Update on melanoma epigenetics
Purpose of review: Over the last years, our understanding in molecular biology of melanoma has grown significantly and many genetic alterations have been identified affecting melanoma pathogenesis. This growing evidence has led to the development of targeted therapies which are showing promising clinical results. In addition to genetic alterations, an increasing number of studies have recently demonstrated the role of epigenetics in melanoma development and progression. Here, we summarize the current data on epigenetic research in melanoma. Recent findings: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiling studies have identified seve...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Low-grade epithelial ovarian cancer: a number of distinct clinical entities?
Purpose of review: The purpose of this study is to summarize the contemporary understanding of low-grade epithelial ovarian cancers. Recent findings: Low-grade serous ovarian cancer is biologically distinct from high-grade serous ovarian cancer. It is associated with a high incidence of K-RAS and B-RAF mutations. Although described as indolent due to median progression-free and overall survivals of 20 and 99 months, respectively, with a median age of diagnosis of 43 years, it accounts for a significant number of patient-years lost. Retrospective studies suggest response rates of 5% for chemotherapy and 9% for antioestrogen...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GYNECOLOGIC CANCER: Edited by Martin Gore Source Type: research

Management of toxicities following pelvic irradiation for gynaecological cancers
This article discusses recent advances in preventing and managing radiotherapy-related toxicity. Recent findings: Often underreported in clinical studies, radiation toxicity should be assessed with validated assessment tools to assess impact on quality of life. Prevention strategies targeting reactive oxygen species and proinflammatory cytokines show promise. Bowel toxicity is the most common late effect, and algorithm-led investigation and management can significantly improve outcomes. Oral and intravesical therapies are options for bladder toxicity if conservative measures fail. Summary: With better understanding of the ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GYNECOLOGIC CANCER: Edited by Martin Gore Source Type: research

Current status of human papillomavirus vaccination
Purpose of review: In this article, we review the impact of the quadrivalent and bivalent prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines on HPV infection and disease, review alternative vaccine dosing schedules, the vaccination of men and the nine-valent HPV vaccine. Recent findings: HPV vaccines have had dramatic impacts on the prevalence of targeted HPV types (6,11,16 and 18), genital warts and precancerous cervical lesions. Population coverage would be facilitated by adopting two-dose schedules, with recent findings that two-dose schedules in young adolescents are as immunogenic as three doses in young adults. Extensi...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GYNECOLOGIC CANCER: Edited by Martin Gore Source Type: research

Epstein–Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly: a concise review and update
Purpose of review: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly is an EBV-positive monoclonal large B-cell proliferative disease that arises in elderly patients older than 50 years. Updated knowledge on geographical/ethnical variations in the prevalence and prognostic impact of EBV positivity, the genetic mechanisms of lymphomagenesis, and the validity of the disease is available. Recent findings: The poor prognostic impact of EBV positivity is consistent among Asian populations, but not in Western populations. CD30 may be associated with this geographical/ethnical variation....
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Bertrand Coiffier and Anne-Sophie Michallet Source Type: research

Targeting the programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 axis in lymphoma
We present an overview of the clinical trials evaluating pidilizumab, nivolumab, and pembrolizumab in patients with lymphoid malignancies, and highlight some of the more promising agents in this class, currently in development. Finally, we discuss biomarkers that may predict response to therapy in patients with lymphoma across these clinical trials. Summary: A plethora of clinical trials are in progress testing immune checkpoint inhibitors in many subtypes of lymphoma, which will define their role both as a monotherapy and in combination with other biologic agents. (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Bertrand Coiffier and Anne-Sophie Michallet Source Type: research

Primary refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma in the rituximab era
Purpose of review: The aim of this review is to describe the outcome of primary refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma in the rituximab era and the different therapeutic options as well as new biological markers that could allow the pathologist to distinguish these cases at diagnosis. Recent findings: Diffuse large B cell lymphoma outcome has been impressively improved since the introduction of rituximab in association with anthracycline-based chemotherapy; however, primary refractory patients still represent an unmet medical need. Summary: If patients without relapse after 2 years from diagnosis have an outcome comparab...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Bertrand Coiffier and Anne-Sophie Michallet Source Type: research

New insights in the management of patients with hairy cell leukemia
Purpose of review: Although hairy cell leukemia (HCL) was identified in 1958 by Bouroncle and colleagues, HCL remains in 2015 a mysterious disease. Accurate diagnosis of HCL relies on the recognition of hairy cells by morphology and flow cytometry in blood and/or bone marrow. However, there are cases difficult to diagnose, particularly in variants of HCL. Furthermore, some diseases such as splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma are very close to HCL and may be misdiagnosed. Major advances in the management of patients who have HCL have been made following the use of purine nucleoside analogs. However, new treatment...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Bertrand Coiffier and Anne-Sophie Michallet Source Type: research

Management of elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the era of targeted therapies
Purpose of review: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is frequently diagnosed after 71 years, though median age in published clinical trials with standard chemoimmunotherapy regimens in frontline or relapse setting is mostly below 70 years (58–71 years). Development of oral, less toxic and thus more affordable targeted therapies offers new therapeutic options in those patients deemed unfit for chemotherapy. Recent findings: This review will discuss results of these new agents in the therapy of elderly patients. Apart from discussing the impact of chronological age, creatinine clearance and cumulative illness rating s...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Bertrand Coiffier and Anne-Sophie Michallet Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

End-of-life sedation: is there an alternative?
This article presents the state-of-the-art (definitions, indications, and technical aspects) about continuous sedation, followed by an ethical reflection essentially based on the ‘Principle of Double Effect’, the impact on life expectancy, and the concept of ‘natural death’. (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Cancer survivorship: long-term side-effects of anticancer treatments of gastrointestinal cancer
Purpose of review: Surveillance of patients with a history of cancer is a frequent practice in oncology. However, it is often aimed at the early diagnosis of relapse and tends to underestimate the evaluation and care of factors impairing quality of life (QoL). Among these, long-term toxicities of anticancer treatments are one of the major threats to a complete physical and psychosocial recovery. We aimed to review the relevant literature on long-term side-effects of treatment in gastrointestinal cancers. Recent findings: We focused on esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, liver and colorectal cancers. A significant fraction of ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

Of art and science: is personalized medicine getting personal enough?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

Surgical approach for soft tissue sarcoma: standard of care and future approaches
Purpose of review: This review highlights the ongoing importance of surgical resection as the primary treatment modality for localized soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) in all locations and for the majority of histologic types. Accomplishing this goal in an oncologic fashion is of paramount importance for all patients eligible for treatment with curative intent and for selected patients with metastatic disease. Recent findings: Ongoing advances in combined modality therapy and improved knowledge regarding the natural history and disease biology of individual sarcoma subtypes have allowed for better surgical planning and tailorin...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jonathan C. Trent Source Type: research

The immune system and gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a wealth of opportunities
This article reviews the current literature on tumor-infiltrating immune cells in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and the current status and prospects of effective immunotherapeutic strategies. Recent findings: Tumor-infiltrating immune cells populate the microenvironment of GISTs; the most numerous are tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and CD3+ T cells. TAMs have not been shown to have a relationship with the biological behavior of GISTs; however, the number of CD3+ T cells correlates with better outcomes. The prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating neutrophils, natural killer cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T ce...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jonathan C. Trent Source Type: research

Surveillance recommendations for patients with germline TP53 mutations
Purpose of review: Li–Fraumeni syndrome is associated with germline TP53 mutations and carriers have a high lifetime risk of cancer, the most common being sarcoma, breast cancer, brain tumors, adrenocortical carcinoma and leukemia. Germline TP53 mutation carriers are increasingly being identified as more genomic sequencing is performed in both clinical and research settings. There is a pressing clinical need for effective cancer risk management approaches in this group. Recent findings: Current clinical surveillance guidelines mainly focus on breast and bowel cancer risk with little consideration for the other cancer...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jonathan C. Trent Source Type: research

Value added: functional MR imaging in management of bone and soft tissue sarcomas
Purpose of review: MRI plays a crucial role in the initial diagnosis, treatment planning, and long-term management of bone and soft tissue sarcomas. Technological advances have enabled improvements in both delineation of anatomic detail, and in functional imaging techniques that interrogate tissues at the cellular level. This bears particular relevance in sarcomas as morphological parameters alone do not necessarily correlate with treatment response and prognosis. Here, we describe recent developments in advanced MRI techniques, including chemical-shift MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and dyna...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jonathan C. Trent Source Type: research

Synovial sarcoma diagnosis and management in the era of targeted therapies
Purpose of review: Synovial sarcomas are a distinct soft tissue sarcoma subtype, with a predilection for young adults. Despite its common translocation, there is substantial heterogeneity in patient outcome. This review discusses recent developments in diagnosis, prognostication, and treatments, together with the role of targeted agents and immunotherapy in patients with synovial sarcoma. Recent findings: Tumor behavior of synovial sarcomas remains inexplicable and is therefore poorly predictable. Although many variables seem to contribute to and influence patient outcome, no underlying pathophysiology accounting for the v...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jonathan C. Trent Source Type: research

Recent developments in supporting adolescent and young adult siblings of cancer patients
Purpose of review: The psychosocial needs of adolescent and young adult (AYA) siblings of cancer patients are easily overlooked. Accordingly, the evidence base informing short and long-term outcomes for these young people is sparse. This review provides an overview of recent research highlighting the experiences, unmet needs and psychosocial issues of AYA siblings, together with recent interventions. Recent findings: The reviewed studies bring focus to the range of informational and supportive care needs that typically remain unmet in AYA siblings. The limited number of interventions designed specifically for this group no...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Social competence in pediatric brain tumor survivors: breadth versus depth
Purpose of review: The purpose of this article is to review the literature in the area of social competence in pediatric brain tumor survivors published in the last year. Recent findings: Research published over the past year examining the social competence of pediatric brain tumor survivors has seen the consistent application of a comprehensive conceptual framework that pertains specifically to children with brain disorders. Subsequent to the application of a comprehensive conceptual framework, more sophisticated research approaches have begun to advance our understanding of deficits among this population. Specifically, o...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Screening for psychological late effects in childhood, adolescent and young adult cancer survivors: a systematic review
Purpose of review: In the past years, increasing evidence showed that many childhood cancer survivors suffer from psychological distress long after treatment ended. However, psychosocial issues are often neglected during follow-up care. Including screening for psychological distress before follow-up appointments might help addressing the topic in survivors who need support. Our aim was to systematically review the available evidence on screening for psychological distress in childhood cancer survivors. Recent findings: We found eight studies that investigated different screening tools for their utility in detecting psychol...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Survivor care for pediatric cancer survivors: a continuously evolving discipline
This article summarizes recent findings regarding the prevalence of chronic health conditions, cardiovascular and pulmonary late effects, and second malignancies in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), and examines facilitators and barriers to survivor care. Recent findings: The estimated cumulative prevalence for a serious chronic disease in CCSs is 80% by age 45. The crude prevalence for cardiac conditions is 56.4% and for pulmonary dysfunction is 65.2%. Research in cardio-oncology is focused on better methods of predicting risk for cardiac dysfunction, and better methods of detection and interventions to prevent cardiac l...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

A review of symptom screening tools in pediatric cancer patients
Purpose of review: Children receiving chemotherapy experience a high burden of symptoms. The purposes of this review were to identify symptom assessment tools used in pediatric cancer patients published in the last year; describe the characteristics of the identified tools; and evaluate their appropriateness for symptom screening and to alter patient management. Recent findings: We identified six different symptom screening or assessment tools used across 10 studies in the past year. Four instruments contained 30 or more items. Patient management was not altered on the basis of identified symptoms in any of these studies. ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

What can be learned from our pediatric colleagues?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

B-type proto-oncogene-mutated tumors of colon cancer: promising therapeutic approaches
Purpose of review: B-type proto-oncogene (BRAF) mutations have been observed in about 10.8% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). These patients do not respond to standard therapy with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor kinase (EGFR). Here we review novel BRAF inhibitors that are currently being investigated in these tumors. Recent findings: Clinical experience with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib in CRC suggests significant differences in response compared with melanoma. Based on preclinical data, resistance to BRAF inhibitors employs alternative signaling pathways that in turn induce cell proliferation and survival...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE EARLY CLINICAL TRIALS METHODOLOGY AND NEW THERAPEUTICS IN CANCER: Edited by Ahmad Awada Source Type: research

What have we learned from exceptional tumour responses?: review and perspectives
Purpose of review: Understanding the basis of exceptional responses may increase our knowledge of disease biology and the mechanism of action of targeted agents, and identify subpopulations of patients who derive important benefit from drugs that would otherwise not be developed due to lack of sufficient activity in the general population. We will discuss in this review the value of a systematic phenotype-to-genotype approach in these outlier responders to identify actionable therapeutic targets that can help to personalize the delivery of cancer treatment. Recent findings: Genomic mapping of outlier responders by next-gen...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE EARLY CLINICAL TRIALS METHODOLOGY AND NEW THERAPEUTICS IN CANCER: Edited by Ahmad Awada Source Type: research

Metabolic disorders associated with the use of targeted cancer therapies
Purpose of review: The everyday use of targeted therapies, whose mechanisms of action differ from the conventional cytotoxic agents, also causes the emergence of new toxicities as metabolic disorders about which little is known. We propose a systematic literature review of the incidence and physiopathology of targeted therapies-induced metabolic disorders and provide some management guidance. Recent findings: In recent decades, significant breakthroughs in molecular oncology and immunology have been made. The administration of targeted therapies and immunotherapy has been associated with metabolic toxicities such as endocr...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE EARLY CLINICAL TRIALS METHODOLOGY AND NEW THERAPEUTICS IN CANCER: Edited by Ahmad Awada Source Type: research

Cancer genomics: the challenge of drug accessibility
This article highlights the difficulties associated with patients accessing targeted drugs based on genomic information, and some proposed solutions. Recent findings: Although cancers are increasingly stratified according to molecular subgroups, challenges remain in improving patient outcome based on drug-target matching. Before a drug-target match is even proposed, significant expertise is required of the clinician to interpret genomic information. Once a potential match is made, barriers remain for patients to access treatment via clinical trials, as approved agents on-label or off-label, or through expanded access progr...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE EARLY CLINICAL TRIALS METHODOLOGY AND NEW THERAPEUTICS IN CANCER: Edited by Ahmad Awada Source Type: research

New generations of targeted therapies fighting the resistance in solid tumors
Purpose of review: The identification of molecular alterations that drive tumor growth and spread of solid tumors has led to the development of multiple targeted therapies considered as first-generation agents that have improved clinical benefit. However, tumor cells are able to rapidly develop resistance to these agents. The growing understanding of the biology of the resistance mechanisms has spurred ongoing development of second-generation and third-generation targeted therapies aiming at new strategies to overcome resistance. Recent findings: Several generations of targeted therapies have been developed in order to pre...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE EARLY CLINICAL TRIALS METHODOLOGY AND NEW THERAPEUTICS IN CANCER: Edited by Ahmad Awada Source Type: research

Reinvention of chemotherapy: drug conjugates and nanoparticles
Purpose of review: Recent advances in nanotechnology have addressed some of the issues related to lack of selectivity and nonspecific toxicities associated with conventional chemotherapy. Nanoparticles are therapeutic carriers that can be fine tuned for specific application and for passive or active tumor targeting. Recent findings: Although the nanoparticle field is rapidly expanding, there are to date only six nanoparticle-based drug delivery platforms and two antibody–drug conjugates that are clinically approved for cancer therapy. Here, we review the clinical data of liposomal anthracyclines, nanoparticle formula...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE EARLY CLINICAL TRIALS METHODOLOGY AND NEW THERAPEUTICS IN CANCER: Edited by Ahmad Awada Source Type: research

Advances in imaging modalities in prostate cancer
Purpose of review: Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of prostate cancer (PCa). Thus, much effort has gone into improving imaging modalities in PCa. This review focuses on the recent advancements in transrectal ultrasound, MRI and PET during the past year. Recent findings: Contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound with microbubbles may be useful in PCa, but needs further evaluation before more widespread use. Multiparametric MRI has emerged as a valuable tool to assist clinical management of PCa, and great progress has been made in the past year. Several radionuclides for PET/computed tomography have...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Molecular pathways in renal cell carcinoma: recent advances in genetics and molecular biology
Purpose of review: Advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains a largely incurable disease with a grave prognosis despite the availability of a multiplicity of systemic therapies targeted against vascular endothelial growth factor, its receptors, and the mammalian target of rapamycin. Although immune ‘checkpoint inhibitors’ appear to have activity in clear cell RCC based on recent early phase trials, the true magnitude of the benefit conferred by these agents remains to be fully understood. Given the limitations of existing treatment paradigms, ongoing research into new targetable pathways is critical. This rev...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Understanding heterogeneity of treatment effect in prostate cancer
Purpose of review: In the era of personalized medicine, oncologists seek to tailor treatments for their patients based on indicators of differential response to treatment. We first provide a conceptual explanation of heterogeneity of treatment effect using prostate cancer as a case study and review studies that test whether Gleason score has a role in modifying the effectiveness of androgen deprivation therapy in men newly diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer. Recent findings: Depending on the study design, setting, and population, the median time to develop castration-resistant prostate cancer ranges from 12 to 23 mo...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Sequences and combinations of multifaceted therapy in advanced prostate cancer
This report of the Enzalutamide in men with chemotherapy-naive metastatic prostate cancer (PREVAIL) trial led to the Food and Drug Administration approval of this agent. Novel agents such as cabozantinib and custirsen that had shown promising results in phase II trials revealed disappointing results in the phase III setting. The breakthrough report, of the ability of the androgen receptor splice variant mutation, detected in circulating tumor cells, to predict lack of response to abiraterone or enzalutamide, and the remarkable responses of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors in prostate cancer with breast cancer genes 1...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Emerging immunotherapies for bladder cancer
Purpose of review: Inhibition of immune escape mechanisms, such as the programed death-ligand 1 pathway, has demonstrated rapid, durable responses in multiple tumor types, including advanced urothelial carcinoma. This review discusses emerging immunotherapies for urothelial carcinoma in various stages of clinical development. Recent findings: Urothelial carcinoma has a high mutational burden, which may increase the number of tumor antigens and potentially enhance the ability of the immune system to recognize tumor cells as foreign. However, urothelial carcinoma can evade the immune system by downregulating tumor–anti...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Management of noninvasive bladder cancers
Purpose of review: To summarize clinical management of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and discuss recent advances in the field. Recent findings: NMIBC remains a common and expensive clinical entity. Prevention, early detection, and risk-adapted treatment are the mainstays of clinical management, all of which may improve as a result of recent research. Photodynamic diagnosis has demonstrated improved detection of nascent disease, and specific clinical scenarios have been identified in which photodynamic diagnosis may improve clinical outcomes. New intravesical chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic agents challen...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Update in germ cell tumours
Purpose of review: The purpose of this study is to update the reader on advances in postpubertal male germ cell tumours (GCTs) over the last 18 months. Recent findings: Single nucleotide polymorphisms, including in four sex-determination genes, have been identified as additional genetic susceptibility loci to testicular GCT development. New insights into cisplatin resistance implicate the PDGFR-PIK3CA-AKT and RAS pathways. Circulating tumour cells and circulating microRNAs are potential new biomarkers. In clinical stage I (CS-I) GCT, two large studies have confirmed the excellent outcomes achieved with surveillance, which ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Implications of ubiquitin ligases in castration-resistant prostate cancer
Purpose of review: Significant advances have been made in the study of ubiquitination-mediated regulation of androgen receptor (AR). This review will highlight the latest developments in the mechanisms by which E3 ubiquitin ligases control AR activity, with implications in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Recent findings: Several ubiquitin ligases have been identified to interact with and ubiquitinate AR, and consequently regulate the AR transcriptional programme. Different ubiquitin ligases can use distinct mechanisms to modulate the expression of AR target genes, including local turnover of AR chromatin compl...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Proton therapy for head and neck cancer
This article will highlight recent research into proton dosimetry, studies evaluating its clinical benefit relative to other advanced radiotherapy modalities, and key safety and cost considerations. Recent findings: Recent dosimetric analyses have quantified the potential for the most sophisticated form of proton therapy, intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), to reduce dose to key anatomic structures in the head and neck, and highlight the potential for dose uncertainty with IMPT if not implemented in a careful manner. Clinical contributions demonstrate the potential for protons to yield excellent local control and lo...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Gilberto de Castro Jr Source Type: research

Mucositis: pathobiology and management
Purpose of review: Oral mucositis remains a frequent debilitating toxicity associated with drug and radiation regimens used to treat cancer. This review highlights the recent understanding of the biological basis, risk factors for, and management for oral mucositis. Recent findings: Prevalence and incidence data for mucositis are inconsistent and often underreported. The pathogenesis of mucositis encompasses a sequence of biological events possibly influenced by the oral microbiome and environment. Despite its frequency and severity, there is currently no effective treatment available for the majority of patients at risk. ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Gilberto de Castro Jr Source Type: research

Targeting the immune system in head and neck cancer
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Gilberto de Castro Jr Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Intralesional therapy for advanced melanoma: promise and limitation
Purpose of review: Patients with unresectable, multiple or advanced locally/regionally metastatic stage IIIB/C or stage IV M1a melanoma have a high risk for recurrence, progression and metastasis. The article reviews treatment advances for this population. Recent findings: After promising phase 2 results with Allovectin-7 (velimogene aliplasmid), overall survival in a phase 3 study was shorter for Allovectin-7 than for dacarbazine/temozolomide (median 18.8 versus 24.1 months). In a phase 2 trial of intratumoral electroporation of plasmid interleukin-12 among 28 patients with advanced melanoma, the primary endpoint of best ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 5, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Reinhard Dummer Source Type: research

Cell cycle control as a promising target in melanoma
Purpose of review: This review highlights recent clinical developments in the therapeutic targeting of cell cycle control in melanoma with cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, checkpoint kinases, MDM2, MDM4 and p53 inhibitors. Recent findings: The high prevalence of activating genetic aberrations along the p16INK4A:cyclinD-CDK4/6:RB pathway in melanoma and increasing evidence that alterations in this pathway are linked to melanomagenesis, make targeting the p16INK4A:cyclinD-CDK4/6:RB pathway in melanoma logical and highly attractive. The presence of elevated CDK4 activity appears to correlate with greater CDK4/6 inhibitor t...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 5, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Reinhard Dummer Source Type: research

Combination therapy of melanoma using kinase inhibitors
Purpose of review: Treatment options for metastatic melanoma depend on the clinical course of the disease and the molecular profile such as mutations of the BRAF gene. In this article, we review the current state of targeted therapy with kinase inhibitors. Recent findings: Despite major advancements in targeted therapy of metastatic melanoma, most patients relapse and show progressive disease after 5–7 months with single inhibition of BRAF or MEK. Acquired resistance is virtually universal and mediated by diverse mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent or independent mechanisms. Recent evidence favours concurrent ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 5, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Reinhard Dummer Source Type: research

Recent advances in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
Purpose of review: Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a heterogeneous group of skin-homing T-cell neoplasms, which represent approximately 75% of all primary cutaneous lymphomas. Currently available drug therapies, when effective, simply control disease and the only option for curing CTCL is stem cell transplant. Recent findings: In the last year, there has been an incredible effort made to improve the understanding and treatment of CTCL. Recent findings indicate that epigenetic aberrations are integral to active disease. Furthermore, multiple tumor-derived immunological factors have also been shown to inhibit viability, ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 5, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Reinhard Dummer Source Type: research

Curing advanced melanoma by 2025
Purpose of review: To outline the most urgent challenges in the management of advanced melanoma. Recent findings: Considerable progress in targeted and immunotherapy of advanced melanoma has opened a perspective for a cure if all molecular and medical information is integrated in a rational precision treatment algorithm. Summary: Bioinformatics and system biology approaches will be needed to deal with omics databases. The support of patient advocacy groups may help to increase the acceptance of large scale, routine biobanking. (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 5, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Reinhard Dummer Source Type: research

The next-generation ALK inhibitors
Purpose of review: Crizotinib now is accepted as the standard first-line treatment of ALK-rearranged lung adenocarcinomas. To overcome the problem of crizotinib resistance, second-generation ALK inhibitors are in development. The aim of this review is to give an overview on the mechanisms behind crizotinib resistance and on the preclinical background and clinical development of these compounds. Recent findings: Based on phase I/II data, ceritinib has gained accelerated FDA approval for the treatment of crizotinib-resistant ALK-rearranged lung cancer. The clinical development of alectinib has already reached phase III. With...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 5, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer
Purpose of review: Targeting immune checkpoints has led to promising results in metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). By restoring antitumor immunity, these treatments are able to induce prolonged clinical responses. The level of activity and the durability of responses observed in phase I trials has led most companies to launch phases II and III trials whose results are highly expected. Recent findings: In this review, we present efficacy and toxicity results of the different immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) currently developed in NSCLC and report other checkpoints currently explored. The specific profile of tu...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 5, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research