Role of the unfolded protein response in tumor cell characteristics and cancer outcome
Purpose of review: In the present review, we discuss the possible role of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the acquisition of tumor cell characteristics and in the prognosis of cancer outcome, which could assist and contribute to the development of more promising therapeutic strategies. Recent findings: Accumulating evidence supports the idea that alteration of endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis is a key player in cancer development and aggressiveness. Some UPR components were reported as independent prognostic biomarker. Recent evidence supports a relationship between the UPR activation status and prognosis of tumo...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut and Amelie Plymoth Source Type: research

The multifaceted roles of inflammasome proteins in cancer
Purpose of review: Inflammasomes are major actors of the innate immune system, through their regulation of inflammatory caspases and maturation of IL-1β and IL-18. These multiprotein complexes have been shown to play major roles in inflammatory and metabolic diseases and have more recently been implicated in tumor development and dissemination. In this review, we address these recent findings, focusing particularly on colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and tumor dissemination. Recent findings: Based mostly on loss-of-function experiments in mouse models, paradoxical results were obtained as both protumoral and antitu...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut and Amelie Plymoth Source Type: research

More chinks in the armor of cancer: potential for new therapies
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut and Amelie Plymoth Source Type: research

Advances and controversies in the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma
Purpose of review: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) comprises approximately 4% of all malignant thyroid neoplasms. Although the majority of patients have a good prognosis, a subgroup of patients develops progressive disease and requires systemic therapy. Here, we focused on the current MTC therapeutic approaches and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of molecular targeted therapies. Recent findings: Targeted molecular therapies that inhibit RET and other tyrosine kinase receptors involved in angiogenesis have been shown to improve progression-free survival in patients with advanced MTC. Two drugs, vandetanib and ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann Sosa Source Type: research

The follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer and noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP)
Purpose of review: Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is a new terminology proposed for encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC). Recently, thyroid cancer incidence has increased dramatically, without affecting related mortality rate. This increase is widely attributed to the intensified surveillance leading to a substantial increase in the diagnosis of small classic papillary thyroid cancers and EFVPTCs. Recent studies emphasize the indolent behavior of the EFVPTC. Recently, there has been a reclassification of EFVPTC as NIFTP, a benign entit...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann Sosa Source Type: research

An update on the status of nerve monitoring for thyroid/parathyroid surgery
Purpose of review: Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury is one of the most common and serious complications associated with thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Although routine visual identification of the RLN is considered the current standard of care, the role of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) of the RLN is more controversial. Recent findings: Despite initial enthusiasm that IONM might substantially reduce the rate of RLN injury, most studies failed to show a significant difference in the rate of RLN injury when the use of IONM was compared with visualization of the RLN alone. However, a small number of investigat...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann Sosa Source Type: research

Do flame retardant chemicals increase the risk for thyroid dysregulation and cancer?
Purpose of review: Flame retardant chemicals are added to consumer products to reduce fire incidence and severity; approximately 1.5 million tons of these chemicals are used annually. However, their widespread use has led to their ubiquitous presence in the environment and chronic accumulation in human tissues. We summarize current trends in human flame retardant chemical exposure, and review recent data highlighting concerns for thyroid dysregulation and cancer risk in human populations. Recent findings: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers were once commonly used as flame retardant chemicals, but recently were phased out. Exp...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann Sosa Source Type: research

Recent advances in nuclear medicine in endocrine oncology
Purpose of review: The purpose is to review recent advances concerning the role of nuclear medicine in endocrine oncology. Recent findings: For 131I therapy of thyroid cancer a thyrotropin (TSH) more than 30 mU/l has for many years been deemed a condition sine qua non. However, new data show that patients with lower TSH levels at the time of ablation have the same rate of successful ablation as those with TSH more than 30 mU/l. I-124 combined integrated positron emission tomography and computed X-ray tomography was shown to be highly accurate in predicting findings on posttherapy radioiodine scanning and was shown to...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann Sosa Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Utility of flow cytometry studies in the management of patients with multiple myeloma
Purpose of review: Although the input of multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) into the clinical management of multiple myeloma patients has faced some reluctance, continuously growing evidence supports the utility of MFC in this disease. Recent findings: MFC immunophenotyping of bone marrow and peripheral blood plasma cells affords cost-effective assessment of clonality, and provides prognostic information on the risk of progression in smoldering multiple myeloma, and the identification of active multiple myeloma patients with dismal outcome (e.g., high numbers of circulating tumor cells) or long-term survival despite subo...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 6, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

Treatment of brain metastasis: current status and future directions
Purpose of review: The purpose of this review is to highlight the most recent advances in the management of brain metastases. Recent findings: Role of local therapies (surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery), new approaches to minimize cognitive sequelae following whole-brain radiotherapy and advances in targeted therapies have been reviewed. Summary: The implications for clinical trials and daily practice of the increasing use of stereotactic radiosurgery in multiple brain metastases and upfront targeted agents in asymptomatic brain metastases are discussed. (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 6, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Practical implications of integrated glioma classification according to the World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system 2016
Purpose of review: Morphological features identifiable by light microscopy have been the basis of brain tumor diagnostics for many decades. The revised WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system 2016 combines histological and molecular features for an integrated classification. This new approach builds upon advances in brain tumor molecular genetics and has important practical implications. Recent findings: Molecular genetic studies revealed distinct glioma entities with specific genetic and epigenetic profiles. Evidence has been accumulated that molecular classification more reliably discriminates glioma ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 6, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Progress in neuro-imaging of brain tumors
Purpose of review: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely employed in the diagnosis and clinical management of brain tumors. This review provides an overview of the advancements in the field of MRI, with a particular focus on the quantitative assessment by advanced physiological magnetic resonance techniques in light of the new molecular classification of brain tumor. Recent findings: Understanding how molecular phenotypes of brain tumors are reflected in noninvasive imaging is the goal of radiogenomics, which aims at determining the association between imaging features and molecular markers in neuro-oncology. Adva...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 6, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Biomarkers for the identification of recurrence in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer patients
Purpose of review: This review discusses the mechanisms of anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) resistance in breast cancer patients, detailing possible predictive biomarkers of therapy benefit that could implement novel therapeutic strategies. Recent findings: Despite a remarkable improvement in survival over the past two decades, up to 30% of early-stage HER2+ breast cancer patients exhibit de-novo or acquired resistance to targeted therapy, underlying the need of developing predictive biomarkers. Summary: The role of HER family receptor redundancy, p95HER2 expression, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/prot...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 6, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BREAST CANCER: Edited by Giuseppe Curigliano Source Type: research

Extended anti-HER2 therapy in early breast cancer: longer beats shorter?
Purpose of review: One-year duration of adjuvant trastuzumab is the gold standard since 2005. During the last decade many attempts have been made to both increase and reduce the treatment duration. The purpose of this article is to review the current available evidence regarding alternative anti-HER2 therapy durations in the (neo)adjuvant treatment of HER2-positive localized breast cancer patients. Recent findings: According to the majority of published data, shorter trastuzumab schedule has shown a decreased benefit in the overall HER2 population, whereas extending adjuvant trastuzumab, beyond 1 year, does not improve th...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 6, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BREAST CANCER: Edited by Giuseppe Curigliano Source Type: research

Identifying biomarkers to select patients with early breast cancer suitable for extended adjuvant endocrine therapy
Purpose of review: In this review, we summarize recent and current biomarkers and assays that are being considered in the selection of suitable patients with estrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer for extended (years 5–10) adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET). Recent findings: Women with estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer (65% of cases) continue to have late risk for distant recurrence extending beyond 5 years from surgery. Recent large trials have consistently demonstrated improvement for prolonging endocrine therapy. However, endocrine therapy can cause women bothersome side effects and can n...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 6, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BREAST CANCER: Edited by Giuseppe Curigliano Source Type: research

Extended adjuvant endocrine therapy in hormone-receptor-positive early breast cancer
Purpose of review: The risk of relapse associated with oestrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer persists for at least 15 years after diagnosis. Several large clinical trials have examined extended adjuvant endocrine therapy. Recent findings: The MA.17 trial demonstrated improved disease-free survival (DFS) with use of letrozole for 5 years after some years of tamoxifen and an overall survival advantage for this approach in women with node-positive oestrogen receptor-positive cancer at diagnosis. The subsequent adjuvant tamoxifen – to offer more? and adjuvant tamoxifen: longer against shorter trials demonstrat...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 6, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BREAST CANCER: Edited by Giuseppe Curigliano Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 6, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Copy number variations and cancer susceptibility: Retraction
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Retraction Source Type: research

Regional hyperthermia for high-risk soft tissue sarcoma treatment: present status and next questions
Purpose of review: Recent developments of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy treatment strategies for high-risk soft tissue sarcoma (STS) with special emphasis on regional hyperthermia (RHT) are reviewed. Recent findings: Attempts to improve outcomes using up-front strategies in addition to surgery have essentially focused on neo-adjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy or preoperative radiochemotherapy. Unfortunately, the results are either confounded by retrospective analyses of nonrandomized studies with small sample size or are negative showing no substantial clinical benefit in the few randomized trials. RHT targets the region of t...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Special Commentary Source Type: research

Current-day precision oncology: from cancer prevention, screening, drug development, and treatment – have we fallen short of the promise?
Purpose of review: Precision oncology has been a strategy of prevention, screening, and treatment. Although much has been invested, have the results fallen so far short of the promise? The advancement of technology and research has opened new doors, yet a variety of pitfalls are present. This review presents the successes, failures, and opportunities of precision oncology in the current landscape. Recent findings: The use of targeted gene sequencing and the overwhelming results of superresponders have generated much excitement and support for precision oncology from the medical community. Despite notable successes, many c...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE AGENTS AND TREATMENT MODALITIES: Edited by Ahmad Awada Source Type: research

Inappropriate dose of multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors: the original sin
Purpose of review: The use of antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is challenging and often requires dose adaptation and transient or definitive treatment interruption. We believe that the inappropriate recommended dose of TKI is related to no optimal study designs in the early development of the drug. Recent findings: As an example of this, we described herein some pitfalls made in the successive development of sunitinib, sorafenib, regorafenib, and pazopanib, but there are several other examples of early drugs development illustrating this issue. Summary: Regarding the antiangiogenic TKI mechanism of action...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE AGENTS AND TREATMENT MODALITIES: Edited by Ahmad Awada Source Type: research

Antibody drug conjugates: the future of chemotherapy?
Purpose of review: The current review describes the rationale and current clinical development of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), along with their perspectives for the future. Recent findings: Trastuzumab emtansine was the first ADC approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive metastatic breast cancer in the second-line setting, with a high efficacy and a favorable safety profile. ADC represents an exciting new class of cancer therapeutics that combines a targeted approach for delivering cytotoxic agents. About 30 new ADCs are currently under inv...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE AGENTS AND TREATMENT MODALITIES: Edited by Ahmad Awada Source Type: research

Image-guided adaptive brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer: recent advances and perspectives
Purpose of review: Image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) is a high-precision radiation that allows defining accurately treatment targets and optimizing their coverage whereas sparing efficiently the surrounding organs at risk. Ten years ago, in a will of harmonizing the reporting of brachytherapy, the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie – European Society for Radiation Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) published recommendations on target definitions and dosimetric parameters. During the last years, clinical and dosimetric studies supporting their relevance led the International Commission on Radiation Units and M...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GYNECOLOGIC CANCER: Edited by Martin Gore Source Type: research

Neuroendocrine tumours of the gynecological tract
Purpose of review: The purpose of this article will be to review neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the gynaecological tract. NETs are generally considered to be uncommon and primary tumours in the gynaecological tract on arrival rare or very rare. It is important to distinguish true primary tumours from metastatic as the management is very different. These tumours ranged from highly aggressive small cell carcinomas (SCCs) sometimes associated with secretion of neuropeptides that may be functional and cause distinctive syndromes. On the other hand, the well differentiated low-grade NETs generally behave in a very indolent ma...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GYNECOLOGIC CANCER: Edited by Martin Gore Source Type: research

DNA damage response as a therapeutic target in gynecological cancers
Purpose of review: The proven activity of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in BRCA-mutated homologous recombination deficient (HRD) ovarian cancer has led to the availability to patients with ovarian cancer of the first targeted therapy with an associated predictive biomarker. Our focus has recently turned towards expanding the clinical utility of PARP inhibitors beyond BRCA mutated ovarian cancer, and to a search for novel targets within DNA damage response (DDR). Recent findings: Early trials in unselected patients with ovarian cancer showed responses to PARP inhibition in BRCA-wildtype ovarian cancer, and r...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GYNECOLOGIC CANCER: Edited by Martin Gore Source Type: research

Evidence for the use of robotically assisted surgery in gynecologic cancers
Purpose of review: Robotically assisted laparoscopy has been introduced in the armamentarium of gynaecologic oncology surgeons. A lot of studies compared robotic surgery and laparotomy when the real issue is to demonstrate the interest and added value of robotically assisted laparoscopy versus standard laparoscopy. In this review, we will describe the most meaningful indications and advantages of robotically assisted laparoscopy in gynaecologic oncology. Recent findings: The learning curve for advanced procedures in robot-assisted laparoscopy is shorter and easier than with the standard laparoscopy, especially for beginne...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GYNECOLOGIC CANCER: Edited by Martin Gore Source Type: research

Risk-adapted transplant strategies for high-risk Hodgkin lymphoma: are we there?
Purpose of review: The treatment of high-risk classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) patients remains challenging, especially after autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) failure. Moreover, the outcome of chemorefractory patients is still poor. Recent findings: The development of novel targeted therapies has changed the therapeutic options for high-risk patients. To improve outcome, treatment algorithms should integrate up-front, newly established prognostic markers. Tandem ASCT instead of single ASCT has been proposed as an option to improve outcome for high-risk patients. Availability of less toxic reduced intensity conditionin...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Dominique Bron Source Type: research

New drugs in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas
This article reviews new drugs available for CTCL. Recent findings: CTCL encompasses a group of T-cell neoplasms presenting in the skin without systemic involvement. Mycosis fungoides being the most common type and Sézary syndrome the leukaemic form. Treatment is dependent on stage and responses to previous therapy. Treatments are broadly divided into skin-directed therapies which are first-line for early stage disease and systemic therapy reserved for refractory or advanced stage CTCL. This article reviews mode of action, responses and adverse effects of new drugs being considered for CTCL. Summary: Most drugs fo...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Dominique Bron Source Type: research

Current developments in the treatment of early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma
Purpose of review: After presenting the current treatment recommendations for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, we give an overview on recently published clinical trials in this setting. Furthermore, the potential influence of current trials on the treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma and integration of newly emerging drugs into treatment protocols will be discussed. Recent findings: Trials attempting treatment de-escalation and omission of radiotherapy on the basis of early interim PET-scans have been disappointing so far, but results of some large trials employing this strategy are still awaited. In contrast, a more de...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Dominique Bron Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Insights into next developments in advanced gastric cancer
Purpose of review: The purpose of the review is to delineate novel approaches for biology-based treatment in advanced gastric cancer. We reviewed the latest translational and clinical research articles and congress presentations. Recent findings: A new molecular classification of gastric cancer based on histology, genetic and proteomic alterations has evolved. It provides a roadmap for development of new drugs and combinations and for patient stratification. Anti-HER2 treatment, which is an effective strategy in metastatic gastric cancer, is now also being studied in the perioperative setting. However, resistance mechanis...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 4, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

Will clinical heterogeneity of neuroendocrine tumors impact their management in the future? Lessons from recent trials
Purpose of review: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a group of biologically and clinically heterogeneous neoplasms arising from the diffuse neuroendocrine system. In the last few years, advances in our understanding of the biology of these tumors have translated into an expansion of treatment options for patients with NETs. Current treatment modalities include somatostatin analogs (SSAs), radiolabeled SSAs, targeted agents, cytotoxic drugs and liver-directed therapies for the management of metastatic disease. Recent findings: Recent studies have expanded the role of SSAs in gastroenteropancreatic (GEP)-NETs, and everolimu...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 4, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

Technological advances in radiotherapy of rectal cancer: opportunities and challenges
Purpose of review: This review summarizes the available evidence for the use of modern radiotherapy techniques for chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer, with specific focus on intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) techniques. Recent findings: The dosimetric benefits of IMRT and VMAT are well established, but prospective clinical studies are limited, with phase I–II studies only. Recent years have seen the publication of a few larger prospective patient series as well as some retrospective cohorts, several of which include much needed late toxicity data. Overall results are encourag...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 4, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

Present and future role of surgery in metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies
Purpose of review: Metastases from gastrointestinal malignancies are systemic or abdominal disseminations of cancer cells. From a biological perspective surgical resections are questionable but case series show that for some tumour types, surgery influences survival outcome. This review focuses on management and indications for surgery in recent literature of these metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies. Recent findings: A few gastrointestinal malignancies have emerged to be candidates for surgery in case of metastatic disease. Surgery can be considered in selected cases with liver metastases or abdominal dissemination ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 4, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

Too little benefit for too much toxicity: rethinking the adjuvant development model in colon cancer
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 4, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

Targeted treatments of sarcomas and connective tumors beside gastrointestinal stromal tumor
Purpose of review: Sarcoma is a heterogeneous group of malignancies historically treated with classic cytotoxic chemotherapy. This review updates the recent advances in targeted therapies in soft-tissue sarcoma, bone sarcoma and other connective diseases with local aggressiveness. Recent findings: Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitors, antiangiogenics, cell cycle inhibitors and immunomodulatory agents are the main targeted therapies in development in sarcoma. PDGFRα inhibitor olaratumab is being evaluated in a phase III trial in combination with doxorubicin against doxorubicin in monotherapy and...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 4, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

Molecular subtypes of gastrointestinal stromal tumor requiring specific treatments
This article reviews and discusses the current literature on how molecular subtyping of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) impacts decision-making in clinical practice. Recent findings: Genotyping has not yet been used for prognostication of localized GIST. Recent findings indicate that mutations in platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) and stem cell growth factor receptor (KIT) exon 11 duplication mutations are associated with a favorable prognosis. Subgroup analyses of randomized trials provide first evidence on how genotyping predicts clinical benefit in the adjuvant setting. In the palliative setti...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 4, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

First-line treatment in advanced or metastatic disease: one size fits all or adapted to specific histiotypes?
This article evaluates the supporting evidence for adapting choice of first-line chemotherapy to specific histological subtypes in advanced or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Recent findings: The evidence for the current standard of care for first-line chemotherapy in STS is reviewed. This is followed by an overview of the evidence for use of specific chemotherapy drugs in a number of specific STS histological subtypes. The more recent literature on newer drugs being used in the first-line setting in STS is then reviewed, and finally an assessment is made as to whether it is possible at this time to tailor first-lin...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 4, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

Molecular oncogenesis of chondrosarcoma: impact for targeted treatment
Purpose of review: The prognosis of patients with unresectable or metastatic chondrosarcoma of the bone is poor. Chondrosarcomas are in general resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This review discusses recent developments in the characterization of molecular pathways involved in the oncogenesis of chondrosarcoma that should be explored to improve prognosis of patients with advanced chondrosarcoma. Recent findings: The different oncogenic pathways for chondrosarcoma have become better defined. These include alterations in pathways such as isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation, hedgehog signalling, the retinoblastoma pr...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 4, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

Side-effects of checkpoint inhibitor-based combination therapy
Purpose of review: After the dramatic and often long-standing response rates of checkpoint inhibitors as single agents, the new era for checkpoint inhibitors is combined therapy (either with other checkpoint inhibitors, chemotherapies, targeted therapies or immunotherapies) that is aiming to do even better. Although one can speculate that these combinations will result in improved results, high cost and potential toxicity are limiting factors for their use. In this review, we plan to report on the different side-effects of the checkpoint inhibitor-based combination therapies and to discuss the future perspectives of these ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 4, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Rare side-effects of checkpoint inhibitors
Purpose of review: The aim of this review is to draw the attention of the physicians and oncologists on the rare side-effects of checkpoint inhibitors not usually reported in clinical trials to treat them quickly and render their prognosis better. Recent findings: Rare side-effects of checkpoint inhibitors are mainly neurologic, haematologic, rheumatologic, renal, and cardiac. The majority of reported side-effects are consequent of the treatment by ipilimumab in patients diagnosed with melanomas. Neurologic side-effects have poorer prognosis compared with other rare side-effects. There is no relationship between developin...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 4, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Ocular and orbital side-effects of checkpoint inhibitors: a review article
Purpose of review: Checkpoint inhibitors have been increasingly considered as new targets for cancer therapies. Patients receiving checkpoint inhibitors develop many immune-related adverse events (IRAEs). However, ophthalmic IRAEs are rare and have been reported in less than 1% of patients. To date, few case reports evaluating the ophthalmological side-effects of checkpoint inhibitors have been published. In this review, we plan to report the different ocular and orbital side-effects of the checkpoint inhibitors, and to help guide ophthalmologists and oncologists in their management. Recent findings: Ocular side-effects o...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 4, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Endocrinological side-effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors
Purpose of review: Three mAbs targeting immune checkpoint proteins are available for the treatment of patients with melanoma, lung, and kidney cancer, and their use will likely expand in the future to additional tumor types. We here update the literature on the incidence and pathophysiology of endocrine toxicities induced by these agents, and discuss management guidance. Recent findings: Immune checkpoint inhibition may trigger autoimmune syndromes involving different organs, including several endocrine glands (pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, and endocrine pancreas). Hypophysitis is more frequently associated with ipilimuma...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 4, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Immune-mediated respiratory adverse events of checkpoint inhibitors
Purpose of review: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated remarkable efficacy with durable responses in the treatment of various malignancies. This new class of therapeutic agents is associated with a toxicity profile that differs from conventional cytotoxic therapy. The present review is focused on one of these toxicities affecting the respiratory system. Recent findings: Many types of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have been identified since the emergence of checkpoint inhibitors including colitis, nephritis, myasthenia gravis-like syndromes, acute interstitial nephritis, pneumonitis, and endocrinopathies...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 4, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Checkpoint inhibitors and gastrointestinal immune-related adverse events
Purpose of review: Recent development of checkpoint inhibitors is a challenge for oncologists. Indeed, it leads to specific immune adverse events, close to autoimmune disorders, which require a specific management. Colitis is one of the most frequent immune adverse events, in particular with anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) therapy. Recent findings: Severe colitis is frequent with immune checkpoint inhibitors and leads in a few cases to bowel perforation and death. This review focuses on specific pathogenic pathway and recent findings on risk factors and managements of colitis. Summary: Anti-CTLA-...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 4, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Dermatologic complications of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint antibodies
Purpose of review: The therapeutic use of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies (nivolumab, pembrolizumab) is rapidly increasing. Given their mechanism of action that triggers T-cell activation, these immune checkpoint inhibitors induce specific adverse events that are mostly of immunologic origin. In this way, cutaneous toxicities represent the most frequent immune-related adverse events (irAEs). The purpose of this review is to summarize the most prevalent dermatologic complications induced by PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint-blocking antibodies and to compare their dermatologic safety profile with anti-CTLA-4 ipilimumab. Recent findi...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 4, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Checkpoint inhibitors: outstanding efficacy but at what cost?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 4, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 4, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

New developments in prostate cancer biomarkers
Purpose of review: The initial management of localized prostate cancer is increasingly complex with the identification of a growing number of prognostic subgroups. Molecular and genetic biomarkers have been proposed to help clinicians and patients navigate treatment decisions. Recent findings: Three commercially available tests, the Genomic Prostate score, Cell Cycle Progression score, and Genomic Classifier appear to currently have the most supporting data for their use in localized prostate cancer. All three have been shown to identify men at higher risk for poor outcome following radical prostatectomy in retrospective ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 7, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research