Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - January 29, 2016 Category: Palliative Care Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

The contribution of undergraduate palliative care education: does it influence the clinical patient's care?
Purpose of review: The aim of this 2-year systematic review is to understand how learner assessment and curriculum evaluation of education in palliative care is being undertaken and to examine whether current undergraduate education influences the clinical patient's care. Recent findings: Almost half of the 30 studies reviewed used a qualitative approach to evaluate learning experiences. Only three of them were controlled studies and a further one was a cohort study. When students openly express themselves, they agree that there is ‘something’ deep as regards the core or the essence of medical practice or nursi...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - October 31, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: END OF LIFE MANAGEMENT: Edited by Gustavo de Simone Source Type: research

Unexpected death in palliative care: what to expect when you are not expecting
Purpose of review: Death is a certainty in life. Yet, the timing of death is often uncertain. When death occurs suddenly and earlier than anticipated, it is considered as an unexpected death. In this article, we shall discuss when is death expected and unexpected, and review the frequency, impact, causes, and approach to unexpected death in the palliative care setting. Recent findings: Even in the palliative care setting in which death is relatively common, up to 5% of deaths in hospice and 10% of deaths in palliative care units were considered to be unexpected. Unexpected death has significant impact on care, including un...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - October 31, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: END OF LIFE MANAGEMENT: Edited by Gustavo de Simone Source Type: research

What does end stage in neuromuscular diseases mean? Key approach-based transitions
This article emphasized the relevance of an integrated approach through the whole trajectories of NMD patients considering key transitions. (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - October 31, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: END OF LIFE MANAGEMENT: Edited by Gustavo de Simone Source Type: research

Evaluation tools for spiritual support in end of life care: increasing evidence for their clinical application
Purpose of review: To summarize current evidence on evaluation tools for spiritual care, paying special attention to recent validations and new instruments, systematic reviews, recent consensus on spiritual care and its measurement, plus other emergent topics. Recent findings: The systematic review resulted in 45 identified studies, 14 of which were considered: five works addressed the need for development and validation of spiritual tools; three studies reviewed tools for spirituality assessment, interventions, or related concepts; three more covered the efforts to define guidelines and priorities for spiritual care and i...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - October 31, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: END OF LIFE MANAGEMENT: Edited by Gustavo de Simone Source Type: research

If you want to understand the invisible, look carefully at the visible
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - October 31, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: END OF LIFE MANAGEMENT: Edited by Gustavo de Simone Source Type: research

The last days of life: symptom burden and impact on nutrition and hydration in cancer patients
Purpose of review: To examine the symptom burden in cancer patients during the last days of life, its impact on nutrition and hydration, and the role of artificial nutrition and hydration in the final days. Recent findings: During the last days of life, cancer patients often experience progressive functional decline and worsening symptom burden. Many symptoms such as anorexia-cachexia, dysphagia, and delirium could impair oral intake. These, coupled with refractory cachexia, contribute to persistent weight loss and decreased quality of life. Furthermore, the inability to eat/drink and body image changes can result in emoti...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - October 31, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: CACHEXIA, NUTRITION AND HYDRATION: Edited by Aminah Jatoi and Florian Strasser Source Type: research

Multimodal management as requirement for the clinical use of anticachexia drugs - a regulatory and a clinical perspective
This article attempts to reflect on clinical and regulatory considerations of multimodal management treatment as a regulatory requirement in anticachexia drug therapy. To date, no European Union (EU) regulatory guidelines have been published and therefore this review could attempt to present and discuss some central issues to consider when developing an anticachexia drug. Recent findings: The following themes are considered: EU regulatory pathways for drug approval (conditional and exceptional circumstances as well as adaptive licensing); selection criteria for randomized clinical trials allowing the identification and cha...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - October 31, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: CACHEXIA, NUTRITION AND HYDRATION: Edited by Aminah Jatoi and Florian Strasser Source Type: research

Patient-reported outcomes in cancer cachexia clinical trials
Purpose of review: Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures should be used when measuring concepts best known to the patient. To maximize the translation of findings into clinical practice, PRO measures that are most relevant for the patient group, should be used and careful reporting of the PRO results is required. The study reviews the use of PRO assessments in cancer cachexia randomized controlled trials. Recent findings: Most, but not all, recent cancer cachexia randomized controlled trials include PRO measures, and significant informative results have been found. PRO measures are rarely the primary endpoint. Most frequ...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - October 31, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: CACHEXIA, NUTRITION AND HYDRATION: Edited by Aminah Jatoi and Florian Strasser Source Type: research

The therapeutic potential of exercise to treat cachexia
Purpose of review: To discuss the role of physical exercise in the attenuation of cancer cachexia-associated symptoms, and upon the outcome of chemotherapy, with special focus on the anti-inflammatory role of chronic exercise. Recent findings: The review addresses the recent findings regarding the positive effects of endurance and strength exercise training upon metabolic dysfunction, systemic inflammation and body composition alterations in the syndrome of cachexia. The employment of different exercise protocol strategies, in respect to intensity, duration, work load and in concomitance with pharmacological treatment is c...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - October 31, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: CACHEXIA, NUTRITION AND HYDRATION: Edited by Aminah Jatoi and Florian Strasser Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - October 31, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Specialized programs to support young women with breast cancer
Purpose of review: Because of the recognized impact of breast cancer and its treatment on a young woman's life, initiatives are being established worldwide. The main aim of this review was to describe existing specialized programs that support young women with breast cancer (YWBC), advances to date, current challenges and future actions. Recent findings: Current programs for YWBC are now educating professionals, patients, and communities on their specific needs. Also, support groups have helped break isolation and connect YWBC together. Research on biology, treatment, adverse effects, risk factors, genetics, and social asp...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: BREAST CANCER IN YOUNG WOMEN: CHALLENGES, PROGRESS, AND BARRIERS Edited by Ellen Warner and Shani Paluch-Shimon Source Type: research

Palliative systemic therapy for young women with metastatic breast cancer
Purpose of review: Breast cancer in young women age less than 40 years remains a relatively rare disease. Emerging data suggest that the biology of breast cancer in younger women may differ from that of older women. Although metastatic breast cancer remains incurable, it is definitely treatable; especially in this era of emerging novel therapeutics. Recent findings: Most women have hormone receptor-positive disease and strategies that interfere with proliferation and the PI3 kinase pathway are reporting exciting results. The prognosis of the metastatic HER2+ subtype has been extended to a median survival of 56 months with ...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: BREAST CANCER IN YOUNG WOMEN: CHALLENGES, PROGRESS, AND BARRIERS Edited by Ellen Warner and Shani Paluch-Shimon Source Type: research

Managing premature menopause and sexual dysfunction
Purpose of review: Young women ( (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: BREAST CANCER IN YOUNG WOMEN: CHALLENGES, PROGRESS, AND BARRIERS Edited by Ellen Warner and Shani Paluch-Shimon Source Type: research

Breast cancer and fertility: an update
Purpose of review: This review will summarize key fertility issues in young women with breast cancer. The detrimental effects of treatment modalities on ovarian and hormonal function will be reviewed. Options for fertility protection and preservation will also be outlined, as well as the unique issues facing women in pregnancy with a previous breast cancer diagnosis. Recent findings: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues continue to be in debate for their protective impact on the ovaries during the time of gonadotoxic treatment. Success rates in the cryopreservation of embryos, oocytes and gonadal tissue continue to imp...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: Review Source Type: research

Managing psychosocial issues faced by young women with breast cancer at the time of diagnosis and during active treatment
Purpose of review: This review examines recent literature on the psychosocial needs of and interventions for young women. We focus on the active treatment period given the toxicity of treatment, the incidence of anxiety, and depressive symptoms in these women during treatment. This review summarizes research relevant to addressing their social and emotional concerns. Recent findings: Young women undergoing treatment for breast cancer remain understudied despite unique needs. Psychoeducational interventions help to relieve symptoms and emotional distress during treatment, but effects do not appear to persist over the longer...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: BREAST CANCER IN YOUNG WOMEN: CHALLENGES, PROGRESS, AND BARRIERS Edited by Ellen Warner and Shani Paluch-Shimon Source Type: research

Psychosocial issues experienced by young women with breast cancer: the minority group with the majority of need
Purpose of review: The ways in which biological, social, and psychological factors characteristically unfold and interact for young women with breast cancer yields complex and acute challenges that are not clearly understood by all healthcare professionals. Better knowledge of the unique needs of young women with breast cancer would assist in matching younger women with the right services at the right time. Recent findings: Younger women ( (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: BREAST CANCER IN YOUNG WOMEN: CHALLENGES, PROGRESS, AND BARRIERS Edited by Ellen Warner and Shani Paluch-Shimon Source Type: research

Breast cancer in young women: challenges, progress, and barriers
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: BREAST CANCER IN YOUNG WOMEN: CHALLENGES, PROGRESS, AND BARRIERS Edited by Ellen Warner and Shani Paluch-Shimon Source Type: research

Management of bone metastases in prostate cancer: a review
Purpose of review: Bone metastases in the advanced stages of prostate cancer have a detrimental effect on the quality of life, resulting in skeletal-related events and pain and place a significant burden on healthcare resources. Improvements in prostate cancer treatment have led to a longer survival of patients. Therefore, quality of life is of growing interest and importance. Successful management and prevention of the complications of bone metastasis in those patients remains, however, clinically challenging. Recent findings: Recently, radium-223 was approved as a treatment for bone metastasis in patients with prostate c...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

Options in metastatic urothelial cancer after first-line therapy
Purpose of review: The treatment of patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma is evolving with recent advances holding promise for improved outcomes. Historically, patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma had a poor prognosis with no standard treatment options in the second-line setting. Currently, with an increased understanding of the heterogeneity of clinical bladder cancer subtypes and molecular diversity of the disease, there is optimism that outcomes will start to improve. The present review will evaluate historical second-line treatment options and focus on emerging therapies in this setting. Recent finding...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

Perioperative chemotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer
Purpose of review: Radical cystectomy with or without systemic chemotherapy is considered a standard of care for patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The purpose of this review is to provide an update on current and recent literature published within the last 12 months reviewing the evidence for use of perioperative chemotherapy for patients with MIBC. Recent findings: In the neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) setting, the evidence demonstrates clinical efficacy and lower rate of toxicity with the use of high-dose methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (MVAC) compared with standard MVAC. H...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

A review of the 2014 English Language publications pertinent to the treatment of invasive bladder cancer by radiotherapy
Purpose of review: This is a review of select 2014 English language publications in the domain of bladder conserving treatment for patients with localized invasive urothelial vesical cancer. Recent findings: The intention is to summarize the avenues of research being pursued to improve the success of this management strategy. Summary: Directions being investigated are enhancement to bladder tumor control, amelioration of treatment toxicity, and individualization of treatment. Although the results reported are clearly beneficial, what is of more value is the appreciation of the multipronged direction of the research being u...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

Progress in bladder cancer: is there light at the end of the tunnel?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

Outcome measurement of refractory breathlessness: endpoints and important differences
Purpose of review: Standardized measurement of self-rated breathlessness using appropriate tools is essential for research and clinical care. The purpose was to review recent advances in the measurement of breathlessness and the minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) in intensity of chronic breathlessness. Recent findings: Two tools have been validated in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to measure daily symptoms and breathlessness related to daily activities. Two multidimensional tools have been developed for different settings and aetiologies, which measure both the perceived intensity, ...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Miriam J. Johnson Source Type: research

Psychosocial consequences of living with breathlessness due to advanced disease
Purpose of review: Breathlessness is one of the most important symptoms of patients with advanced life-limiting disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, or pulmonary fibrosis. Breathlessness has major implications for patients as well as their family caregivers. The present review provides an overview of recent knowledge concerning the psychological and social consequences of breathlessness, including behavioural responses to breathlessness, and the impact of breathlessness on the family caregiver. Recent findings: Breathlessness results in avoidance of exertion and deteriorati...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Miriam J. Johnson Source Type: research

Nonopioid medication for the relief of refractory breathlessness
Purpose of review: To provide an overview of recent evidence relating to nonopioid medication for the treatment of refractory breathlessness. Recent findings: A search of publications since 2013 found systematic reviews on phenothiazines and nebulized medications, together with one study examining the use of benzodiazepines and another nebulized furosemide. However, all provided limited data and concluded that further clinical trials are required. Summary: Based on this review, there is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of nonopioid medication in the treatment of refractory breathlessness. (Source: Current O...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Miriam J. Johnson Source Type: research

Management of respiratory symptoms in paediatric palliative care
This article makes a series of recommendations for the management of the most frequent and distressing respiratory symptoms encountered in paediatrics (dyspnoea, cough, haemoptysis and retained secretions) with attention to the evidence from research. Recent findings: There are very few paediatric studies exploring any aspect of respiratory symptoms in paediatric palliative care, so much of the evidence base has been drawn from adult studies, few of which have been published in the past 12–18 months. Summary: In the absence of well designed paediatric studies we need to judiciously apply what we can extrapolate from ...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Miriam J. Johnson Source Type: research

Management of acute breathlessness in the person with chronic refractory breathlessness
Purpose of review: The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current literature on classification and management of acute breathlessness that occurs in patients who are living with chronic refractory breathlessness related to cancer, cardiopulmonary, or neuromuscular disease. Recent findings: In the context of chronic refractory breathlessness, acute breathlessness can be classified as either episodic breathlessness or breathlessness crisis. Episodic breathlessness is characterized by the severity, duration, and predictability of the symptom, and by the presence or absence of a trigger such as exertion, emotion, or a...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Miriam J. Johnson Source Type: research

The role of airflow for the relief of chronic refractory breathlessness
Purpose of review: Chronic refractory breathlessness is a major cause of suffering to people with advanced stage cardiorespiratory and some neurodegenerative diseases. It is a frightening, distressing and disabling symptom that imposes significant burdens on family members. Evidence is mounting for the role of facial or nasal airflow for the relief of chronic refractory breathlessness in those patients with mild hypoxaemia or normoxaemia. Airflow can be delivered from a cylinder of compressed medical air via face mask or nasal cannulae or a hand-held fan. The hand-held fan offers patients a simple, low-cost, self-managemen...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Miriam J. Johnson Source Type: research

Chronic refractory breathlessness is a distinct clinical syndrome
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Miriam J. Johnson Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 11, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2: intestinal hormones implicated in the pathophysiology of mucositis
Purpose of review: Chemotherapy often causes adverse effects, including pain, bloating, diarrhea, and inflammation and ulceration of the mucous membranes lining the digestive tract, which are collectively referred to as mucositis. Unfortunately, no remedy has been found yet to manage these side-effects. Recent findings: The intestinal glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is secreted from the intestinal endocrine L cells after nutrient intake, but recent findings show that the peptide concentration in the plasma also rises after intestinal injury and that GLP-2 receptor activation is crucial for intestinal healing. The antidiabe...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 1, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Rachel J. Gibson and Matthew Ciorba Source Type: research

Is ginger beneficial for nausea and vomiting? An update of the literature
This article discusses recent clinical trials that have investigated ginger as a treatment for multiple types of nausea and vomiting. In addition, the potential mechanisms of action of ginger will be discussed. Recent findings: This article identified nine studies and seven reviews that investigated ginger for morning sickness, postoperative nausea and vomiting, chemotherapy-induced, and antiretroviral-induced nausea and vomiting. All studies reported that ginger provided a significant reduction in nausea and vomiting; however, the clinical relevance of some studies is less certain. Common limitations within the literature...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 1, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Rachel J. Gibson and Matthew Ciorba Source Type: research

Nausea and vomiting induced by gastrointestinal radiation therapy: current status and future directions
Purpose of review: Radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) are common and troublesome symptoms among patients receiving radiation therapy for gastrointestinal cancers. Their impact on function, quality of life and, ultimately, cancer control warrant a review of their incidence, underlying mechanisms, treatments and research themes. Recent findings: Research in RINV is underrepresented relative to that in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The incidence of RINV among patients receiving modern day radiation therapy is questioned and supportive care practice patterns vary among radiation oncologists. Antie...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 1, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Rachel J. Gibson and Matthew Ciorba Source Type: research

Host–microbe cross talk in cancer therapy
Purpose of review: Microbiota secrete a multitude of factors that either confer virulence or promote colonization because they are continuously challenged by host immune responses. The dynamic interplay between the host's immune response and microbiota eventually determines the outcome for the host: health or disease. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in this interplay as they can recognize both microbial and host-derived ligands on the basis of the context in which recognition occurs. Recent findings: Evidence is accumulating that conventional cancer therapies alter interactions and cross talks between the host a...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 1, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Rachel J. Gibson and Matthew Ciorba Source Type: research

Procalcitonin as a biomarker for infection-related mortality in cancer patients
Purpose of review: Infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death following direct cancer-related complications in the field of oncology. Clinical studies using the classic inflammatory biomarkers, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukocytosis, and thrombocytosis fail to show a significant correlation between these biomarkers and infection-related mortality. It is therefore crucial to define new biomarkers that are not affected by the primary cancer and precisely show the severity of the infection to help in the decision-making process. Recent findings: A significant increase in the number of ...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 1, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Rachel J. Gibson and Matthew Ciorba Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal toxicities from targeted therapies: measurement, duration and impact
Purpose of review: Gastrointestinal toxicities deriving from targeted therapies are main issues in the oncologic setting, as they can negatively impair quality of life, reducing patient's adherence to treatment and dose intensity, so ultimately possibly affecting outcome. We reviewed some methodological questions linked to the assessment of this kind of toxicity, in terms of way of measurement, duration of the assessed toxicity and impact on the global treatment program. Recent findings: The scale of toxicity assessment may influence the evaluation itself; reporting the adverse events by the physician is generally less acc...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 1, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Rachel J. Gibson and Matthew Ciorba Source Type: research

Probiotics to prevent gastrointestinal toxicity from cancer therapy: an interpretive review and call to action
Purpose of review: There is currently an unmet need for agents that can prevent the gastrointestinal toxicity (mucositis and enteritis) associated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy of abdominal and pelvic cancers. Herein we provide an overview of how manipulation of the gut microbiota by probiotic administration affects these gastrointestinal symptoms. We focus this review on published human trials and also provide suggestions on how the field can move forward. Recent findings: Several clinical trials of varying design, patient populations and probiotic products have been reported. Lactobacillus probiotics of adequat...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 1, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Rachel J. Gibson and Matthew Ciorba Source Type: research

Editorial Comment: Does gut-derived inflammation enhance pain signaling following chemotherapy in a Toll-like receptor 4-dependent manner?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 1, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Rachel J. Gibson and Matthew Ciorba Source Type: research

Emerging potassium channel targets for the treatment of pain
Purpose of review: Poor management of chronic pain remains a significant cause of misery with huge socioeconomic costs. Accumulating research in potassium (K+) channel physiology has uncovered several promising leads for the development of novel analgesics. Recent findings: We now recognize that certain K+ channel subunits are directly gated to pain-relevant stimuli (Kv1.1, K2P) whereas others are specifically modulated by inflammatory processes (Kv7, BKCA, K2P). Genetic analyses illustrate that K+ channel gene variation can predict pain sensitivity (KCNS1, GIRKs), risk for persistent pain (KCNS1, GIRKs, TRESK) and analges...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 1, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: NON-MALIGNANT DISEASE: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Wahida Rahman Source Type: research

Could targeting epigenetic processes relieve chronic pain states?
This article will review the evidence obtained from animal studies indicating that epigenetic processes might regulate long-term pain states and then discuss the possibility that targeting epigenetic mechanisms might be useful for the management of chronic pain. Recent findings: Recent animal studies have reported injury-induced changes in epigenetic processes in the central nervous system. The picture that has emerged is that of very complex epigenetic programs that depend on the injury. However, some studies have reported the successful use of nonspecific epigenetic tools to improve the hypersensitivity that develops in ...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 1, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: NON-MALIGNANT DISEASE: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Wahida Rahman Source Type: research

Conditioned pain modulation
Purpose of review: Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigms have been increasingly used over the past few years to assess endogenous analgesia capacity in healthy individuals and pain patients. The current review concentrates on selected recent literature advancing our understanding and practice of CPM. Recent findings: The main themes covered by the present CPM review include underlying mechanisms, approaches to experimental investigation, practicality in clinical practice, neurophysiological and psychophysiological correlates, and pharmacological solutions to pain modulation dysfunction. Summary: The reviewed literatu...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 1, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: NON-MALIGNANT DISEASE: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Wahida Rahman Source Type: research

Emerging targets and therapeutic approaches for the treatment of osteoarthritis pain
Purpose of review: Osteoarthritis is a complex and often painful disease that is inadequately controlled with current analgesics. This review discusses emerging targets and therapeutic approaches that may lead to the development of better analgesics. Recent findings: Aberrant excitability in peripheral and central pain pathways drives osteoarthritis pain, reversing this via modulation of nerve growth factor, voltage-gated sodium channel, voltage-gated calcium channel and transient receptor potential vanilloid one activity, and increasing inhibitory mechanisms through modulation of cannabinoid and descending modulatory syst...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 1, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: NON-MALIGNANT DISEASE: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Wahida Rahman Source Type: research

Pain: nonmalignant disease
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 1, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: NON-MALIGNANT DISEASE: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Wahida Rahman Source Type: research

Opioid-induced hyperalgesia: where are we now?
Purpose of review: Patients receiving chronic opioid treatment who develop paradoxical pain sensations, as well as worsening existing pain, can be diagnosed as suffering from opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). As the worldwide population expands so too does the proportion of patients who experience pain that requires a strong opioid. Recognizing the symptoms of OIH and optimizing the use of morphine in the hospital setting is imperative. This review focuses on clinical data relating to evidence of OIH at the bedside and the novel techniques employed by healthcare providers in order to improve the heightened pain sensations...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 1, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: CANCER: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Paul W. Farquhar-Smith Source Type: research

Classification of neuropathic pain in cancer patients
Purpose of review: Neuropathic pain can affect up to 40% in patients with cancer, which could be related to the tumour, treatment or comorbid diseases. Effective assessment to diagnose neuropathic pain is crucial in order to choose the right treatment. Recent findings: There is to date no systematic classification system; the Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group of the International Association for the Study of Pain developed a neuropathic pain grading system intended to be used for both clinical and research purposes, and a recent review describes a step-by-step process for applying the grading system in a clinical set...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 1, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: CANCER: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Paul W. Farquhar-Smith Source Type: research

Neuroimmune mechanisms in cancer pain
Purpose of review: The current review provides a summary of recent advances in our understanding of the neuroimmune interactions which influence the development of pain associated with cancer. Recent findings: Common signalling pathways, mediators and immune cell types are involved in the generation of pain as a result of both cancer and its treatment. Distinct alterations in central and peripheral neuronal function occur in multiple forms of cancer pain. Other more unusual neuroimmune processes such as graft-versus-host disease may cause cancer pain. Summary: Identification of the cellular processes which underlie the gen...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 1, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: CANCER: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Paul W. Farquhar-Smith Source Type: research

Simultaneous targeting of multiple opioid receptor types
This article aims to discuss the multitarget concept for opioid receptor ligands framed on early observations that activating MOP (mu:μ) receptor whilst simultaneously blocking DOP (delta:δ) receptors reduces the onset of morphine tolerance. The review period is ostensibly calendar year 2014 but the new work in 2013 is also covered. Recent findings: Two molecules of interest with MOP agonist/DOP agonist and MOP agonist/DOP antagonist profiles were described: Rv-Jim-C3 and 3-[(2R,6R,11R)-8-hydroxy-6,11-dimethyl-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2,6-methano-3-benzazocin-3(2H)-yl]-N-phenylpropanamide (LP1), respectively. Both were ...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 1, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: CANCER: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Paul W. Farquhar-Smith Source Type: research

Pain: cancer
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 1, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: CANCER: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Paul W. Farquhar-Smith Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 1, 2015 Category: Palliative Care Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research