Tackling immunomonitoring in gastrointestinal cancer
Purpose of review: The growing awareness that the immune system is a key player in the antitumoral response and the excellent clinical results achieved in some settings with anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1) and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) drugs has led to the rise of immunotherapy as a supplement or an alternative to conventional cancer treatment. The high costs associated with these therapies, their significant toxicity and the need to understand and circumvent immune escape mechanisms raise the urgent need for immunological assessment of therapy response. Th...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

Advances in management of hepatocellular carcinoma
Purpose of review: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of death by cancer worldwide due to a dismal prognosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the main advances in the pathophysiology and management of HCC. Recent findings: Genomic analysis has recently delineated the key signaling pathways aberrantly deregulated in HCC (telomere maintenance, cell cycle gene, Wnt/β-catenin, epigenetic modifier, oxidative stress etc.). Major advances in the clinical care of patients with HCC are helping to refine the diagnosis algorithm and tumor staging. Extension of criteria for liver transplantation, ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

The meaningness of colon cancer sidedness
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

Preclinical models for translational sarcoma research
Purpose of review: Sarcoma is a basket term for mesenchymal tumors for which more than 75 genetically and histologically distinct subtypes are recognized. Therapeutic progress has largely been achieved with classical chemotherapeutic drugs that were tested in empirical clinical trials. However, outcome in metastatic patients remains poor and with few exceptions numerous trials have failed or only provided limited improvement in recent years. Recent findings: Given the genomic heterogeneity, preclinical model systems will be indispensable to identify new molecular targets and to prioritize drugs and drug combinations. Cell...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

Adult desmoid tumors: biology, management and ongoing trials
Purpose of review: To summarize the current knowledge about the biology and clinical management of adult desmoid tumors. Recent findings: In the past decade, we have learned that desmoid tumors are driven by alterations of the Wnt/APC/β-catenin pathway, sporadic desmoid tumors are associated with somatic mutations of CTNNB1, and germline mutations of APC and somatic mutations of CTNNB1 are probably mutually exclusive. One-third of desmoid tumors are misdiagnosed; a second pathological opinion is therefore of major importance for desmoid tumor. Surgery is no longer regarded as the cornerstone of desmoid tumors; severa...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

Treatment of retroperitoneal sarcoma: current standards and new developments
Purpose of review: Retroperitoneal sarcomas are rare tumors and with complex treatment. In this manuscript we give an overview of current standards in treatment of this disease and discuss new developments. Recent findings: Surgery with complete resection of the primary tumor is still the only curative modality. The role of preoperative radiotherapy is not clear and is currently being investigated in a clinical trial. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is not the standard of care but can be considered occasionally when complete resection is uncertain. Local and distant recurrent disease carries a dismal prognosis, although long-te...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

Neoadjuvant treatment: a novel standard?
This study has major strengths, including the selected high-risk population and the full-dose chemotherapy regimen. However, this was an interim analysis with a short follow-up in a trial originally planned to test the superiority of a histology-driven chemotherapy. As to high-risk patient selection, the new AJCC TNM staging system adds primary tumour site as a stratifying factor, while available prognostic nomograms account for additional criteria. Summary: A recent trial strengthens perioperative chemotherapy as an option for high-risk STS patients within a shared decision-making process. If the final analysis of this t...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

Controversies about fertility and pregnancy issues in young breast cancer patients: current state of the art
Purpose of review: For trying to help physicians in counseling their young patients with breast cancer interested in fertility preservation and future reproductive plans, this manuscript aims to perform an overview of the main available data on 10 controversies in this field. Recent findings: Thanks to the improvement in patients’ prognosis, a growing attention towards fertility and pregnancy issues has been given over the past years and is currently provided to young breast cancer patients. However, several grey zones persist in many domains of this field and some physicians are still uncomfortable to deal with the...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Integrative medicine in cancer survivors
Purpose of review: Due to medical advances and an aging population, the number of cancer survivors continues to rise. Survivors often experience late and long-term sequelae of cancer and its treatment (e.g., fatigue, pain, fear of recurrence, and stress). As a result, some patients have utilized or expressed interest in integrative medicine (IM) modalities for prevention of recurrence, optimizing health, enhancing quality of life, and managing symptoms. The purpose of this review is to focus on research published during the past year that informs our understanding of the utility of IM for cancer survivors. Recent findings...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Physical long-term side-effects in young adult cancer survivors: germ cell tumors model
Purpose of review: After the important advances in the treatment of germ cell tumors (GCTs) leading to high cure rates, physical long-term side-effects represent an important cause of death in these young adult survivors. Highlighting these physical long-term side-effects, their monitoring and their prevention modalities is necessary for a better management of these cancer survivors. Recent findings: Impaired fertility, increased risk of developing a second cancer, cardiac, pulmonary, renal and neural toxicity, hearing and vision impairment are the major physical side-effects in young adult cancer survivors. Long-term car...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Long-term survival after cancer: at what cost?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

New developments in the biology and the treatment of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma
Purpose of review: Patients with stage IIIB und IV metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (mMCC), who are not suitable candidates for surgery or radiotherapy, are unlikely to achieve lasting remission or tumor control by chemo or targeted therapy. In the majority of cases, the tumor arises from viral carcinogenesis associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). In MCPyV-negative tumors with a presumable ultraviolet carcinogenesis, a high mutational burden resulting in neoantigens was discovered. In two phase II clinical trials in either the first or second-line setting, a high response rate was observed for immunotherapie...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Special Commentary Source Type: research

Targeting of protein translation as a new treatment paradigm for prostate cancer
Purpose of review: The current overview will summarize some of the developments in the area of protein translation, including their relation to the therapeutic targeting of prostate cancer. Recent findings: Translational control, mediated by the rate-limiting eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), drives selective translation of several oncogenic proteins, thereby contributing to tumor growth, metastasis, and treatment resistance in various cancers, including prostate cancer. As an essential regulatory hub, several oncogenic hyperactive signaling pathways appear to converge on eIF4E to promote tumorigenesis....
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Renal cell carcinoma: molecular characterization and evolving treatment paradigms
Purpose of review: The treatment landscape of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) continues to shift as both new targeted therapies and immunotherapies show efficacy in treating the disease. Contemporary insights into the molecular characterization of RCC are likely to fuel the development of additional therapies. This review summarizes recent advancements in the biologic characterization of RCC and discusses newly approved therapies and ongoing studies in the treatment of advanced RCC. Recent findings: The Cancer Genome Atlas has now completed comprehensive molecular characterization of clear cell, papillary, and chromop...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Changing face of metastatic prostate cancer: the law of diminishing returns holds true
Purpose of review: Prostate cancer presents with a multitude of faces. It ranges from localized cancers staying quiescent for many years during active surveillance to the raging diffuse liver metastases causing terminal disease. The incidence of metastatic disease is increasing. This review will highlight some of the recent developments as well as ongoing challenges of managing advanced prostate cancer. Recent findings: Significant strides are being made in managing metastatic prostate cancer. With the evolution of multiple new therapies, now the optimal use of these therapies and their proper sequencing is being addresse...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Immunotherapy: a new treatment paradigm in bladder cancer
Purpose of review: T-cell checkpoint blockade has become a dynamic immunotherapy for bladder cancer. In 2016, atezolizumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, became the first new drug approved in metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) in over 30 years. In 2017, nivolumab was also approved for the same indication. This overview of checkpoint inhibitors in clinical trials focuses on novel immunotherapy combinations, predictive biomarkers including mutational load and neoantigen identification, and an evaluation of the future of bladder cancer immunotherapy. Recent findings: Programed cell death protein 1/programed death-ligand...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

New developments in the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer
Purpose of review: In this review, we summarize the core principles in the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) with an emphasis on new developments that have emerged over the last year. Recent findings: NMIBC has a propensity to recur and progress. Risk stratification has facilitated appropriate patient selection for treatment but improved tools, including biomarkers, are still needed. Enhanced cystoscopy with photodynamic imaging and narrow band imaging show promise for diagnosis, risk stratification, and disease monitoring and has been formally recommended this year by the American Urological Associa...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Recent developments in the management of germ cell tumors
Purpose of review: In the present review, we summarize the recent developments in the management of germ cell tumors (GCTs). Recent findings: Treatment-related acute and late-onset toxicity remains a key challenge in the management of GCTs. Recent data show that patients with large retroperitoneal lymph node metastases are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism and may benefit from prophylactic anticoagulation. Predictive models have been developed to identify patients with residual retroperitoneal lymph node masses who are more likely to benefit from surgical resection. However, their clinical use remains hampered b...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

The role of transoral robotic surgery in the management of oropharyngeal cancer
Purpose of review: The rising incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), in large part as a result of the human papillomavirus (HPV), has driven a movement for the change in the management strategies. Renewed interest in minimally invasive approaches of endoscopic head and neck surgery led to introduction of transoral surgery, including transoral robotic surgery (TORS). Recent findings: Several recent studies, based on large multi-institutional studies and systematic reviews of the literature, have shown excellent oncologic and functional outcomes with TORS for OPSCC. Also, a growing amount of clinical ev...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Gilberto de Castro Jr Source Type: research

How to evaluate and assess quality of life issues in head and neck cancer patients
Purpose of review: Review quality of life (QOL) concepts and most common instruments to be used in patients with head and neck cancer, as well as the potential benefits and limitations of information derived from QOL studies. Recent findings: Information from QOL studies can be clinical predictors of prognosis, serve as potential screening and planning tools for clinical care and rehabilitation efforts. Enhancements in computer technology and the advent of tools like head and neck cancer-specific item prompt list will allow for QOL data to be used more easily. Summary: Patients with malignant head and neck neoplasms can ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Gilberto de Castro Jr Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Treatment and surveillance of advanced, metastatic iodine-resistant differentiated thyroid cancer
Purpose of review: This review will focus on the management and treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer that is radioactive iodine refractory and review the new drugs and their mechanism of actions as well as their adverse events. Recent findings: Until recently, there were no efficacious therapeutic modalities for these patients. With advancement in knowledge and research of the molecular aberrations and oncogenic mutations in thyroid cancer as well as further understanding the role of angiogenesis in tumor growth molecular pathogenesis, novel targeted therapies are available for these patients. Some of these drugs have s...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Special Commentary Source Type: research

Critical aspects to achieve a high-quality melanoma clinic
We report on critical aspects of the interaction between patients, medical care givers, clinical trial and biobanking teams, and emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary tumor boards. Specialized skin cancer nurses and local patient advocacy groups should be involved in patient care and could be the binding link between the patients and the treatment team. (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Reinhard Dummer Source Type: research

A review of serious adverse effects under treatment with checkpoint inhibitors
Purpose of review: The aim of this article is to raise awareness of physicians for the serious side-effects of immune-checkpoint blocking antibodies. As checkpoint inhibitors can induce severe side-effects and are increasingly being used also in subspecialties besides dermatology and oncology, with less experience with these drugs available, knowledge has to be spread. Early recognition and adequate management is essential. Recent findings: Recent reports on side-effects document cases of serious side-effects involving all organ systems. These include formerly little referenced and life-threatening side-effects such as ca...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Reinhard Dummer Source Type: research

Drug therapy of advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: is there any evidence?
Purpose of review: There are few randomized controlled studies to guide the treatment of advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. The existing treatments are mostly based on case reports and small case series. Here we review recently available insights concerning the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma, with a special emphasis on novel targeted therapy and immunotherapy. Recent findings: Surgery and combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy have been long considered the gold standard options for advanced squamous cell carcinoma. The detection of clinically relevant driver mutati...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Reinhard Dummer Source Type: research

Neoadjuvant approach for nonsmall cell lung cancer: overview of the current issues
Purpose of review: Despite the large numbers of studies, role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is debated. This approach would increase resectability in locally advanced patients, and improve surgical outcome in resectable patients. Thus, an overview of recent literature is relevant to highlight the current issues. Recent findings: Literature in the previous year mainly focused on overall treatment strategy, radiotherapy technique, role of radiological response and metabolic imaging, and biological agents in this setting. Summary: Current data suggest that neoadjuvant chemotherapy is benefici...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Concurrent driver mutations/rearrangements in non-small-cell lung cancer
Purpose of review: The concept of mutually exclusive oncogenic driver alterations has prevailed over the past decade, but recent reports have stressed the possible occurrence of dual-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and even triple-positive disease for these oncogenes. This entity presents novel prognostic and therapeutic challenges. The present review highlights the available data in an effort to clarify the clinical and pathological significance of coexisting mutations as well as the subsequent therapeutic consequences. Recent findings: Patients with a known driver oncogene can be successfully treated with th...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Systemic treatment for thymic malignancies
Purpose of review: The management of thymic epithelial tumors is a paradigm of multidisciplinary collaboration. Chemotherapy may be administered as part of curative-intent sequential strategy integrating subsequent surgery or radiotherapy, or as an exclusive treatment if local treatment is not achievable. Recurrences of thymic epithelial tumors should be managed according to the same strategy as newly diagnosed tumors. Recent findings: More options have become available for advanced, refractory, and recurrent thymic epithelial tumors, which include cytotoxic agents such as carboplatin–paclitaxel, pemetrexed, and ora...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Radiotherapy in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors
Purpose of review: The immunomodulatory effects of ionizing radiation have long been recognized; however, so far these have not been fully exploited in clinical practice. We review the rationale to combine radiation with immune checkpoint inhibitors, which are used in standard practice. Recent findings: Preclinical research suggests a synergy between radiotherapy and these immune checkpoint inhibitors. Whether or not this benefit translates into a clinical benefit is currently subject of ongoing research. Summary: It is highly rational to combine radiation with immune therapy as in preclinical models and in proof of conc...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Immune checkpoint inhibitors in first-line therapy of advanced non-small cell lung cancer
Purpose of review: Evading immune destruction is a hallmark of cancer. The first therapeutic wave in immunotherapies comprised a series of monoclonal antibodies directed against the immune checkpoint molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, programmed death 1 (PD-1), and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) revolutionizing the therapeutic landscape of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. They were validated initially as second-line treatment, becoming the new standard of care. Recent findings: Based on immunotherapies efficacy, different strategies are being successfully investigated in first-line treatment, in...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Can we define the optimal sequence of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant nonsmall cell lung cancer?
Purpose of review: The most common mechanism of resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is acquisition of the T790M gatekeeper mutation. Third-generation EGFR TKIs irreversibly inhibit EGFR mutants (EGFRm), especially T790M, while sparing wild-type EGFR. There are several third-generation EGFR TKIs under development, including osimertinib, CO-1686 (rociletinib), HM61713 (olmutinib), ASP8273, and EGF816. These third-generation EGFR TKIs have shown promising efficacy with favorable toxicity profiles in the management of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with an acquire...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

New and emerging developments in extensive-stage small cell lung cancer therapeutics: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Current management of patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
Purpose of review: The present review will focus on the current management of patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) as well as in future therapeutic perspectives. Recent findings: CMML is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder characterized by peripheral blood monocytosis and myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative alterations in the bone marrow. Clinical behavior of the disease can be heterogeneous, with some patients having an indolent form of the disease, whereas others experience an aggressive course with decreased survival and eventual transformation to leukemia. Multiple studies have helped define t...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Special Commentary Source Type: research

Liquid biopsy for early detection of lung cancer
Purpose of review: The possibility of complete recovery for a lung cancer patient depends on very early diagnosis, as it allows total surgical resection. Screening for this cancer in a high-risk population can be performed using a radiological approach, but this holds a certain number of limitations. Liquid biopsy could become an alternative and complementary screening approach to chest imaging for early diagnosis of lung cancer. Recent findings: Several circulating biomarkers indicative of lung cancer can be investigated in blood, such as circulating tumor cells, circulating free nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) and proteins....
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut and Amelie Plymoth Source Type: research

Probiotics-mediated suppression of cancer
Purpose of review: Probiotics can be used as an adjuvant for cancer prevention or/and treatment through their abilities to modulate intestinal microbiota and host immune response. Although most of the recent reviews have focused on the potential role of probiotics against colon cancer, only few of them include the probiotic effect on extraintestinal cancers. The present review covers the most important findings from the literature published during the past 20 months (from January 2015 to August 2016) regarding the probiotics-mediated suppression of both gastrointestinal and extraintestinal cancers and the underlying mechan...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut and Amelie Plymoth Source Type: research

Novel insights in the regulation and function of macrophages in the tumor microenvironment
Purpose of review: Tumors contain not only cancer cells but also nontransformed types of cells, the stromal cells. A bidirectional interplay exists between transformed and nontransformed cells leading to tumor progression and metastasis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the most abundant tumor-infiltrating leukocytes characterized by a high heterogeneity and plasticity. TAMs exhibit strong protumoral activities and are related to bad prognosis and worse overall survival in various cancer types. Recent findings: Recent progress has delineated the existence of distinct TAM subsets in primary tumors and metastatic sit...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut and Amelie Plymoth Source Type: research

On mitochondrial metabolism in tumor biology
Purpose of review: To provide examples of mitochondria-specific metabolic events that influence tumor cell biology, and of metabolism-related mitochondrial biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cancer cells. Recent findings: Cancer cell mitochondria are rewired to optimally serve the cancer cell under various conditions of cellular stress. The nonexhaustive list of mitochondrial alterations that support cancer cell proliferation, survival, and/or progression includes upregulation of oxidative metabolism and use of alternative substrates, oncometabolites, increased superoxide production, mutated mitochondrial DNA, and alte...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut and Amelie Plymoth Source Type: research

Role of the unfolded protein response in tumor cell characteristics and cancer outcome
Purpose of review: In the present review, we discuss the possible role of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the acquisition of tumor cell characteristics and in the prognosis of cancer outcome, which could assist and contribute to the development of more promising therapeutic strategies. Recent findings: Accumulating evidence supports the idea that alteration of endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis is a key player in cancer development and aggressiveness. Some UPR components were reported as independent prognostic biomarker. Recent evidence supports a relationship between the UPR activation status and prognosis of tumo...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut and Amelie Plymoth Source Type: research

The multifaceted roles of inflammasome proteins in cancer
Purpose of review: Inflammasomes are major actors of the innate immune system, through their regulation of inflammatory caspases and maturation of IL-1β and IL-18. These multiprotein complexes have been shown to play major roles in inflammatory and metabolic diseases and have more recently been implicated in tumor development and dissemination. In this review, we address these recent findings, focusing particularly on colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and tumor dissemination. Recent findings: Based mostly on loss-of-function experiments in mouse models, paradoxical results were obtained as both protumoral and antitu...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut and Amelie Plymoth Source Type: research

More chinks in the armor of cancer: potential for new therapies
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut and Amelie Plymoth Source Type: research

Advances and controversies in the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma
Purpose of review: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) comprises approximately 4% of all malignant thyroid neoplasms. Although the majority of patients have a good prognosis, a subgroup of patients develops progressive disease and requires systemic therapy. Here, we focused on the current MTC therapeutic approaches and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of molecular targeted therapies. Recent findings: Targeted molecular therapies that inhibit RET and other tyrosine kinase receptors involved in angiogenesis have been shown to improve progression-free survival in patients with advanced MTC. Two drugs, vandetanib and ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann Sosa Source Type: research

The follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer and noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP)
Purpose of review: Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is a new terminology proposed for encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC). Recently, thyroid cancer incidence has increased dramatically, without affecting related mortality rate. This increase is widely attributed to the intensified surveillance leading to a substantial increase in the diagnosis of small classic papillary thyroid cancers and EFVPTCs. Recent studies emphasize the indolent behavior of the EFVPTC. Recently, there has been a reclassification of EFVPTC as NIFTP, a benign entit...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann Sosa Source Type: research

An update on the status of nerve monitoring for thyroid/parathyroid surgery
Purpose of review: Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury is one of the most common and serious complications associated with thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Although routine visual identification of the RLN is considered the current standard of care, the role of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) of the RLN is more controversial. Recent findings: Despite initial enthusiasm that IONM might substantially reduce the rate of RLN injury, most studies failed to show a significant difference in the rate of RLN injury when the use of IONM was compared with visualization of the RLN alone. However, a small number of investigat...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann Sosa Source Type: research

Do flame retardant chemicals increase the risk for thyroid dysregulation and cancer?
Purpose of review: Flame retardant chemicals are added to consumer products to reduce fire incidence and severity; approximately 1.5 million tons of these chemicals are used annually. However, their widespread use has led to their ubiquitous presence in the environment and chronic accumulation in human tissues. We summarize current trends in human flame retardant chemical exposure, and review recent data highlighting concerns for thyroid dysregulation and cancer risk in human populations. Recent findings: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers were once commonly used as flame retardant chemicals, but recently were phased out. Exp...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann Sosa Source Type: research

Recent advances in nuclear medicine in endocrine oncology
Purpose of review: The purpose is to review recent advances concerning the role of nuclear medicine in endocrine oncology. Recent findings: For 131I therapy of thyroid cancer a thyrotropin (TSH) more than 30 mU/l has for many years been deemed a condition sine qua non. However, new data show that patients with lower TSH levels at the time of ablation have the same rate of successful ablation as those with TSH more than 30 mU/l. I-124 combined integrated positron emission tomography and computed X-ray tomography was shown to be highly accurate in predicting findings on posttherapy radioiodine scanning and was shown to...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann Sosa Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Utility of flow cytometry studies in the management of patients with multiple myeloma
Purpose of review: Although the input of multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) into the clinical management of multiple myeloma patients has faced some reluctance, continuously growing evidence supports the utility of MFC in this disease. Recent findings: MFC immunophenotyping of bone marrow and peripheral blood plasma cells affords cost-effective assessment of clonality, and provides prognostic information on the risk of progression in smoldering multiple myeloma, and the identification of active multiple myeloma patients with dismal outcome (e.g., high numbers of circulating tumor cells) or long-term survival despite subo...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 6, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

Treatment of brain metastasis: current status and future directions
Purpose of review: The purpose of this review is to highlight the most recent advances in the management of brain metastases. Recent findings: Role of local therapies (surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery), new approaches to minimize cognitive sequelae following whole-brain radiotherapy and advances in targeted therapies have been reviewed. Summary: The implications for clinical trials and daily practice of the increasing use of stereotactic radiosurgery in multiple brain metastases and upfront targeted agents in asymptomatic brain metastases are discussed. (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 6, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research