Muscle pain syndromes and fibromyalgia: the role of muscle biopsy
Purpose of review Muscle pain syndromes are extremely frequent cause of chronic disability, and a muscle biopsy is often performed to achieve a diagnosis when myalgia has a myopatic origin. Instead, the role of muscle biopsy in fibromyalgia is controversial. This review examines the reported studies with the objective to evaluate if some changes exist in the muscle, if these changes produce pain and if muscle biopsy is helpful in diagnostic flowchart of fibromyalgia. Recent findings Recent studies focused on functional side (muscle metabolism and the altered expression of proteins) hypothesize the role of peripheral f...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: MUSCULOSKELETAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Roberto Casale Source Type: research

Ultrasound imaging for sarcopenia, spasticity and painful muscle syndromes
Purpose of review On the basis of its various advantages and the relevant awareness of physicians, ultrasound imaging has overwhelmingly taken its place in the scientific arena. This is true both from the side of daily clinical applications and also from the side of research. Yet, ultrasound provides real-time (diagnostic) imaging and (interventional) guidance for a wide spectrum of muscle disorders. In this regard, this review aims to discuss the potential/actual utility of ultrasound imaging in particular muscle disorders, that is, sarcopenia, spasticity and fibromyalgia/myofascial pain syndrome. Recent findings Due...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: MUSCULOSKELETAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Roberto Casale Source Type: research

Myofascial pain: so common, and yet not understood
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: MUSCULOSKELETAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Roberto Casale Source Type: research

Management of nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer
Purpose of review The widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) resulted in stage migration of prostate cancer where androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is administered for biochemical recurrence in patients following primary treatment. A proportion of these patients progress to a disease state termed nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC), with a rising PSA despite ADT and without evidence of metastases on conventional imaging. We will review the treatment options in nmCRPC, especially in light of recent trials showing significant improvement in metastasis-free survival with newer agents. Re...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

Prostate-specific membrane antigen for prostate cancer theranostics: from imaging to targeted therapy
Purpose of review In recent years, major advances in molecular imaging of prostate cancers (PCa) were made with the development and clinical validation of highly accurate PET tracers to stage and restage the disease. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane protein highly expressed in PCa, and its expression has led to the development of PSMA-binding radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging or radioligand therapy (RLT). We herein review the recent literature published on diagnostic and therapeutic (i.e. theranostic) PSMA tracers. Recent findings Development in small PSMA-targeted molecules labele...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

Local ablative stereotactic body radiotherapy for oligometastatic prostate cancer
Purpose of review The oligometastases is considered an intermediate state of the disease between localized and wide spread metastases. Local ablative therapy to oligometastatic prostate cancer is gaining significant traction and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an emerging treatment modality for this patient population. In this review, we report our literature review of SBRT to prostate oligometastases. Current evidence on the role of SBRT in oligometastatic prostate cancer reported in the last 10 years was summarized. Criteria for inclusion included studies with prostate cancer only as the primary site. Recent ...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

A contemporary review about the management of radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis
Purpose of review There are various specific therapeutic intervention available to treat hemorrhagic cystitis, once emergency treatment has been carried out. The lack of prospective studies, because of the relative rarity of this condition, makes it difficult to hierarchize the therapeutic sequence. The present review presents and summarizes the literature published on radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis from April 2015, date of a precedent exhaustive review, to March 2018. Recent findings During our period of interest, 13 clinical studies and two new clinical trials protocols were published. Most of the clinical s...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

Relevance of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors in prostate cancer
Purpose of review Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) are approved drugs for the treatment of ovarian and breast cancer and currently under investigation for the treatment of prostate cancer and other malignancies with aberrations in homologous recombination DNA repair. This review summarizes literature published during 2017 concerning the relevance of PARPi in prostate cancer and presents new evidence on mechanisms of resistance and biomarkers of response. Recent findings The approval of several PARPi (olaparib, rucaparib, and niraparib) has driven the focus of anticancer treatment on synthetic lethality...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

Treatment of hormone-naïve metastatic prostate cancer
Purpose of review Until 2015, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone was the standard-of-care for metastatic hormone-naïve prostate cancer (mHNPC). In the last decade, important landmark therapeutic advances occurred in the management of these patients permitting improvement of their survival. Recent findings At least two prospective randomized trials proved upfront docetaxel (DOC) + ADT benefit consequently providing strong evidence for guidelines modifications. Second, similar benefit results were demonstrated when using upfront abiraterone acetate + ADT in mHNPC. Summary Both DOC-based chemotherap...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

Role of immunotherapy in kidney cancer
Purpose of review To summarize current knowledge on promising immunotherapeutic agents and to provide a brief outline of current use of immunotherapeutic agents in patients with locally advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Recent findings Immunotherapy with mAbs directed against programed death cell protein 1, programed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 has become new first-line standard of care for moderate and poor-risk metastatic RCC patients. Similarly, the combination immune-oncology treatment and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mAbs also showed promising results ...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

Improving outcome in patients with prostate and kidney cancer: heading in the right direction?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RENAL AND UROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Edited by Fred Saad Source Type: research

Peer support for people with advanced cancer: a systematically constructed scoping review of quantitative and qualitative evidence
Purpose of review The number of people living with advanced cancer is increasing, and appropriate support to this population is essential. Peer support is increasingly advocated as a component of care, but little is known about how to provide this in the context of advanced cancer. This review describes the experience and impact of different forms of peer support for people with advanced cancer. Recent findings Data from 22 articles were reviewed, primarily descriptive studies. They describe three forms of peer support (one-to-one, group, and online), reaching primarily those who are women, middle-aged, and well educa...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: LIVING WITH CANCER AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF TREATMENT: Edited by Lynn Calman and Natasha Campling Source Type: research

Supporting self-management in palliative care throughout the cancer care trajectory
Purpose of review Despite increased survivorship and the subsequent need for chronic management of cancer, the association of self-management and palliative care is still emerging within cancer care. Routine and timely use of self-management strategies in the palliative setting can help reduce self-management burden and maximize quality of life. In this review, we consider the complementary relationship of self-management and palliative care and how they support living with cancer as a chronic illness. Recent findings Recent studies provide evidence of support among patients, family caregivers and healthcare professio...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: LIVING WITH CANCER AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF TREATMENT: Edited by Lynn Calman and Natasha Campling Source Type: research

Towards a framework for reporting self-guided interventions for people with cancer
This article builds on a previous systematic review on self-guided interventions, finding that the recent literature demonstrates that evidence for these interventions is mixed. The field is limited by descriptions of these interventions, and it is not possible to ascertain what aspects of interventions are more successful. Recent findings Development of a reporting framework whereby self-guided interventions could be clearly presented, would be a substantial contribution to understanding the evidence for these studies. Recent findings also support the need to understand patient adherence and engagement, which could be ...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: LIVING WITH CANCER AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF TREATMENT: Edited by Lynn Calman and Natasha Campling Source Type: research

Psychological support for patients with cancer: evidence review and suggestions for future directions
This article reviews contributions to that literature published since January 2017. Recent findings The majority of new psychological intervention research in cancer has used cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or mindfulness-based interventions. CBT has been considered a gold-standard intervention and recent evidence justifies continuation of this. Recent reviews call into question the validity of evidence for mindfulness-based interventions. A smaller number of trials using acceptance and commitment therapy, meta-cognitive therapy, dignity therapy and coaching have emerged, and whereas findings are promising, addition...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: LIVING WITH CANCER AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF TREATMENT: Edited by Lynn Calman and Natasha Campling Source Type: research

The emerging role of digital health in monitoring and supporting people living with cancer and the consequences of its treatments
This article reviews current evidence, practice and developments, and identifies emerging issues and opportunities. Recent findings Digital health innovations, primarily using internet or smartphone-enabled applications, have been successfully developed, particularly in the areas of symptom management, decision-making, survivorship and follow-up care and palliative care. The research is characterized by much developmental activity, and evidence is accruing for efficacy and effectiveness. Opportunities afforded by digital health include timelier and patient-centred evidence-based care, offering improved clinical outcomes...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: LIVING WITH CANCER AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF TREATMENT: Edited by Lynn Calman and Natasha Campling Source Type: research

The role of primary care in supporting patients living with and beyond cancer
Purpose of review The prevalence of cancer survivors is increasing. Those living with and beyond a cancer diagnosis have a range of physical, psychosocial and practical needs. This review aims to discuss the role of primary care in meeting these needs. Recent findings Patients have increased contact with primary care after a cancer diagnosis but the role of the primary care team in the formal delivery of cancer aftercare is not clearly defined and varies depending on setting and context. Research suggests that both patients and health professionals are receptive to greater involvement of primary care, with information...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: LIVING WITH CANCER AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF TREATMENT: Edited by Lynn Calman and Natasha Campling Source Type: research

Understanding survivors’ needs and outcomes: the role of routinely collected data
Purpose of review The number of cancer survivors is growing due to population ageing, earlier detection and more effective therapies. Routinely collected data (RCD), generally cancer registry data, has been used to investigate survivors’ needs and outcomes. We reviewed uses of RCD since 2017, identifying novel findings and research directions. Recent findings Survival is improving internationally but continues to vary between subgroups. Longitudinal survivor surveys suggest malignancy-specific temporal patterns in unmet needs and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL). Unmet needs are a risk factor for future de...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: LIVING WITH CANCER AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF TREATMENT: Edited by Lynn Calman and Natasha Campling Source Type: research

Supporting self-management in cancer care
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: LIVING WITH CANCER AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF TREATMENT: Edited by Lynn Calman and Natasha Campling Source Type: research

Positive airway pressure devices for the management of breathlessness
Purpose of review Breathlessness is a common symptom in many chronic diseases and may be refractory to pharmacotherapy. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology of breathlessness and the role of positive airway pressure (PAP) devices to ameliorate it. Recent findings Breathlessness is directly related to neural respiratory drive, which can be modified by addressing the imbalance between respiratory muscle load and capacity. Noninvasive PAP devices have been applied to patients limited by exertional breathless and, as the disease progresses, breathlessness at rest. The application of PAP is focussed on addressing...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Miriam J. Johnson Source Type: research

Pathophysiological mechanisms of exertional breathlessness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease
Purpose of review Breathlessness is a common and distressing symptom in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD), particularly during exercise. Effective medical management of exertional breathlessness in people living with COPD and fibrotic ILD is challenging for healthcare providers and requires an understanding of its mechanisms. Thus, in this brief review we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of exertional breathlessness in COPD and fibrotic ILD. Recent findings The collective results of recent physiolog...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Miriam J. Johnson Source Type: research

Breathlessness in the emergency care setting
Purpose of review Breathlessness is one of the most common reasons for presentation at the emergency department (ED). The present review summarizes work published from 2017, which focuses on the symptom of breathlessness in its own right rather than as a signpost to diagnosis in relation to presentation to the ED. Recent findings Seven relevant papers are included in the present review. Five describe the epidemiology of breathlessness presentation showing: a prevalence of approximately 5% all ED presentations, a high likelihood of hospital admission especially for those with heart failure, breathlessness as a predicto...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Miriam J. Johnson Source Type: research

Integrated breathlessness services for people with chronic conditions
Purpose of review Optimal management of breathlessness requires generally more than one component. Breathlessness services aim to provide specific interventions and support for patients suffering from breathlessness due to any advanced disease and their carers. This review aims to describe recent studies evaluating the effects of breathlessness services for patients with advanced chronic conditions. Recent findings Various breathlessness services have been tested and vary regarding structure, duration, frequency and professionals involved. Four randomized controlled trials demonstrated a positive and significant effec...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Miriam J. Johnson Source Type: research

Measurement of physical activity in clinical practice and research: advances in cancer and chronic respiratory disease
Purpose of review Physical activity has emerged as an important health outcome and its assessment, in particular with objective monitors, has proliferated in recent years. This review considers recent advances in physical activity measurement and clinical trials in cancer and chronic respiratory diseases where physical activity was a primary or key secondary outcome focusing on methodological learning points. Recent findings There is growing data on (i) the validity of commercial ‘consumer’ physical activity monitors, e.g. FitBit, and (ii) the role of hybrid physical activity assessments; combining objecti...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Miriam J. Johnson Source Type: research

The burden of chronic breathlessness across the population
Purpose of review Chronic breathlessness is a common and distressing symptom globally. It is associated with major adverse health outcomes. This review provides an overview of new evidence about the prevalence of chronic breathlessness in the population. Recent findings A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE database including studies on prevalence of chronic breathlessness and its impact on the community published between 2016 and 2018. Identified studies were divided into four themes: breathlessness in relation to sex, BMI, quality of life and age (the elderly). In the general population, breathlessness was...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Miriam J. Johnson Source Type: research

Learning 30 years behind…
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS: Edited by David C. Currow and Miriam J. Johnson Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - August 3, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Predicting mucositis risk associated with cytotoxic cancer treatment regimens: rationale, complexity, and challenges
Purpose of review The goals of this review are to describe the complexity of factors influencing the risk of cancer regimen-related mucosal injury (CRRMI), to evaluate the contribution of the innate immune response to CRRMI risk, to compare the concordance of genome analytics in describing mechanism and risk, and to determine if common biological pathways are noted when CRRMI is compared to a disease with a similar phenotype. Recent findings The pathogenesis of and risk for CRRMI are complex and influenced by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors. It is incumbent on analyses to recognize the likelihood that the int...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Joanne M. Bowen and Nicole Blijlevens Source Type: research

Prophylactic probiotics for cancer therapy-induced diarrhoea: a meta-analysis
Purpose of review Strong preclinical data support prophylactic probiotics as an effective preventive strategy for diarrhoea secondary to anticancer therapies. To determine the composite evidence that this approach translates to the clinic, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of prophylactic probiotics for the prevention of cancer therapy-induced diarrhoea. Recent findings A three-step search strategy was used to identify relevant studies (1 June 2000–1 June 2017) investigating probiotic intervention for diarrhoea secondary to any cancer therapy (cytotoxic, targeted and immunothera...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Joanne M. Bowen and Nicole Blijlevens Source Type: research

Trophic factors in the treatment and prevention of alimentary tract mucositis
Purpose of review Mucositis is a common adverse effect of cytotoxic anticancer treatment with serious implications for the quality of life, morbidity and mortality of cancers patients. Although, evidence supporting the use of certain treatments exists there is no gold standard for preventing or treating mucositis. Current management strategies are scarce with recommendations referring primarily to specific cytotoxic treatment regimens in certain clinical scenarios. Recent findings Trophic factors may contribute to preserve epithelial integrity, function, and accelerate regeneration after chemotherapeutic treatment. Ac...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Joanne M. Bowen and Nicole Blijlevens Source Type: research

Chinese herbal medicines in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
Purpose of review Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) critically impact on cancer patients’ quality of life, causing various complications, and increasing the risk of chemotherapeutic failure. Current treatments addressing CINV are reasonably costly and have many side effects. Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) have been widely used in treating CINV in China. Clinical trials and modern experimental studies on CINV using CHMs are reviewed for clues that may help us to better prevent and treat CINV with CHMs, and develop safe and effective treatments. Recent findings Since 1985, 92 clinical trials on CINV...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Joanne M. Bowen and Nicole Blijlevens Source Type: research

How to feed patients with gastrointestinal mucositis
Purpose of review Gastrointestinal mucositis is a frequent side effect of systemic anticancer treatment and radiotherapy. The occurrence endangers body resources by decreasing food intake and absorption. This review highlights new developments in treatment and prevention. Recent findings Recent clinical practice guidelines recommend supplying adequate amounts of energy and nutrients to cancer patients undergoing anticancer treatments. This requires repeated screening for risk of malnutrition and in at-risk patients, assessment of food intake and nutritional status, followed by nutritional interventions targeted at ind...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Joanne M. Bowen and Nicole Blijlevens Source Type: research

Taste alterations and cancer treatment
Purpose of review In this review, we explore issues on the physiology of taste and smell and we critically review recent literature of taste and smell changes and the impact on food preferences throughout the cancer treatment trajectory. Recent findings Subjective measurements such as validated questionnaires can be valuable for the clinical setting and many studies describe taste and smell changes by self-report. Because both smell and taste are interrelated, these subjective results are difficult to interpret. Recent studies have looked more specifically at one type of malignancy with a consistent and homogeneous tr...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Joanne M. Bowen and Nicole Blijlevens Source Type: research

A role for pericytes in chronic pain?
Purpose of review The importance of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative conditions is becoming increasingly apparent, yet very little is known about these neurovascular functions in nonmalignant disease chronic pain. Neural tissue pericytes play critical roles in the formation and maintenance of the BBB. Herein, we review the important roles of neural pericytes and address their potential role in chronic pain. Recent findings Pericytes are implicated in the function of neural microvasculature, including BBB permeability, neuroimmune factor secretion and leukocyte transmigrati...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: NON-MALIGNANT DISEASES: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Kirsty Bannister Source Type: research

Osteoarthritis pain. Recent advances and controversies
Purpose of review Osteoarthritis is one of the most frequent causes of chronic pain. Because there is no causal treatment of osteoarthritis, sufficient pain control is of uppermost importance but often not met. The review reports recent advances and controversies in our understanding of osteoarthritis pain and its treatment. Recent findings Osteoarthritis pain is determined by processes at different levels. An important local factor of pain generation in the joint is inflammation such as synovitis, and neuropathic components of osteoarthritis pain are being discussed. Neuroplastic changes in the nociceptive system suc...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: NON-MALIGNANT DISEASES: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Kirsty Bannister Source Type: research

Central and peripheral processes in headache
Purpose of review Migraine is an extremely incapacitating collection of neurological symptoms that usually includes a severe, throbbing, recurring pain on one side of the head. The World Health Organization ranks migraine as the third most prevalent disease and the seventh commonest primary pain condition in the world. Trigeminovascular-mediated central sensitization has been implicated in the development of migraine symptoms including pain following light touch. This review explores the activation and sensitization of the brain systems that have emerged from recent studies and that contribute to migraine. Recent findin...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: NON-MALIGNANT DISEASES: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Kirsty Bannister Source Type: research

Toxins in pain
Purpose of review Pain is a distressing protective sensory experience warning of actual or potential tissue damage. Natural toxins have evolved to exploit pain and related neuronal pathways to facilitate prey capture and for defence, often producing either numbness, paralysis or intense pain by selectively modulating ion channels and receptors in pain pathways. Understanding how toxins modulate pain pathways can enhance our understanding of the physiological and pathological basis of pain. Recent findings Toxins continue to provide a rich source of unique pharmacological tools and novel drug leads to treat severe neur...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: NON-MALIGNANT DISEASES: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Kirsty Bannister Source Type: research

Editorial for Pain: Nonmalignant Diseases in 2018
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: NON-MALIGNANT DISEASES: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Kirsty Bannister Source Type: research

Opioid addiction, diversion, and abuse in chronic and cancer pain
Purpose of review The primary cause of overdose death in the United States is related to pharmaceutical opioids. A few particular populations that struggle with adverse outcomes related to opioid abuse are those in palliative care, those with chronic pain, and those receiving pain treatments secondary to cancer or chemotherapy. Recent findings There have been massive efforts to decrease the use of opioid abuse in patient care in a gestalt manner, but palliative care provides unique challenges in applying these reduction tactics used by other specialties. Summary We explore behavioral interventions, provider educati...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: CANCER: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Paul Farquhar-Smith Source Type: research

Chronic postsurgical pain and cancer: the catch of surviving the unsurvivable
Purpose of review Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is an important and well recognized cause of much long-term suffering, which in some cases may be preventable and affects many people living with cancer. Unfortunately, general consensus is lacking as to how best reduce the risk of developing CPSP. Recent findings Cancer is now not always a short-lived, fatal disease and is now moving towards a chronic illness. Poorly managed perioperative pain is the greatest risk factor for CPSP. Recent trials have examined preventive strategies for CPSP associated with breast surgery and thoracotomy, two operations used in cancer t...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: CANCER: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Paul Farquhar-Smith Source Type: research

A critical appraisal of gabapentinoids for pain in cancer patients
Purpose of review Gabapentinoids are frequently used in the management of cancer pain. In recent Cochrane systematic reviews, although there was an abundance of evidence relating to non-cancer pain, only a few studies related to cancer pain. This review summarizes recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the use of gabapentinoids for tumour-related (as monotherapy or part of combination therapy) and treatment-related pain. Recent findings For tumour-related pain, ten out of thirteen studies showed statistically significant benefits in favour of gabapentinoids. When used, as part of monotherapy or combinat...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: CANCER: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Paul Farquhar-Smith Source Type: research

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cancer pain
Purpose of review This review aims to appraise the most recent evidence for the use of NSAIDS in cancer pain. Recent findings The Cochrane review reveals the paucity of high-quality evidence for the use of NSAIDS for cancer pain, highlighting methodological considerations for future research. There is limited evidence for the role of combined NSAIDs (celecoxib and diclofenac) alongside opioids for cancer pain. Recent retrospective data suggests NSAIDS may contribute to better pain control in hospitalized patients. In elderly patients in the last weeks of life, retrospective data shows a reduction in NSAID prescribing,...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: CANCER: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Paul Farquhar-Smith Source Type: research

Editorial for Pain: Cancer in 2018
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: PAIN: CANCER: Edited by Anthony H. Dickenson and Paul Farquhar-Smith Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - May 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Supported self-management for cancer survivors to address long-term biopsychosocial consequences of cancer and treatment to optimize living well
Purpose of review As individuals are living longer with cancer as a chronic disease, they face new health challenges that require the application of self-management behaviors and skills that may not be in their usual repertoire of self-regulatory health behaviors. Increasing attention is focused on supported self-management (SSM) programs to enable survivors in managing the long-term biopsychosocial consequences and health challenges of survivorship. This review explores current directions and evidence for SSM programs that enable survivors to manage these consequences and optimize health. Recent findings Cancer survi...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - February 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: Ongoing Issues in Survivorship Source Type: research

Screening for distress in survivorship
Purpose of review The current review provides an overview of recent research and other initiatives aimed at increasing and/or systematizing screening for distress in cancer survivors. It is timely given an increasing drive internationally to implement distress screening as part of routine cancer care. Recent findings Screening using brief validated tools is recommended and the single-item distress thermometer continues to be the international screening tool of choice. Although debate continues regarding the most appropriate cut-off distress thermometer score to identify clinically distressed patients, review of checke...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - February 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: Ongoing Issues in Survivorship Source Type: research

Management of work through the seasons of cancer survivorship
Purpose of review Survival from cancer has expanded enormously over the past decades. It is estimated that 40–50% of all cancer survivors are of working age at time of diagnosis and thus potentially part of the labor force. The seasons of survivorship can be used as a steppingstone to describe issues regarding employability survivors are dealing with. Recent findings The acute survival stage begins at the point of diagnosis. Disclosure of diagnosis, and flexibility of both employers and (occupational) healthcare professionals are important factors in this stage. Extended survival starts when the survivor has com...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - February 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: Ongoing Issues in Survivorship Source Type: research

Transition to survivorship: can there be improvement?
Purpose of review The transition from primary cancer treatment to posttreatment follow-up care is seen as critical to the long-term health of survivors. However, relatively little attention has been paid to understanding this pivotal period. This review will offer a brief outline of the significant work surrounding this pivotal time published in the past year. Recent findings The growing number of cancer survivors has stimulated an emphasis on finding new models of care, whereby responsibility for survivorship follow-up is transitioned to primary care providers. A variety of models and tools have emerged for follow-up...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - February 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: Ongoing Issues in Survivorship Source Type: research

The experience of head and neck cancer survivorship (including laryngectomy): an integrated biopsychosocial model
Purpose of review The head and neck cancer (HNC) survivorship experience is unique among cancer populations. This review seeks to explore the HNC survivor experience associated with altered upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) function using principles of survivorship. Recent findings HNC survivors experience complex physical, functional, and psychosocial challenges related to UADT dysfunction. Interventions need to address all of these dimensions being mindful of the survivor experience. Studies reveal related unmet needs of both HNC survivors and their family members. An expose of the HNC survivorship experience is time...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - February 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: Exploring the Psychosocial Impact of and Coping With Specific Effects Post Cancer Treatment Source Type: research

Palliative care during and following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to synthesize recent literature regarding the provision of palliative care to patients during and following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), highlighting factors which mediate impairments in health-related quality of life in this patient population, and the intervention approaches and models of care delivery that clinicians can consider to address unmet needs for palliative care and to strengthen patient and family resiliency. Recent findings Provision of palliative care simultaneous with the delivery of treatment directed at the underlying mali...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - February 2, 2018 Category: Palliative Care Tags: Exploring the Psychosocial Impact of and Coping With Specific Effects Post Cancer Treatment Source Type: research