-resistant as previously thought, as local control rates of tumours treated with SABR are high. Therefore, SABR is an attractive treatment option for RCC tumours in which effective long-term palliation of symptoms or local control is desired. Like surgical resection of metastatic tumours, SABR can also be used as a method of eradicating oligometastases to potentially ‘cure’ or offer prolonged disease-free survival in patien...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

The role of palliative surgery in castration-resistant prostate cancer
Purpose of reviewAndrogen deprivation therapy with luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analogues or antagonists represents the treatment of choice in men metastatic prostate cancer (PCA). Depending on the serum concentration of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir, the survival might vary between 11 and 78 months. About one-third of all patients without local treatment of the primary will develop significant complications of the lower and upper urinary tract because of local progression of PCA. It is the purpose of the review to inform the treating physician about palliative surgical options in men with castr...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

Managing advanced penile cancer in 2014
Purpose of reviewTo highlight the recent treatment recommendations that are proposed to improve the outcomes of patients with advanced penile cancer. Recent findingsPenile cancer is a rare disease that presents with many diagnostic and treatment specificities. Adequate treatment requires interdisciplinary discussions involving urologist oncologists, medical oncologists and radiation oncologists as well as many other health professionals. Localized disease can now be adequately treated with many different penile-sparing approaches associated with close surveillance. However, many patients present with high-risk features ass...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

Radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis
Purpose of reviewTo better understand the mechanism of radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis and the advantages and disadvantages of available treatment options for bladder hemorrhage as well as preventive measures. Recent findingsThere have been several attempts recently to manage hemorrhagic cystitis with hyperbaric oxygen therapy, transurethral coagulation using Greenlight potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser and other different treatment modalities, but we still need more investigation on larger cohort studies. SummaryHemorrhagic cystitis is an uncommon urological problem. It is most often caused by radiation therapy and...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

Editorial
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

Neuroimaging of central breathlessness mechanisms
This article summarizes how functional neuroimaging works, focussing on functional MRI (FMRI) and magnetoencephalography, how neuroimaging has shed light on the central mechanisms of breathlessness and thus how it may help target new therapies. Recent findingsCurrent understanding of central neural activity in breathlessness comes mainly from a small number of studies in healthy volunteers using models of induced acute breathlessness. Parallels with neuroimaging findings in pain and fear or anxiety have been used to interpret the neuroimaging studies of breathlessness to form hypotheses. Despite the lack of recent neuroima...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Amy P. Abernethy Source Type: research

Noninvasive ventilation as a palliative measure
Purpose of reviewDyspnea is a distressing consequence of many unremitting diseases. This review discusses the therapeutic use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in advanced illness. Recent findingsNIV continues to be investigated most rigorously in patients with progressive neuromuscular weakness and the combination of emphysema and lung cancer. Data are quite limited on the palliative role of NIV in bronchiectasis and interstitial lung diseases. It remains difficult to identify the subsets of patients with acute-on-chronic respiratory failure who are most likely to benefit from ICU admission, but NIV may particularly help t...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Amy P. Abernethy Source Type: research

Breathlessness in motor neurone disease: a review of the current strategies and gaps in the evidence
Purpose of reviewThis review on breathlessness and motor neurone disease (MND) is important, as palliative care teams are increasingly becoming involved in the complex care of these patients at an earlier stage in their illness. Subtle cognitive and behavioural changes with MND may make management more challenging. Breathlessness is a distressing symptom, impacting on both patients and carers. Assessment and expectant management of breathlessness improves the quality of life (QoL) and may minimize hospital admission. Recent findingsLow-dose opioids improve the sensation of breathlessness, with minimal side-effects. It is w...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Amy P. Abernethy Source Type: research

Inhaled nebulized and intranasal opioids for the relief of breathlessness
Purpose of reviewInhaled nebulized and intranasal opioid administration is available with a proven short onset of action for the relief of pain. As breathlessness episodes are short, these routes of administration seem to be attractive for breathlessness management. This review describes the recent studies evaluating the effectiveness of inhaled nebulized and intranasal application of opioids for patients suffering from refractory breathlessness. Recent findingsSince 2012, one systematic review and three primary studies have been identified. The systematic review summarized five studies including seventy patients testing n...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Amy P. Abernethy Source Type: research

Correlates between basic science and therapeutic interventions: the theory and the practice
Purpose of reviewTo review the science of breathlessness and demonstrate how current therapeutic interventions for breathlessness target the known underlying mechanisms. Recent findingsThere is increasing evidence that breathlessness is experienced in multiple dimensions. The underlying mechanisms relate to the perceptual processes involved, the emotional response and the functional impact. The theory that breathlessness is perceived when there is a mismatch between the central drive to breathe and the level of ventilation remains a central concept, providing a useful theoretical framework around which many current therapi...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Amy P. Abernethy Source Type: research

Opioid receptor bronchial tree: current science
Purpose of reviewSystemic opioids have the evidence to support their use in refractory dyspnea; however, the mechanisms of how they exert their effects are not fully understood. The relevance of peripheral mechanisms, in part, is still questioned, especially as a meta-analysis demonstrated no benefit from nebulized opioids. This might be related to the lack of standardization of the inhalation methods. There is a need to clarify whether peripheral opioid receptors may serve as the target for inhaled treatment and what are the potential peripheral mechanisms of opioids. Recent findingsOpioidergic systems are present in stru...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Amy P. Abernethy Source Type: research

The science of breathlessness: ‘… as we come onto the home straight, Science is catching Clinical Practice. Just two lengths between them’
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Amy P. Abernethy Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - September 1, 2014 Category: Palliative Care Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research