The genomic landscape of myeloid neoplasms with myelodysplasia and its clinical implications
This article will review the most recent advances in the understanding of the genetic basis of myeloid neoplasms with myelodysplasia and will discuss its clinical implications. Recent findings: Recurrent somatic mutations have been identified in about 90% of patients with myeloid neoplasms with myelodysplasia, involving genes of RNA splicing, DNA methylation, histone modification, transcription regulation, DNA repair, signal transduction, and cohesin complex. Somatic mutations are acquired in a linear manner in a multipotent hematopoietic stem cell, resulting in a growth advantage at the stem cell level and in defective di...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

State-of-the-art of bone marrow imaging in multiple myeloma
Purpose of review: Multiple myeloma is a common hematological malignancy arising in the bone marrow. Bone lesions were initially depicted with conventional radiography, although recently 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI are recognized as having a clear role in the initial workup and in the evaluation of therapy response. Recent findings: Tumor development produces osteolysis and expansive lesions. Although tumor burden and extent are key prognostic factors, different cancer hallmarks can also be evaluated in vivo through noninvasive imaging. Summary: This imaging-based virtual biopsy approach might be useful to define several releva...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

Epigenetic therapy of myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia
Purpose of review: This review will discuss issues arising along with the expanding use of hypomethylating treatment (HMT) in the management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Recent findings: HMT has been shown to induce responses in MDS and AML, and azacitidine (Vidaza, Celgene) has been shown to prolong survival in higher-risk MDS. Recent studies have supported the idea that disease stability may also be a treatment goal, whereas treatment interruption in responding patients is associated with rapid disease relapse and death. In AML, a modest but significant survival advantage has been s...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

Platelet function in malignant hematological disorders
Purpose of review: In this article, we summarize the current knowledge on new roles played by platelets and their interactions with blood components, and their possible implications in malignant hematological disorders. Recent findings: Recent reports in the literature are revealing that platelets are important partners in different aspects of physiology and pathophysiology beyond hemostasis and thrombosis, including but not restricted to inflammation, cancer or host defense. Moreover, several studies suggest that platelet interactions with other blood cells could regulate functional and biochemical responses of each other...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

Venous thrombosis in patients with high-grade glioma
We report here the specificities of VTE management in HGG patients relative to other cancer patients. Particular aspects such as anticoagulation under targeted therapies, primary and secondary prophylaxis, and the role of new oral anticoagulants are discussed as well. (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Cognitive outcome after radiotherapy in brain tumor
This article reviews the cognitive outcomes after radiotherapy in brain tumor patients, focusing on radiation-induced impairments, and then discusses actual cognitive assessment limitations. Recent findings: Although physiopathology of radiation-induced cognitive impairments remains elusive, a general course can be described as acute, early-delayed, and late-delayed effects corresponding to different processes. The last is of high interest because the related impairments are irreversible. In this context, a cognitive assessment should be performed as often as possible, but actual tools are unfortunately not developed. Neve...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Management of diffusely infiltrating glioma in the elderly
Purpose of review: Genetic, epigenetic, and expression analyses have refined the traditional, histopathology-based classification of diffusely infiltrating gliomas. This review summarizes these trends and implications for elderly patients. Recent findings: The vast majority of diffusely infiltrating gliomas in elderly patients share an unfavorable molecular phenotype, that is, telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutation in the absence of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and 1p/19q codeletion. Histopathologically, these are mostly astrocytic tumors and treatment is guided by the methylation status of the O6-me...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Recent developments and controversies in primary central nervous system lymphoma
Purpose of review: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare tumor, and its optimal management is a matter of controversy. Recent developments of collaborative groups devoted to PCNSL have allowed to conduct randomized trials addressing important issues. In addition, genome wide analysis provided new insights in the PCNSL tumorigenesis. Recent findings: The purpose of the present review is to focus on the most recent findings in the management and the biological advances of PCNSL. Summary: Cumulating data challenge the role of consolidation radiotherapy after high-dose methotrexate-based polychemotherapy, e...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Update on neurological paraneoplastic syndromes
Purpose of review: To provide an update on paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes (PNS), the involved tumors, and types of immune responses. Recent findings: PNS are a diverse group of syndromes that may present as a relatively isolated syndrome such as predominant cerebellar degeneration or limbic encephalitis, or with more complex phenotypes such as diffuse encephalomyelitis that affects different levels of the neuraxis producing a variety of clinical manifestations. The detection of specific antineuronal antibodies can confirm or strongly support the paraneoplastic cause of the syndrome and direct the search for the associ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Recent developments and future challenges in immune checkpoint inhibitory cancer treatment
Purpose of review: In this review, we focus on the recent findings and future challenges in cancer treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Recent findings: Major progress has been made in recent years as the first immune checkpoint inhibitors are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of cancer patients. Anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 and antiprogrammed death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibodies are being extensively studied in many different tumor types, often showing impressive response rates, but also a typical serious toxicity profile in the ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: THERAPEUTIC MODALITIES: Edited by Steven T. Rosen Source Type: research

Delivering on the promise: poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibition as targeted anticancer therapy
Purpose of review: The article presents the rationale, clinical development, and current status of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis) as anticancer agents. Recent findings: The recent approval of olaparib in heavily pretreated patients with advanced ovarian cancer carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation represents a significant therapeutic advance for patients with this difficult to treat disease. Though olaparib is the first agent in this class to be approved, multiple PARPis are in various stages of clinical development, including in combination with other treatment modalities such as radiation, antiangiogenic agents, ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: THERAPEUTIC MODALITIES: Edited by Steven T. Rosen Source Type: research

Smart CARs engineered for cancer immunotherapy
Purpose of review: Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are synthetic immunoreceptors, which can redirect T cells to selectively kill tumor cells, and as ‘living drugs’ have the potential to generate long-term antitumor immunity. Given their recent clinical successes for the treatment of refractory B-cell malignancies, there is a strong push toward advancing this immunotherapy to other hematological diseases and solid cancers. Here, we summarize the current state of the field, highlighting key variables for the optimal application of CAR T cells for cancer immunotherapy. Recent findings: Advances in CAR T-cell the...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: THERAPEUTIC MODALITIES: Edited by Steven T. Rosen Source Type: research

Mechanisms of breast cancer resistance to anthracyclines or taxanes: an overview of the proposed roles of noncoding RNA
Purpose of review: Anthracyclines and taxanes are the two most active classes of cytotoxic agents that are commonly used for the treatment of breast cancer. However, resistance to these agents has become a major clinical obstacle. The aim of the present review is to define the roles of noncoding RNA (ncRNA) in breast cancer progression and the development of chemotherapy resistance. The ultimate goal is to exploit ncRNAs as new therapeutic tools to overcome resistance. Recent findings: Two important types of ncRNA include microRNA (miRNA) and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). Both miRNA and lncRNA have recently impacted the fie...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BREAST CANCER: Edited by Giuseppe Curigliano Source Type: research

Targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor pathway in breast cancer
Purpose of review: The purpose of this manuscript is to critically review the literature published last year focusing on the rationale and potential role of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitors in breast cancer. Recent findings: Substantial evidence indicates that aberrant FGFR signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. FGFR targeting has progressed in the last years due to the development of novel agents inhibiting FGF or FGFR. One of the most investigated FGFR inhibitors is lucitanib, which has shown clinical activity in breast cancer, especially in presence of FGF aberrations. Moving forw...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BREAST CANCER: Edited by Giuseppe Curigliano Source Type: research

Immune checkpoint inhibitors with radiotherapy and locoregional treatment: synergism and potential clinical implications
Purpose of review: Antigens recognized by T cells in tumors include differentiation antigens, overexpressed antigens, cancer-testis, and mutated tumor neoantigens. Ionizing radiation causes damage to multiple biomolecules by direct energy deposition or by generation of free radicals, leading to cell death when the damage cannot be repaired. Tumor cell death induced by radiation will generate specific molecular signals that are sensed by antigen-presenting cells and stimulate their maturation and ability to cross-present tumor-derived antigens to T cells. Immunogenic cell death will complement the activity of immune checkpo...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BREAST CANCER: Edited by Giuseppe Curigliano Source Type: research

Prognostic and predictive immune gene signatures in breast cancer
Purpose of review: Here, we focus on molecular biomarkers derived from transcriptomic studies to summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms associated with differential prognosis and treatment outcome in breast cancer. Recent findings: Breast cancer is certainly immunogenic; yet it has been historically resistant to immunotherapy. In the past few years, refined immunotherapeutic manipulations have been shown to be effective in a significant proportion of cancer patients. For example, drugs targeting the PD-1 immune checkpoint have been proven to be an effective therapeutic approach in several soli...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BREAST CANCER: Edited by Giuseppe Curigliano Source Type: research

New frontiers in proton therapy: applications in breast cancer
Purpose of review: The aim of this article is to review published data on proton therapy in the multimodality treatment of breast cancer so as to provide an overview of the advantages and critical issues relating to this irradiation modality. Recent findings: In-silico studies show a clear advantage in terms of dose homogeneity to the target and dose reduction to the non-target structures including heart, lungs, and healthy breast tissues. Clinical studies have shown the feasibility of proton therapy in breast cancer and allowed optimizing the technique by using multiple beams and intensity modulation. Summary: Proton ther...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BREAST CANCER: Edited by Giuseppe Curigliano Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Update on melanoma epigenetics
Purpose of review: Over the last years, our understanding in molecular biology of melanoma has grown significantly and many genetic alterations have been identified affecting melanoma pathogenesis. This growing evidence has led to the development of targeted therapies which are showing promising clinical results. In addition to genetic alterations, an increasing number of studies have recently demonstrated the role of epigenetics in melanoma development and progression. Here, we summarize the current data on epigenetic research in melanoma. Recent findings: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiling studies have identified seve...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Low-grade epithelial ovarian cancer: a number of distinct clinical entities?
Purpose of review: The purpose of this study is to summarize the contemporary understanding of low-grade epithelial ovarian cancers. Recent findings: Low-grade serous ovarian cancer is biologically distinct from high-grade serous ovarian cancer. It is associated with a high incidence of K-RAS and B-RAF mutations. Although described as indolent due to median progression-free and overall survivals of 20 and 99 months, respectively, with a median age of diagnosis of 43 years, it accounts for a significant number of patient-years lost. Retrospective studies suggest response rates of 5% for chemotherapy and 9% for antioestrogen...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GYNECOLOGIC CANCER: Edited by Martin Gore Source Type: research

Management of toxicities following pelvic irradiation for gynaecological cancers
This article discusses recent advances in preventing and managing radiotherapy-related toxicity. Recent findings: Often underreported in clinical studies, radiation toxicity should be assessed with validated assessment tools to assess impact on quality of life. Prevention strategies targeting reactive oxygen species and proinflammatory cytokines show promise. Bowel toxicity is the most common late effect, and algorithm-led investigation and management can significantly improve outcomes. Oral and intravesical therapies are options for bladder toxicity if conservative measures fail. Summary: With better understanding of the ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GYNECOLOGIC CANCER: Edited by Martin Gore Source Type: research

Current status of human papillomavirus vaccination
Purpose of review: In this article, we review the impact of the quadrivalent and bivalent prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines on HPV infection and disease, review alternative vaccine dosing schedules, the vaccination of men and the nine-valent HPV vaccine. Recent findings: HPV vaccines have had dramatic impacts on the prevalence of targeted HPV types (6,11,16 and 18), genital warts and precancerous cervical lesions. Population coverage would be facilitated by adopting two-dose schedules, with recent findings that two-dose schedules in young adolescents are as immunogenic as three doses in young adults. Extensi...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GYNECOLOGIC CANCER: Edited by Martin Gore Source Type: research

Epstein–Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly: a concise review and update
Purpose of review: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly is an EBV-positive monoclonal large B-cell proliferative disease that arises in elderly patients older than 50 years. Updated knowledge on geographical/ethnical variations in the prevalence and prognostic impact of EBV positivity, the genetic mechanisms of lymphomagenesis, and the validity of the disease is available. Recent findings: The poor prognostic impact of EBV positivity is consistent among Asian populations, but not in Western populations. CD30 may be associated with this geographical/ethnical variation....
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Bertrand Coiffier and Anne-Sophie Michallet Source Type: research

Targeting the programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 axis in lymphoma
We present an overview of the clinical trials evaluating pidilizumab, nivolumab, and pembrolizumab in patients with lymphoid malignancies, and highlight some of the more promising agents in this class, currently in development. Finally, we discuss biomarkers that may predict response to therapy in patients with lymphoma across these clinical trials. Summary: A plethora of clinical trials are in progress testing immune checkpoint inhibitors in many subtypes of lymphoma, which will define their role both as a monotherapy and in combination with other biologic agents. (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Bertrand Coiffier and Anne-Sophie Michallet Source Type: research

Primary refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma in the rituximab era
Purpose of review: The aim of this review is to describe the outcome of primary refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma in the rituximab era and the different therapeutic options as well as new biological markers that could allow the pathologist to distinguish these cases at diagnosis. Recent findings: Diffuse large B cell lymphoma outcome has been impressively improved since the introduction of rituximab in association with anthracycline-based chemotherapy; however, primary refractory patients still represent an unmet medical need. Summary: If patients without relapse after 2 years from diagnosis have an outcome comparab...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Bertrand Coiffier and Anne-Sophie Michallet Source Type: research

New insights in the management of patients with hairy cell leukemia
Purpose of review: Although hairy cell leukemia (HCL) was identified in 1958 by Bouroncle and colleagues, HCL remains in 2015 a mysterious disease. Accurate diagnosis of HCL relies on the recognition of hairy cells by morphology and flow cytometry in blood and/or bone marrow. However, there are cases difficult to diagnose, particularly in variants of HCL. Furthermore, some diseases such as splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma are very close to HCL and may be misdiagnosed. Major advances in the management of patients who have HCL have been made following the use of purine nucleoside analogs. However, new treatment...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Bertrand Coiffier and Anne-Sophie Michallet Source Type: research

Management of elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the era of targeted therapies
Purpose of review: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is frequently diagnosed after 71 years, though median age in published clinical trials with standard chemoimmunotherapy regimens in frontline or relapse setting is mostly below 70 years (58–71 years). Development of oral, less toxic and thus more affordable targeted therapies offers new therapeutic options in those patients deemed unfit for chemotherapy. Recent findings: This review will discuss results of these new agents in the therapy of elderly patients. Apart from discussing the impact of chronological age, creatinine clearance and cumulative illness rating s...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Bertrand Coiffier and Anne-Sophie Michallet Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

End-of-life sedation: is there an alternative?
This article presents the state-of-the-art (definitions, indications, and technical aspects) about continuous sedation, followed by an ethical reflection essentially based on the ‘Principle of Double Effect’, the impact on life expectancy, and the concept of ‘natural death’. (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Cancer survivorship: long-term side-effects of anticancer treatments of gastrointestinal cancer
Purpose of review: Surveillance of patients with a history of cancer is a frequent practice in oncology. However, it is often aimed at the early diagnosis of relapse and tends to underestimate the evaluation and care of factors impairing quality of life (QoL). Among these, long-term toxicities of anticancer treatments are one of the major threats to a complete physical and psychosocial recovery. We aimed to review the relevant literature on long-term side-effects of treatment in gastrointestinal cancers. Recent findings: We focused on esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, liver and colorectal cancers. A significant fraction of ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

Of art and science: is personalized medicine getting personal enough?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

Surgical approach for soft tissue sarcoma: standard of care and future approaches
Purpose of review: This review highlights the ongoing importance of surgical resection as the primary treatment modality for localized soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) in all locations and for the majority of histologic types. Accomplishing this goal in an oncologic fashion is of paramount importance for all patients eligible for treatment with curative intent and for selected patients with metastatic disease. Recent findings: Ongoing advances in combined modality therapy and improved knowledge regarding the natural history and disease biology of individual sarcoma subtypes have allowed for better surgical planning and tailorin...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jonathan C. Trent Source Type: research

The immune system and gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a wealth of opportunities
This article reviews the current literature on tumor-infiltrating immune cells in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and the current status and prospects of effective immunotherapeutic strategies. Recent findings: Tumor-infiltrating immune cells populate the microenvironment of GISTs; the most numerous are tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and CD3+ T cells. TAMs have not been shown to have a relationship with the biological behavior of GISTs; however, the number of CD3+ T cells correlates with better outcomes. The prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating neutrophils, natural killer cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T ce...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jonathan C. Trent Source Type: research

Surveillance recommendations for patients with germline TP53 mutations
Purpose of review: Li–Fraumeni syndrome is associated with germline TP53 mutations and carriers have a high lifetime risk of cancer, the most common being sarcoma, breast cancer, brain tumors, adrenocortical carcinoma and leukemia. Germline TP53 mutation carriers are increasingly being identified as more genomic sequencing is performed in both clinical and research settings. There is a pressing clinical need for effective cancer risk management approaches in this group. Recent findings: Current clinical surveillance guidelines mainly focus on breast and bowel cancer risk with little consideration for the other cancer...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jonathan C. Trent Source Type: research

Value added: functional MR imaging in management of bone and soft tissue sarcomas
Purpose of review: MRI plays a crucial role in the initial diagnosis, treatment planning, and long-term management of bone and soft tissue sarcomas. Technological advances have enabled improvements in both delineation of anatomic detail, and in functional imaging techniques that interrogate tissues at the cellular level. This bears particular relevance in sarcomas as morphological parameters alone do not necessarily correlate with treatment response and prognosis. Here, we describe recent developments in advanced MRI techniques, including chemical-shift MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and dyna...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jonathan C. Trent Source Type: research

Synovial sarcoma diagnosis and management in the era of targeted therapies
Purpose of review: Synovial sarcomas are a distinct soft tissue sarcoma subtype, with a predilection for young adults. Despite its common translocation, there is substantial heterogeneity in patient outcome. This review discusses recent developments in diagnosis, prognostication, and treatments, together with the role of targeted agents and immunotherapy in patients with synovial sarcoma. Recent findings: Tumor behavior of synovial sarcomas remains inexplicable and is therefore poorly predictable. Although many variables seem to contribute to and influence patient outcome, no underlying pathophysiology accounting for the v...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jonathan C. Trent Source Type: research

Recent developments in supporting adolescent and young adult siblings of cancer patients
Purpose of review: The psychosocial needs of adolescent and young adult (AYA) siblings of cancer patients are easily overlooked. Accordingly, the evidence base informing short and long-term outcomes for these young people is sparse. This review provides an overview of recent research highlighting the experiences, unmet needs and psychosocial issues of AYA siblings, together with recent interventions. Recent findings: The reviewed studies bring focus to the range of informational and supportive care needs that typically remain unmet in AYA siblings. The limited number of interventions designed specifically for this group no...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Social competence in pediatric brain tumor survivors: breadth versus depth
Purpose of review: The purpose of this article is to review the literature in the area of social competence in pediatric brain tumor survivors published in the last year. Recent findings: Research published over the past year examining the social competence of pediatric brain tumor survivors has seen the consistent application of a comprehensive conceptual framework that pertains specifically to children with brain disorders. Subsequent to the application of a comprehensive conceptual framework, more sophisticated research approaches have begun to advance our understanding of deficits among this population. Specifically, o...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Screening for psychological late effects in childhood, adolescent and young adult cancer survivors: a systematic review
Purpose of review: In the past years, increasing evidence showed that many childhood cancer survivors suffer from psychological distress long after treatment ended. However, psychosocial issues are often neglected during follow-up care. Including screening for psychological distress before follow-up appointments might help addressing the topic in survivors who need support. Our aim was to systematically review the available evidence on screening for psychological distress in childhood cancer survivors. Recent findings: We found eight studies that investigated different screening tools for their utility in detecting psychol...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Survivor care for pediatric cancer survivors: a continuously evolving discipline
This article summarizes recent findings regarding the prevalence of chronic health conditions, cardiovascular and pulmonary late effects, and second malignancies in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), and examines facilitators and barriers to survivor care. Recent findings: The estimated cumulative prevalence for a serious chronic disease in CCSs is 80% by age 45. The crude prevalence for cardiac conditions is 56.4% and for pulmonary dysfunction is 65.2%. Research in cardio-oncology is focused on better methods of predicting risk for cardiac dysfunction, and better methods of detection and interventions to prevent cardiac l...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

A review of symptom screening tools in pediatric cancer patients
Purpose of review: Children receiving chemotherapy experience a high burden of symptoms. The purposes of this review were to identify symptom assessment tools used in pediatric cancer patients published in the last year; describe the characteristics of the identified tools; and evaluate their appropriateness for symptom screening and to alter patient management. Recent findings: We identified six different symptom screening or assessment tools used across 10 studies in the past year. Four instruments contained 30 or more items. Patient management was not altered on the basis of identified symptoms in any of these studies. ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

What can be learned from our pediatric colleagues?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

B-type proto-oncogene-mutated tumors of colon cancer: promising therapeutic approaches
Purpose of review: B-type proto-oncogene (BRAF) mutations have been observed in about 10.8% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). These patients do not respond to standard therapy with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor kinase (EGFR). Here we review novel BRAF inhibitors that are currently being investigated in these tumors. Recent findings: Clinical experience with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib in CRC suggests significant differences in response compared with melanoma. Based on preclinical data, resistance to BRAF inhibitors employs alternative signaling pathways that in turn induce cell proliferation and survival...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE EARLY CLINICAL TRIALS METHODOLOGY AND NEW THERAPEUTICS IN CANCER: Edited by Ahmad Awada Source Type: research

What have we learned from exceptional tumour responses?: review and perspectives
Purpose of review: Understanding the basis of exceptional responses may increase our knowledge of disease biology and the mechanism of action of targeted agents, and identify subpopulations of patients who derive important benefit from drugs that would otherwise not be developed due to lack of sufficient activity in the general population. We will discuss in this review the value of a systematic phenotype-to-genotype approach in these outlier responders to identify actionable therapeutic targets that can help to personalize the delivery of cancer treatment. Recent findings: Genomic mapping of outlier responders by next-gen...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE EARLY CLINICAL TRIALS METHODOLOGY AND NEW THERAPEUTICS IN CANCER: Edited by Ahmad Awada Source Type: research

Metabolic disorders associated with the use of targeted cancer therapies
Purpose of review: The everyday use of targeted therapies, whose mechanisms of action differ from the conventional cytotoxic agents, also causes the emergence of new toxicities as metabolic disorders about which little is known. We propose a systematic literature review of the incidence and physiopathology of targeted therapies-induced metabolic disorders and provide some management guidance. Recent findings: In recent decades, significant breakthroughs in molecular oncology and immunology have been made. The administration of targeted therapies and immunotherapy has been associated with metabolic toxicities such as endocr...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE EARLY CLINICAL TRIALS METHODOLOGY AND NEW THERAPEUTICS IN CANCER: Edited by Ahmad Awada Source Type: research

Cancer genomics: the challenge of drug accessibility
This article highlights the difficulties associated with patients accessing targeted drugs based on genomic information, and some proposed solutions. Recent findings: Although cancers are increasingly stratified according to molecular subgroups, challenges remain in improving patient outcome based on drug-target matching. Before a drug-target match is even proposed, significant expertise is required of the clinician to interpret genomic information. Once a potential match is made, barriers remain for patients to access treatment via clinical trials, as approved agents on-label or off-label, or through expanded access progr...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE EARLY CLINICAL TRIALS METHODOLOGY AND NEW THERAPEUTICS IN CANCER: Edited by Ahmad Awada Source Type: research

New generations of targeted therapies fighting the resistance in solid tumors
Purpose of review: The identification of molecular alterations that drive tumor growth and spread of solid tumors has led to the development of multiple targeted therapies considered as first-generation agents that have improved clinical benefit. However, tumor cells are able to rapidly develop resistance to these agents. The growing understanding of the biology of the resistance mechanisms has spurred ongoing development of second-generation and third-generation targeted therapies aiming at new strategies to overcome resistance. Recent findings: Several generations of targeted therapies have been developed in order to pre...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE EARLY CLINICAL TRIALS METHODOLOGY AND NEW THERAPEUTICS IN CANCER: Edited by Ahmad Awada Source Type: research

Reinvention of chemotherapy: drug conjugates and nanoparticles
Purpose of review: Recent advances in nanotechnology have addressed some of the issues related to lack of selectivity and nonspecific toxicities associated with conventional chemotherapy. Nanoparticles are therapeutic carriers that can be fine tuned for specific application and for passive or active tumor targeting. Recent findings: Although the nanoparticle field is rapidly expanding, there are to date only six nanoparticle-based drug delivery platforms and two antibody–drug conjugates that are clinically approved for cancer therapy. Here, we review the clinical data of liposomal anthracyclines, nanoparticle formula...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE EARLY CLINICAL TRIALS METHODOLOGY AND NEW THERAPEUTICS IN CANCER: Edited by Ahmad Awada Source Type: research

Advances in imaging modalities in prostate cancer
Purpose of review: Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of prostate cancer (PCa). Thus, much effort has gone into improving imaging modalities in PCa. This review focuses on the recent advancements in transrectal ultrasound, MRI and PET during the past year. Recent findings: Contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound with microbubbles may be useful in PCa, but needs further evaluation before more widespread use. Multiparametric MRI has emerged as a valuable tool to assist clinical management of PCa, and great progress has been made in the past year. Several radionuclides for PET/computed tomography have...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 11, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research