Treatment of ALK-positive nonsmall cell lung cancer: recent advances
Purpose of review The review will highlight recent advances in development of ALK-TKIs and management of patients with ALK-positive nonsmall cell lung cancer. Recent findings There has been rapid progress in the use of targeted therapies for ALK-positive NSCLC. Since the discovery, development and approval of crizotinib in 2011, three second-generation ALK-TKIs, ceritinib, alectinib and brigatinib have been approved by the FDA. A range of newer generation ALK inhibitors with improved potency against ALK and against mutations that confer resistance to crizotinib are in clinical development. Summary Our review will d...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Advanced PET imaging in oncology: status and developments with current and future relevance to lung cancer care
Purpose of review This review highlights the status and developments of PET imaging in oncology, with particular emphasis on lung cancer. We discuss the significance of PET for diagnosis, staging, decision-making, monitoring of treatment response, and drug development. The PET key advantage, the noninvasive assessment of functional and molecular tumor characteristics including tumor heterogeneity, as well as PET trends relevant to cancer care are exemplified. Recent findings Advances of PET and radiotracer technology are encouraging for multiple fields of oncological research and clinical application, including in-dep...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Molecular pathology of lung cancer: current status and perspectives
Purpose of review In this article, we summarize the current knowledge on molecular alterations in lung cancer that are targets for therapy, and provide an outlook on the future development of molecular pathology in precision oncology. Recent findings Lung cancer has become a paradigm for the success of molecular targeted therapies in solid tumors. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are effective treatment options in adenocarcinoma patients with an EGFR, ALK, ROS1 or B-Raf Proto-Oncogene, Serine/Threonine kinase mutation. Additional molecular targets that are addressed in clinical trials include ERBB2, MET, RET, NTRK1 and FGFR...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Mutational and epigenetic signatures in cancer tissue linked to environmental exposures and lifestyle
Purpose of review In this article, we describe how recent advances in the study of mutational and epigenetic signatures in tumours provide new opportunities to understand the role of the environment and lifestyle in cancer development. Recent findings Cancer-related mutational events have been investigated for decades but only recently the wide availability of genomic sequences and epigenomic data from thousands of cancer genomes has made it possible to identify numerous distinct mutational and epigenetic signatures through the application of advanced mathematical models. Some of these signatures have been linked to e...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Targeting the perivascular niche in brain tumors
Purpose of review Brain tumors are composed of primary tumors of the central nervous system, such us glioblastoma (GBM), and secondary metastatic tumors, such as melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma as well as lung and breast cancers. Brain tumors are highly deadly, and unfortunately not many improvements have been achieved to improve the survival of patients with brain tumors. Chemoradiation resistance is one of the most clinically relevant challenges faced in patients with brain tumors. The perivascular niche is one of the most relevant microenvironment hubs in brain tumors. The understanding of the cellular crosstalk establ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Paracrine interactions of cancer-associated fibroblasts, macrophages and endothelial cells: tumor allies and foes
Purpose of review Tumor stroma is composed of many cellular subtypes, of which the most abundant are fibroblasts, macrophages and endothelial cells. During the process of tissue injury, these three cellular subtypes must coordinate their activity to efficiently contribute to tissue regeneration. In tumor, this mechanism is hijacked by cancer cells, which rewire the interaction of stromal cells to benefit tumor development. The present review aims at summarizing most relevant information concerning both pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic actions implicating the three stromal cell subtypes as well as their mutual interac...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

The Smurf transition: new insights on ageing from end-of-life studies in animal models
Purpose of review Over the past 5 years, many articles were published concerning the prediction of high risk of mortality in apparently healthy adults, echoing the first description in 2011 of the Smurf phenotype, a harbinger of natural death in drosophila. Recent findings These recent findings suggest that the end-of-life is molecularly and physiologically highly stereotyped, evolutionarily conserved and predictable. Summary Taken altogether, these results from independent teams using multiple organisms including humans draw the lines of future directions in ageing research. The ability to identify and study indiv...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Lysine methylation signaling in pancreatic cancer
Purpose of review Despite better knowledge of its genetic basis, pancreatic cancer is still highly lethal with very few therapeutic options. In this review, we discuss the potential impact of epigenetic therapies, focusing on lysine methylation signaling and its implication in pancreatic cancer. Recent findings Protein lysine methylation, a key mechanism of posttranslational modifications of histone proteins, has emerged as a major cell signaling mechanism regulating physiologic and pathologic processes including cancer. This finely tuned and dynamic signaling mechanism is regulated by lysine methyltransferases (KMT),...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Revisiting tumor patterns and penetrance in germline TP53 mutation carriers: temporal phases of Li–Fraumeni syndrome
Purpose of review Germline pathogenic TP53 mutation may predispose to multiple cancers but penetrance and cancer patterns remain incompletely documented. We have analyzed international agency for research on cancer TP53 database to reevaluate age and variant-dependent tumor patterns. Recent findings Genome-wide studies suggest that germline variants are more frequent than estimated prevalence of Li–Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), suggesting that many carriers of potentially pathogenic mutations may not develop the syndrome. Carriers of a germline TP53 mutation who are detected in a clinical context have a penetrance of...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Advances in understanding the molecular underpinnings of adrenocortical tumors
Purpose of review Adrenocortical tumors are divided into benign adenomas and malignant carcinomas. The former is relatively common and carries a favorable prognosis, whereas the latter is rare and frequently presents at an advanced stage, with poor outcomes. Advances in next-generation sequencing, genome analysis, and bioinformatics have allowed for high-throughput molecular characterization of adrenal tumorigenesis. Recent findings Although recent genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic studies in large tumor cohorts have confirmed the central roles of aberrant Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, constitutive protein kina...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann Sosa Source Type: research

An update on the status of molecular testing for the indeterminate thyroid nodule and risk stratification of differentiated thyroid cancer
Purpose of review Correct identification of malignancy in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules is a diagnostic challenge, leading to potentially unnecessary surgery in patients for whom final histology is benign. Similarly, many patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) undergo aggressive surgical management of tumors, which may ultimately have low-risk histologic features. Use of molecular testing strategies can aid in both the diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid nodules and preoperative risk stratification of DTC. Recent findings Validation studies of both the Afirma Gene Expression Classifier and Thyr...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann Sosa Source Type: research

An update on noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features
Purpose of review Noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been established in the literature as a clinically indolent tumor. Despite this, it was traditionally treated like all other PTCs. In an attempt to reduce overtreatment of this entity, a panel of experts reclassified this entity as noninvasive follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). This reclassification has led to a flurry of literature elucidating the molecular, cytologic and clinical parameters of this ‘new’ entity and the implications for patient management. The purpose of this ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann Sosa Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Mutational and epigenetic signatures in cancer tissue linked to environmental exposures and lifestyle
Purpose of review In this article, we describe how recent advances in the study of mutational and epigenetic signatures in tumours provide new opportunities to understand the role of the environment and lifestyle in cancer development. Recent findings Cancer-related mutational events have been investigated for decades but only recently the wide availability of genomic sequences and epigenomic data from thousands of cancer genomes has made it possible to identify numerous distinct mutational and epigenetic signatures through the application of advanced mathematical models. Some of these signatures have been linked to e...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Targeting the perivascular niche in brain tumors
Purpose of review Brain tumors are composed of primary tumors of the central nervous system, such us glioblastoma (GBM), and secondary metastatic tumors, such as melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma as well as lung and breast cancers. Brain tumors are highly deadly, and unfortunately not many improvements have been achieved to improve the survival of patients with brain tumors. Chemoradiation resistance is one of the most clinically relevant challenges faced in patients with brain tumors. The perivascular niche is one of the most relevant microenvironment hubs in brain tumors. The understanding of the cellular crosstalk establ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Paracrine interactions of cancer-associated fibroblasts, macrophages and endothelial cells: tumor allies and foes
Purpose of review Tumor stroma is composed of many cellular subtypes, of which the most abundant are fibroblasts, macrophages and endothelial cells. During the process of tissue injury, these three cellular subtypes must coordinate their activity to efficiently contribute to tissue regeneration. In tumor, this mechanism is hijacked by cancer cells, which rewire the interaction of stromal cells to benefit tumor development. The present review aims at summarizing most relevant information concerning both pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic actions implicating the three stromal cell subtypes as well as their mutual interac...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

The Smurf transition: new insights on ageing from end-of-life studies in animal models
Purpose of review Over the past 5 years, many articles were published concerning the prediction of high risk of mortality in apparently healthy adults, echoing the first description in 2011 of the Smurf phenotype, a harbinger of natural death in drosophila. Recent findings These recent findings suggest that the end-of-life is molecularly and physiologically highly stereotyped, evolutionarily conserved and predictable. Summary Taken altogether, these results from independent teams using multiple organisms including humans draw the lines of future directions in ageing research. The ability to identify and study indiv...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Lysine methylation signaling in pancreatic cancer
Purpose of review Despite better knowledge of its genetic basis, pancreatic cancer is still highly lethal with very few therapeutic options. In this review, we discuss the potential impact of epigenetic therapies, focusing on lysine methylation signaling and its implication in pancreatic cancer. Recent findings Protein lysine methylation, a key mechanism of posttranslational modifications of histone proteins, has emerged as a major cell signaling mechanism regulating physiologic and pathologic processes including cancer. This finely tuned and dynamic signaling mechanism is regulated by lysine methyltransferases (KMT),...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Revisiting tumor patterns and penetrance in germline TP53 mutation carriers: temporal phases of Li–Fraumeni syndrome
Purpose of review Germline pathogenic TP53 mutation may predispose to multiple cancers but penetrance and cancer patterns remain incompletely documented. We have analyzed international agency for research on cancer TP53 database to reevaluate age and variant-dependent tumor patterns. Recent findings Genome-wide studies suggest that germline variants are more frequent than estimated prevalence of Li–Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), suggesting that many carriers of potentially pathogenic mutations may not develop the syndrome. Carriers of a germline TP53 mutation who are detected in a clinical context have a penetrance of...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Advances in understanding the molecular underpinnings of adrenocortical tumors
Purpose of review Adrenocortical tumors are divided into benign adenomas and malignant carcinomas. The former is relatively common and carries a favorable prognosis, whereas the latter is rare and frequently presents at an advanced stage, with poor outcomes. Advances in next-generation sequencing, genome analysis, and bioinformatics have allowed for high-throughput molecular characterization of adrenal tumorigenesis. Recent findings Although recent genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic studies in large tumor cohorts have confirmed the central roles of aberrant Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, constitutive protein kina...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann Sosa Source Type: research

An update on the status of molecular testing for the indeterminate thyroid nodule and risk stratification of differentiated thyroid cancer
Purpose of review Correct identification of malignancy in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules is a diagnostic challenge, leading to potentially unnecessary surgery in patients for whom final histology is benign. Similarly, many patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) undergo aggressive surgical management of tumors, which may ultimately have low-risk histologic features. Use of molecular testing strategies can aid in both the diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid nodules and preoperative risk stratification of DTC. Recent findings Validation studies of both the Afirma Gene Expression Classifier and Thyr...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann Sosa Source Type: research

An update on noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features
Purpose of review Noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been established in the literature as a clinically indolent tumor. Despite this, it was traditionally treated like all other PTCs. In an attempt to reduce overtreatment of this entity, a panel of experts reclassified this entity as noninvasive follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). This reclassification has led to a flurry of literature elucidating the molecular, cytologic and clinical parameters of this ‘new’ entity and the implications for patient management. The purpose of this ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann Sosa Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Systemic therapy in advanced melanoma: integrating targeted therapy and immunotherapy into clinical practice
Purpose of review: Here we review the results from relevant phase III trials and discuss treatment strategies for challenging subgroups of melanoma patients. Recent findings: Targeted therapies induce rapid responses in the majority of BRAF-mutant patients, however, 50% of these responders will develop resistance within approximately 13 months. In contrast, inhibitors of checkpoints on T cells, particularly inhibitors of PD-1, induce responses in 40–55% of patients (monotherapy or whenever combined with anti-CTLA-4), and these responses tend to be durable. Data from subgroup analyses of large clinical trials, as wel...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Special Commentary Source Type: research

Stop and go: hematopoietic cell transplantation in the era of chimeric antigen receptor T cells and checkpoint inhibitors
Purpose of review: For several decades, hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been considered the standard curative therapy for many patients with hematological malignancies. In addition to the cytotoxic effects of the chemotherapy and radiation used in the conditioning regimen, the benefits of HCT are derived from a reset of the immune system and harnessing the ability of donor T cells to eliminate malignant cells. With the dawn of the era of immunotherapies in the form of checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, the role of HCT has evolved. Recent findings: Immunotherapy with checkpoint ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

Relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia: any progress?
Purpose of review: Aim of this review was to focus on prognostic and predictive factors, standard and new treatment approaches, and on statistical considerations for future clinical trials in patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (r/r-AML). Recent findings: New prognostic molecular markers were identified in r/r-AML, FLT3-ITD, mutated IDH1, and biallelic CEBPA mutations. Intensive combination chemotherapy including gemtuzumab ozogamicin emerged as an effective salvage therapy in refractory AML. Timing of allo-HCT in r/r-AML may be oriented at the probability to achieve a response to intensive salvage th...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

Advances in immunotherapy in multiple myeloma
Purpose of review: Here, we explore the significant progress made in the treatment of multiple myeloma, focusing on immunotherapy and the promise it has offered to patients suffering from advanced disease. Recent findings: Multiple myeloma, a B-cell malignancy, is characterized by unregulated plasma cell growth in the bone marrow as well as strong immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment. mAbs targeting tumor antigens overcome this, increasing T-cell activation, multiple myeloma cell death, and depth of response. Similarly, adoptive T-cell therapy aims to engineer or isolate tumor-specific T cells for a targeted ap...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

Role of stem cell transplant in lymphoma in the era of new drugs
Purpose of review: Better understanding of the lymphoma pathogenesis and molecular biology has introduced a new era in the lymphoma therapy with the advent of targeted drugs. In this new era, the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is evolving, and the purpose of this review is to demonstrate how the introduction of novel agents has affected the current treatment strategy of different subtypes of lymphoma. Recent findings: Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) remains the standard of care for patients with relapsed Hodgkin Lymphoma and high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In the group of the ind...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

Thrombosis in adult patients with acute leukemia
Purpose of review: Recent studies indicate that the risk of thrombosis in hematologic patients may be similar or even higher than that found in patients with solid tumors. However, available information about pathogenesis and incidence of thrombosis in acute leukemia is limited. This review focuses on mechanisms underlying thrombosis in acute leukemia and discusses recent literature data. Recent findings: In the last few years, proofs have been provided that leukemic cells release free prothrombotic products, such as micro-vesicles, tissue factors, circulating free DNA and RNA. Furthermore, leukemic blasts can activate th...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

Put away your microscopes: the ependymoma molecular era has begun
Purpose of review: To synthesize, integrate, and comment on recent research developments to our understanding of the molecular basis of ependymoma (EPN), and to place this in context with current treatment and research efforts. Recent findings: Our recent understanding of the histologically defined molecular entity EPN has rapidly advanced through genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic profiling studies. Summary: These advancements lay the groundwork for development of future EPN biomarkers, models, and therapeutics. Our review discusses these discoveries and their impact on our clinical understanding of this disease. L...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Anaplastic gliomas in adults: an update
Purpose of review: The current review summarizes recent advances on the oncogenesis, classification and treatment of adult anaplastic gliomas. Recent findings: According to the 2016 WHO classification, three main molecular subgroups of adult diffuse anaplastic gliomas can be distinguished based on the 1p/19q codeletion and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status. In the future, this classification may be further refined based on the telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked mutation status, gene expression, DNA methylation and genomic profiling. Both newly ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Extending indication of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant setting
Purpose of review: A burst of recent activity has surrounded the study of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK 4/6) inhibitors for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. The success of these drugs in the metastatic setting has pushed the evaluation of these agents in early-stage disease. The use of CDK 4/6 inhibitors as neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy is a hot topic and several studies are underway. Recent findings: Ongoing studies are exploring the addition of CDK 4/6 inhibitors to endocrine therapy in early breast cancer. Summary: Identification of the optimal treatment combinations is the goal of current research. Fi...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BREAST CANCER: Edited by Giuseppe Curigliano Source Type: research

Notch inhibitors and their role in the treatment of triple negative breast cancer: promises and failures
Purpose of review: Notch signaling is a highly evolutionarily conserved cell-to-cell communication system that is involved in a number of pivotal cellular processes, such as development, stem cell maintenance, cell fate specification, differentiation, proliferation, and death. Much progress has been made in understanding Notch signaling. This review will focus on the role of canonical Notch signaling pathway in breast cancer cause and progressing. Recent findings: In this review, we will discuss the results of the studies using drugs, which target the Notch pathway. Summary: Notch sustains a proliferative signaling and p...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BREAST CANCER: Edited by Giuseppe Curigliano Source Type: research

New anti-HER2 agents: from second-generation tyrosine kinases inhibitors to bifunctional antibodies
Purpose of review: HER2-positive breast cancers have benefited since the end of the twentieth century, not only from the improvement of biological knowledge, but also from major technological advances. The latter allowed the synthesis of the first generation of enzymatic inhibitors of the HER receptor family such as lapatinib, but above all, monoclonal antibodies such as trastuzumab or pertuzumab having profoundly modified the management of these cancers. However, despite outstanding progresses, there are still patients who are not cured with these first-generation treatments, and they will need new approaches to improve d...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BREAST CANCER: Edited by Giuseppe Curigliano Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

How to emerge from the conservatism in clinical research methodology?
Purpose of review: Despite recent changes in clinical research methodology, many challenges remain in drug development methodology. Recent findings: Advances in molecular biology and cancer treatments have changed the clinical research landscape. Thus, we moved from empirical clinical oncology to molecular and immunological therapeutic approaches. Along with this move, adapted dose-limiting toxicities definitions, endpoints, and dose escalation methods have been proposed. Moreover, the classical frontier between phase I, phase II, and phase III has become unclear in particular for immunological approaches. So, investigato...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE AGENTS AND TREATMENT MODALITIES: Edited by Ahmad Awada and Steven T. Rosen Source Type: research

Novel therapeutic agents in the management of brain metastases
Purpose of review: This review aims to highlight the novel therapeutic agents in the management of brain metastases which are in various stages of clinical development. We review the results from recent clinical trials, publications and presentations at recent national and international conferences. Recent findings: Several new systemic treatment options for brain metastases are in early or advanced clinical trials. These drugs have good intracranial and extracranial activities. As lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma are the three most common causes of brain metastases, most agents in clinical development are focused...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE AGENTS AND TREATMENT MODALITIES: Edited by Ahmad Awada and Steven T. Rosen Source Type: research

Immunotherapy-based combinations: current status and perspectives
Purpose of review: Since the approval of ipilimumab, different immune checkpoint inhibitors, vaccines and costimulatory agonists have been developed with success, improving patient's survival in a number of different tumour types. However, immunotherapy results in durable responses but only in a fraction of patients. In order to improve this, combination of different immune agents is currently being attempted in the clinic with the potential of becoming one day the next wave of immune treatments available for our cancer patients. Recent findings: Combinatory regimens may have synergistic effects by acting at different poi...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE AGENTS AND TREATMENT MODALITIES: Edited by Ahmad Awada and Steven T. Rosen Source Type: research

Targeting EZH2 in cancer therapy
Purpose of review: The present review introduces recent outstanding progress pertaining to Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), especially regarding its mode of action as a master regulator of chromatin, and provides molecular-based evidence for targeting EZH2 in cancer therapy. We discuss the active development of small molecules targeting the enzymatic activity of EZH2/polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). Recent findings: Genetic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional dysregulation of EZH2 is frequently observed in many cancer types. EZH2 promotes tumorigenesis by altering the expression of numerous tumor suppressor ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE AGENTS AND TREATMENT MODALITIES: Edited by Ahmad Awada and Steven T. Rosen Source Type: research

Emerging cancer-specific therapeutic aptamers
Purpose of review: We will describe recently discovered smart aptamers with tumor specificity, with an emphasis on targeted delivery of novel therapeutic molecules, cancer-specific biomarkers, and immunotherapy. Recent findings: The development of cancer-specific aptamers has facilitated targeted delivery of potent therapeutic molecules to cancer cells without harming nontumoral cells. This specificity also makes it possible to discover novel cancer biomarkers. Furthermore, alternative immune-checkpoint blockade aptamers have been developed for combinational immunotherapy. Summary: Aptamers selected against cancer cells ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE AGENTS AND TREATMENT MODALITIES: Edited by Ahmad Awada and Steven T. Rosen Source Type: research

Therapeutic oncolytic viruses: clinical advances and future directions
This article reviews the current state of therapeutic oncolytic viruses in clinical use, and explores future directions of the field. (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE AGENTS AND TREATMENT MODALITIES: Edited by Ahmad Awada and Steven T. Rosen Source Type: research

Surgery for patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer: which patient, when and extent?
Purpose of review: Cytoreduction to no residual disease is the mainstay of primary treatment for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (AdvEOC). This review addresses recent insights on optimal patient selection, timing, and extent of surgery, intended to optimize cytoreduction in patients with AdvEOC. Recent findings: Clinical guidelines recommend primary cytoreductive surgery (PCS) for AdvEOC patients with a high likelihood of achieving complete cytoreduction with acceptable morbidity. In line with this, preoperative prediction markers such as cancer antigen-125, histologic and genomic factors, innovative imaging modalitie...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GYNECOLOGIC CANCER: Edited by Martin Gore Source Type: research

Re-irradiation of cervical and endometrial cancer
Purpose of review: Re-irradiation historically has been associated with unacceptable toxicity and limited benefit. Recent advances in radiotherapy can change the treatment paradigm to provide new salvage treatments for recurrences of cervical and endometrial cancer. Recent findings: Image-guided brachytherapy is an effective method for salvaging central pelvic recurrence, although it has resulted in 20–25% severe late toxicity. Pelvic sidewall disease is not accessible to brachytherapy, so a combined modality approach with radical surgery and intraoperative radiotherapy is an alternative approach. Stereotactic body ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GYNECOLOGIC CANCER: Edited by Martin Gore Source Type: research

Novel imaging techniques in gynaecological cancer
Purpose of review: To describe the added value of novel functional MRI techniques towards detection, staging, characterization, response monitoring and prognostication in gynaecological cancer. Recent findings: Functional MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI adds structural, hemodynamic and physiological information to anatomical MRI. In endometrial and cervical cancer, the addition of DWI-MRI and DCE-MRI improves tumour detection as well as staging of uterine and extra-uterine pelvic spread. Quantitative assessment of DWI and DCE-MRI reflecting tissue properties of bi...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GYNECOLOGIC CANCER: Edited by Martin Gore Source Type: research

Cancer in pregnancy: safety and efficacy of systemic therapies
Purpose of review: Cancer in pregnancy has become increasingly frequent. It has become clear that for specific cancers under well defined circumstances, oncological treatment in pregnancy can be well tolerated and feasible for both mother and fetus. Continued critical assessment of the available literature and registration of cancer in pregnancy cases and outcomes for mother and child are necessary to work toward implementing optimal cancer treatment during pregnancy. Recent findings: Physiologic changes in pregnancy may alter distribution and efficacy of systemic therapy. Data on systemic therapy including, chemotherapy,...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GYNECOLOGIC CANCER: Edited by Martin Gore Source Type: research

Rational therapeutic choice for older patients with lymphoma
Purpose of review: The choice for an optimal treatment in older lymphoma patients is a real challenge for hemato-oncologists. They have to treat a potentially curative lymphoma, and concomitantly protect their patients from unacceptable toxicities. Some recommendations are provided for the major subtypes of lymphomas including the antitumoral treatment and primarily the optimal supportive care. Recent findings: All the recent literature data converge to say that the approach of an older patient with a malignant hemopathy is a multistep procedure. This process comprises the appraisal of life expectancy of the patient with ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Dominique Bron Source Type: research

Elderly patients with multiple myeloma: towards a frailty approach?
Purpose of review: To describe how to better identify frail multiple myeloma patients and to treat them appropriately. Recent findings: Proteasome inhibitors, such as bortezomib, carfilzomib, and ixazomib, and immunomodulatory agents (IMiDs), such as thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide, have significantly improved the outcome of multiple myeloma patients in the last decade. However, both in clinical trials and in daily clinical practice, elderly multiple myeloma patients have shown lesser benefit. This is mainly due to less stringent use of proteasome inhibitors and IMiDs, increased toxicity, and subsequent early ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Dominique Bron Source Type: research

The genetics of Hodgkin lymphoma: an overview and clinical implications
Purpose of review: The goal of this review is to give an overview of the genetics of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Copy number changes, somatic mutations, genome-wide association studies, changes in gene expression, familial classical Hodgkin lymphoma and epigenetic changes will be reviewed. In doing so, special focus is placed on the way recent discoveries have influenced clinical research, diagnostics, treatment and remission monitoring. Furthermore, emphasis is put on how these advances can help to advance the treatment of elderly patients who have a markedly worse prognosis than younger patients. Recent findings: Freque...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Dominique Bron Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research