Modulation of the Cannabinoid System: A New Perspective for the Treatment of the Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is somewhat complex and has yet to be fully understood. As the effectiveness of the therapy currently available for AD has proved to be limited, the need for new drugs has become increasingly urgent. The modulation of the endogenous cannabinoid system (ECBS) is one of the potential therapeutic approaches that is attracting a growing amount of interest. The ECBS consists of endogenous compounds and receptors. The receptors CB1 and CB2 have already been well characterized: CB1 receptors, which are abundant in the brain, particularly in the hippocampus...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - July 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Giuseppina T, Alessandro T, Giuseppe B, de Lena C Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: In Silico Studies in Drug Research Against Neurodegenerative Diseases.
PMID: 29938615 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - June 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Scotti L, Scotti MT Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Suicide risk in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and exploration of risk factors: a systematic review.
CONCLUSION: Overall, suicidality appears a relevant phenomenon in OCD. PMID: 29929465 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - June 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Albert U, De Ronchi D, Maina G, Pompili M Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Functional and structural neural changes in obsessive-compulsive disorder after pharmacotherapy.
Abstract Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder which is important and disturbing the quality of life and is characterized by repetitive thoughts and behaviors, now in a different category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM 5). Neuroimaging investigations are very useful to reveal a neurobiological model of the OCD. Studies conducted in the last quarter century have shown clear results and revealed that specific cortico-subcortical circuits could be involved in the occurrence of OCD symptomatology. These neuroimaging studies pointed out some important findin...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - June 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Atmaca M Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: Glia-Neuron Crosstalk and its Therapeutic Implication in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.
PMID: 29764358 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kim YK Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: The Role of Ca2+-activated K+ Channels of Intermediate Conductance in Glioblastoma Malignancy.
PMID: 29764359 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Catacuzzeno L, Franciolini F Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Mst1: function and mechanism in brain and myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.
This article reviews the role of Mst1 in the signaling pathways which relate with neuronal cell apoptosis or microglia activation following myocardial and brain injury. Therefore, this work contribute to better understand of the pathological process of myocardial and brain injury. PMID: 29766810 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Li D, Ni H, Rui Q, Gao R, Chen G Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

P2X7 Receptor-Associated Programmed Cell Death in the Pathophysiology of Hemorrhagic Stroke.
Abstract Hemorrhagic stroke is a life-threatening disease characterized by a sudden rupture of cerebral blood vessels, and cell death is widely believed to occur after exposure to blood metabolites or subsequently damaged cells. Recently, programmed cell death, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis, has been demonstrated to play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of stroke. However, the detailed mechanisms of these novel kinds of cell death are still unclear. The P2X7 receptor, previously known for its cytotoxic activity, is an ATP-gated, non-selective cation channel that belongs...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zhao H, Chen Y, Feng H Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: Nicotine and the Nicotinic Cholinergic System in Health and Disease.
PMID: 29734939 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pogun S Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Does ceruloplasmin defend against neurodegenerative diseases?
Abstract Ceruloplasmin (CP) is the major copper transport protein in plasma, mainly produced by the liver. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked CP (GPI-CP) is the predominant form expressed in astrocytes of the brain. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that CP is an essential protein in body with multiple functions such as regulating the homeostasis of copper and iron ions, ferroxidase activity, oxidizing organic amines, and preventing the formation of free radicals. In addition, as an acute-phase protein, CP is induced during inflammation and infection. The fact that patients with genetic disorder acerulo...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wang B, Wang XP Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Diagnostic Issues in Early-onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Their Treatment Implications.
CONCLUSION: There is evidence that EO might be considered the neurodevelopmental subtype of OCD. Indeed there is evidence that different clusters of symptoms and dimensions at an early stage predict different trajectories in phenotype and that distinct neurocircuit patwhays underpin the progression of the disorder. Despite the development of high refractoriness in the course of the disorder, evidence suggests that EO may be particularly treatment responsive in the early stages, thus showing the need for early recognition and additional recovery oriented studies in this subgroup. Consistent with the neurodevelopmental persp...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Burchi E, Pallanti S Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Pharmacological Treatment Of Body Dysmorphic Disorder.
Abstract Body dysmorphic disorder is a challenging disorder that manifests as erroneously perceived flaws in one's physical appearance and repetitive behaviors in response to appearance concerns. This disorder is also frequently comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder and autism spectrum disorder. It is currently understood to arise from a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Treatment of body dysmorphic disorder typically consists of a combination of pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. However, not all patients respond to treatme...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hong K, Nezgovorova V, Uzunova G, Schlussel D, Hollander E Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Glaucoma pathogenesis and neurotrophins: Focus on the Molecular and Genetic basis for Therapeutic prospects.
CONCLUSION: Understanding genetic heterogeneity and involvement of neurotrophin biology in glaucoma could help to understand the complex pathophysiology of glaucoma. Identification of novel molecular targets will be critical for drug development and provide neuroprotection to the RGCs and optic nerve. PMID: 29676228 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chitranshi N, Dheer Y, Abbasi M, You Y, Graham SL, Gupta V Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Viral induced oxidative and inflammatory response in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis with identification of potential drug candidates: A systematic review using systems biology approach.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is genetically complex with multifactorial etiology. Here, we aim to identify the potential viral pathogens leading to aberrant inflammatory and oxidative stress response in AD along with potential drug candidates using systems biology approach. We retrieved protein interactions of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and tau protein (MAPT) from NCBI and genes for oxidative stress from NetAge, for inflammation from NetAge and InnateDB databases. Genes implicated in aging were retrieved from GenAge database and two GEO expression datasets. These genes were individually used to create pr...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Talwar P, Gupta R, Kushwaha S, Agarwal R, Saso L, Kukreti S, Kukreti R Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Insights into the molecular aspects of neuroprotective Bacoside A and Bacopaside I.
Abstract Bacopa monnieri, commonly known as Brahmi, has been extensively used as a neuromedicine for various disorders such as anxiety, depression and memory loss. Chemical characterization studies revealed the major active constituents of the herb as the triterpenoid saponins, bacosides. Bacoside A, the vital neuroprotective constituent, is composed of four constituents viz., bacoside A3, bacopaside II, jujubogenin isomer of bacopasaponin C (bacopaside X) and bacopasaponin C. B. monnieri extracts as well as bacosides successfully establish a healthy antioxidant environment in various tissues especially in liver a...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sekhar VC, Viswanathan G, Baby S Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Combating neurodegenerative diseases with the plant alkaloid berberine: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential.
Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases are among the most serious health problems affecting millions of people worldwide. Such diseases are characterized by a progressive degeneration and / or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Currently, there are no therapeutic approaches to cure or even halt the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. During the last two decades, much attention has been paid to the neuroprotective and anti-neurodegenerative activities of compounds isolated from natural products with high efficacy and low toxicity. Accumulating evidence indicates that berberine, an isoquinoline alka...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Fan D, Liu L, Wu Z, Cao M Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Necroptosis Signaling Pathways in Stroke: from Mechanisms to Therapies.
Abstract It has been confirmed that apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis are the three major modes of cell death. For a long time, necrosis is regarded as a deranged or accidental cell demise. In recent years, there is evidence showing that necrotic cell death can be a well regulated and orchestrated event, which is also known as programmed cell death or "necroptosis". Necroptosis can be triggered by a variety of external stimuli and regulated by a caspase-independent pathway. It plays a key role in the pathogenesis of some diseases including neurological diseases. In the past two decades, a variety of ...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jun-Long H, Yi L, Bao-Lian Z, Jia-Si L, Ning Z, Zhou-Heng Y, Xue-Jun S, Wen-Wu L Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The Role of IRE1 Signaling in Central Nervous System Diseases.
Abstract The accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen results in activation of an adaptive stress process called the unfolded protein response (UPR). As the most conserved signaling branch of the UPR, Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) possesses both Ser/Thr kinase and RNase activities that operates as a major stress sensor, mediating both adaptive and pro-apoptotic pathways under ER stress. Over the last three decades, a mounting body of evidence has shown that IRE1 signaling dysfunction is involved in pathology of various neurological disorders. Targeting this pathway ha...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ni H, Rui Q, Li D, Gao R, Chen G Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Functional Cross-Talk between Adenosine and Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors.
Abstract G-protein coupled receptors are transmembrane proteins widely expressed in cells and their transduction pathways are mediated by controlling second messenger levels through different G-protein interactions. Many of these receptors have been described as involved in the physiopathology of neurodegenerative diseases and even considered as potential targets for the design of novel therapeutic strategies. Endogenous and synthetic allosteric and orthosteric selective ligands are able to modulate GPCRs at both gene and protein expression levels and can also modify their physiological function. GPCRs that coexis...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Leon-Navarro DA, Albasanz JL, Martin M Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Therapeutic potential of multifunctional tacrine analogues.
Abstract Tacrine is a potent inhibitor of cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) that shows limiting clinical application by liver toxicity. In spite of this, analogues of tacrine are considered as model inhibitor of cholinesterases in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease. The interest in these compounds is mainly related to a high variety of their structure and biological properties. In the present review, we have described the role of cholinergic transmission and treatment strategies in Alzheimer's disease as well as the synthesis and biological activity of several recently developed clas...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Przybylowska M, Kowalski S, Dzierzbicka K, Inkielewicz-Stepniak I Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Nerve Growth Factor: Early Studies And Recent Clinical Trials.
Abstract Since its discovery, nerve growth factor (NGF) has long occupied a critical role in developmental and adult neurobiology for its many important regulatory functions on the survival, growth and differentiation of nerve cells in the peripheral and central nervous system. NGF is the first discovered member of a family of neurotrophic factors, collectively indicated as neurotrophins, (which include brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3 and neurotrophin 4/5). NGF was discovered for its action on the survival and differentiation of selected populations of peripheral neurons. Since then, an enormous ...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rocco ML, Soligo M, Manni L, Aloe L Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Roles of TRAF6 in central nervous system.
Abstract Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) is an important binding protein of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and the toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) superfamily, which play an important role in innate immunity and acquired immunity. TRAFs family has 7 members (TRAF1-7), and TRAF6 has its special facture and biological function. TRAF6 has two special domains: C-terminal domain and N-terminal domain, which could integrate with multiple kinases and regulate signaling pathway function as E3 ubiquitin ligase. Studies have increasingly found that TRAF6 is closely related to central nervous system...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Dou Y, Tian X, Zhang J, Wang Z, Chen G Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Inflammatory events following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
Abstract Acute SAH from a ruptured intracranial aneurysm contributes for 30% of all hemorrhagic strokes. The bleeding itself occurs in the subarachnoid space. Nevertheless, injury to the brain parenchyma occurs as a consequence of the bleeding, directly, via several well-defined mechanisms and pathways, but also indirectly, or secondarily. This secondary brain injury following SAH has a variety of causes and possible mechanisms. Amongst others, inflammatory events have been shown to occur in parallel to, to contribute to, or even to initiate programmed cell death (PCD) within the central nervous system (CNS) in hu...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Schneider UC, Xu R, Vajkoczy P Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Antioxidant Properties of Crocus Sativus L. and its Constituents and Relevance to Neurodegenerative Diseases; Focus on Alzheimer's And Parkinson's disease.
CONCLUSION: Literature findings represented in current review herald promising results for using Crocus Sativus L. and/or its active constituents as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective agents. PMID: 29564976 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - March 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hatziagapiou K, Kakouri E, Lambrou GI, Bethanis K, Tarantilis PA Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Cell Death Mechanisms in Stroke and Novel Molecular and Cellular Treatment Options.
Abstract As a result of ischemia or hemorrhage, blood supply to neurons is disrupted which subsequently promotes a cascade of pathophysiological responses resulting in cell loss. Many mechanisms are involved solely or in combination in this disorder including excitotoxicity, mitochondrial death pathways, and the release of free radicals, protein misfolding, apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and inflammation. Besides neuronal cell loss, damage to and loss of astrocytes as well as injury to white matter contributes also to cerebral injury. The core problem in stroke is the loss of neuronal cells which makes recovery di...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - March 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sekerdag E, Solaroglu I, Gursoy-Ozdemir Y Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Current therapeutic molecules and targets in neurodegenerative diseases based on in silico drug design.
CONCLUSION: Due to the costs associated with experimentation and current ethical law, performing experiments directly on living organisms has become much more difficult. In this scenario, in silico techniques have been successful and have become powerful tools in the search to cure disease. Researchers use the Computer Aided Drug Design pipeline which: 1) generates 3-dimensional structures of target proteins through homology modeling 2) achieves stabilization through molecular dynamics simulation, and 3) exploits molecular docking through large compound libraries. Next generation sequencing is continually producing enormou...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - March 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sehgal SA, Hammad MA, Tahir RA, Akram HN, Ahmad F Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Changing paradigm from one target one ligand towards multi target directed ligand design for key drug targets of Alzheimer disease: An important role of Insilco methods in multi target directed ligands design.
Abstract Alzheimer disease (AD) is now considered as a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder and rapidly increasing to an alarming situation and causing higher death rate. One target one ligand hypothesis is not able to provide complete solution of AD due to multifactorial nature of disease and one target one drug seems to fail to provide better treatment against AD. Moreover, current available treatments are limited and most of the upcoming treatments under clinical trials are based on modulating single target. So the current AD drug discovery research shifting towards new approach for better solution that si...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - March 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kumar A, Tiwari A, Sharma A Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

In silico studies targeting G-protein coupled receptors for drug research against Parkinson's disease.
Abstract Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a long-term neurodegenative brain disorder that mainly affects the motor system. The causes are still unknown, and even though currently there is no cure, several therapeutic options are available to manage its symptoms. The development of novel anti-parkinsonian agents and an understanding of their proper and optimal use are, indeed, highly demanding. For the last decades, L-3,4-DihydrOxyPhenylAlanine or levodopa (L-DOPA) has been the gold-standard therapy for the symptomatic treatment of motor dysfunctions associated to PD. However, the development of dyskinesias and motor fl...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - March 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lemos A, Meloc R, Preto AJ, Almeida JG, Moreira IS, Cordeiro MNDS Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Closed-Loop Neuropharmacology For Epilepsy: Distant Dream Or Future Reality?
Abstract Epilepsy is considered the most frequent severe neurological condition but most patients treated with medication become seizure free. The management of treatment however is highly empirical, mainly relying on observation. A closed-loop therapy for epilepsy would be very valuable for more efficient treatment regimens. Here we discuss monitoring treatment (therapeutic drug monitoring) and the potential developments in this field, as well as providing a review of potential biomarkers that could be used to monitor the disease activity. Finally, we consider the pharmacogenetic input in epilepsy treatment. ...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - March 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Aicua-Rapun I, Andre P, Novy J Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: Brain Basis of Resilience and its Effect on Mood Disorders in the Aging.
PMID: 29512441 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - March 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sampedro-Piquero P, Moreno-Fernandez RD Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Mitochondria: A Connecting Link In The Major Depressive Disorder Jigsaw.
CONCLUSION: Mitochondria are integral to the function of neurons and undergo dysfunction in major depressive disorder patients. This dysfunction is reflected in all the various hypotheses that have been proposed for depression. Among the newer targets identified, which also involve mitochondria, includes the role of exogenous ATP. The diversity of purinergic receptors, and their differential expression among various individuals in the population, due to genetic and environmental (prenatal) influences, may influence the susceptibility and severity of depression. Identifying specific receptors involved and using patient-spec...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - March 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sharma S, Akundi RS Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The delicate equilibrium between oxidants and antioxidants in brain glioma.
Abstract Gliomas are the most frequent brain tumors in adult population and unfortunately the adjuvant therapies are not effective. Brain tumorigenesis has been related both with the increased levels of free radicals as inductors of severe damages in healthy cells, but also with the reduced response of endogenous enzyme and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses. In turn, both processes induce the change to malignant cells. In this review we analyzed the role of the imbalance between free radicals production and antioxidant mechanism in the development and progression of gliomas but also the influence of redox status ...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - March 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ramirez-Exposito MJ, Martinez-Martos JM Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Insight into the emerging role of striatal neurotransmitters in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease: A review.
Abstract Alteration in neurotransmitters signaling in basal ganglia has been consistently shown to significantly contribute to the pathophysiological basis of Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Dopamine is important neurotransmitter which play critical role in coordinated body movements. Alteration in level of brain dopamine and receptor radically contribute to irregular movements, glutamate mediated excitotoxic neuronal death and further leads to imbalance in the levels of other neurotransmitters viz. GABA, adenosine, acetylcholine and endocannabinoids. This review is based upon the data from clinical ...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - March 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jamwal S, Kumar P Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Cell Death Mechanisms in Stroke and Novel Molecular and Cellular Treatment Options.
Abstract As a result of ischemia or hemorrhage, blood supply to neurons is disrupted which subsequently promotes a cascade of pathophysiological responses resulting in cell loss. Many mechanisms are involved solely or in combination in this disorder including excitotoxicity, mitochondrial death pathways, and the release of free radicals, protein misfolding, apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and inflammation. Besides neuronal cell loss, damage to and loss of astrocytes as well as injury to white matter contributes also to cerebral injury. The core problem in stroke is the loss of neuronal cells which makes recovery di...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - March 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sekerdag E, Solaroglu I, Gursoy-Ozdemir Y Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The Role of Inflammatory Response in Stroke Associated Programmed Cell Death.
Abstract Stroke represents devastating pathology which is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Initial damage caused directly by the onset of stroke, primary injury, may be eclipsed by secondary injury which may have a much more devastating effect on the brain. Primary injury is predominantly associated with necrotic cell death due to fatal insufficiency of oxygen and glucose. Secondary injury may on the contrary, lead apoptotic cell death due to structural damage which is not compatible with cellular functions or which may even represent the danger of malign transformation. The immune system is respons...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - February 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Duris K, Splichal Z, Jurajda M Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The Role of LRRK2 in Neurodegeneration of Parkinson Disease.
Abstract The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene and α-synuclein gene (SNCA) are the key influence factors of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is reported that dysfunction of LRRK2 may influence the accumulation of α-synuclein and its pathology to alter cellular functions and signaling pathways by the kinase activation of LRRK2. The accumulation of α-synuclein is one of the main stimulants of microglias acitiviton. Microglias are macrophages resided in the brain, and activation of microglials is believed to contribute to neuroinflammation and neuronal death in PD. Therefore, clarifying the comp...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - February 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rui Q, Ni H, Li D, Gao R, Chen G Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The role of VE-cadherin in blood-brain barrier integrity under central nervous system pathological conditions.
Abstract The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a layer between the blood circulation and neural tissue. It plays a pivotal role in maintaining the vulnerable extracellular microenvironment in the neuronal parenchyma. Neuroinflammatory events can result in BBB dysregulation by disturbing adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs). VE-cadherin, as one of the most important components of the vascular system, is specifically responsible for the assembly of AJs and BBB architecture. Here, we present a review, which highlights recently available insights into the relationship between the neuroinflammation and BBB dys...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - February 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Li W, Chen Z, Chin I, Chen Z, Dai H Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Updates on genome-wide association findings in eating disorders and future application to precision medicine.
Abstract Heterogeneity, frequent diagnostic fluctuation across presentations, and global concerns with the absence of effective treatments all encourage science that moves the field toward individualized or precision medicine in eating disorders. We review recent advances in psychiatric genetics focusing on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in eating disorders and enumerate the prospects and challenges of a genomics-driven approach towards personalized intervention. PMID: 29473515 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - February 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Breithaupt L, Hubel C, Bulik CM Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Ayahuasca: Psychological And Physiologic Effects, Pharmacology And Potential Uses In Addiction And Mental Illness.
CONCLUSION: Many years of shamanic wisdom have indicated potential therapeutic uses for ayahuasca, and many present day studies suggest that it may be useful for treating various psychiatric disorders and addictions. The side effect profile appears to be relatively mild, but more detailed studies need to be done. Several prominent researchers feel that government regulations with regard to ayahuasca should be relaxed so that it could be provided more readily to recognized credible researchers to conduct comprehensive clinical trials. PMID: 29366418 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - January 24, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hamill J, Hallak J, Dursun SM, Baker G Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Protein-C reactive as biomarker predictor of schizophrenia phases of illness? A systematic review.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a complex illness in which genetic, environmental, and epigenetic components have been implicated. However, recently, psychiatric disorders appear to be related to a chronic inflammatory state, at the level of specific cerebral areas which have been found as well impaired and responsible of the schizophrenia symptomatology. Hence, a role of inflammatory mediators and cytokines has been as well supposed. Accordingly, it has been recently investigated the role of an acute inflammatory phase protein, the C-reactive protein (CRP). OBJECTIVE: Objective of the present study is ...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - January 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Orsolini L, Sarchione F, Vellante F, Fornaro M, Matarazzo I, Martinotti G, Valchera A, Di Nicola M, Carano A, Di Giannantonio M, Perna G, Olivieri L, De Berardis D Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Premorbid and illness-related social difficulties in eating disorders: an overview of the literature and treatment developments.
Conclusion More work is needed to establish whether these approaches can improve on the rather disappointing outcomes that are attained by currently used treatments for eating disorders. PMID: 29345581 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - January 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cardi V, Tchanturia K, Treasure J Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Is the impact of starvation on the gut microbiota specific or unspecific to anorexia nervosa? A narrative review based on a systematic literature search.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The role of the gut microbiota in Anorexia nervosa (AN) has long been neglected by researchers, although the former is known to play an important role in health, disease and weight regulation. Overweight and underweight due to natural states of starvation and refeeding are normal in many vertebrates in their ecological niches. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to compare the similarities and differences between the gut microbiota in eating disorders with conditions of fasting and refeeding in other vertebrates. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted in Pubmed and We...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - January 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mack I, Penders J, Cook J, Dugmore J, Mazurak N, Enck P Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Supplementation with Curcuma longa reverses neurotoxic and behavioral damage in models of Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review.
CONCLUSION: The administration of curcumin in experimental models seems to be a promising approach in AD, even though it is suggested that additional studies must be conducted using distinct doses and through other routes of administration. PMID: 29338678 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - January 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: da Costa IM, de Moura Freire MA, de Paiva Cavalcanti JRL, Pessoa de Araujo D, Norrara B, Rosa IMMM, Pereira de Azevedo E, Meneses do Rego AC, Filho IA, Guzen FP Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

"Understanding the Role of Hypoxia inducible factor during neurodegeneration for new therapeutics opportunities".
"Understanding the Role of Hypoxia inducible factor during neurodegeneration for new therapeutics opportunities". Curr Neuropharmacol. 2018 Jan 10;: Authors: Merelli A, Rodriguez JCG, Folch J, Regueiro MR, Camins A, Alberto L Abstract Neurodegeneration (NDG) is linked with the progressive loss of neural function with intellectual and/or motor impairment. Several diseases affecting older individuals, including Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, Multiple Sclerosis and many others, are the most relevant disorders associated wit...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - January 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Merelli A, Rodriguez JCG, Folch J, Regueiro MR, Camins A, Alberto L Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 29301483 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - January 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Salt TE Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: Recent Advances in Pathophysiological Studies and Treatment of Epilepsy.
PMID: 29301484 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - January 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yin G, Yao G, Zhang K, Li B Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Putative mechanisms of action and clinical use of lithium in children and adolescents: a critical review.
CONCLUSIONS: Lithium seems an effective and well-tolerated medication on pediatric bipolar disorder and aggression, while further evidences are needed for other clinical indications. PMID: 29256353 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - December 19, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pisano S, Pozzi M, Catone G, Scrinzi G, Clementi E, Coppola G, Milone A, Bravaccio C, Santosh P, Masi G Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Glaucoma and Alzheimer Disease: A Single Age-Related Neurodegenerative Disease of the Brain.
Abstract Open Angle Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure is considered an important risk factor for glaucoma, however a subset of patients experience disease progression even in presence of normal intraocular pressure values. This implies that risk factors other than intraocular pressure are involved in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. A possible relationship between glaucoma and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer Disease has been suggested. In this regard, we have recently described a high prevalence of alterations typical of glaucoma, usi...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - December 6, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Raffaele M, Alessio M, Massimo C, Clarissa G, Tiziana CM, Giacinto B, Carlo N Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Autophagy after subarachnoid hemorrhage: Can cell death be good?
Abstract Autophagy is a prosurvival, reparative process that maintains cellular homeostasis through lysosomal degradation of selected cytoplasmic components and programmed death of old, dysfunctional, or unnecessary cytoplasmic entities. According to growing evidence, autophagy shows beneficial effects following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH is considered one of the most devastating forms of stroke. Though autophagy is prosurvival and aids in repair, deregulated or excessive autophagy results in increased cell death, more brain injury, and worse outcome. The aim of this review lies in revealing the pathophysi...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - November 23, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ho WM, Akyol O, Reis H, Reis C, McBride D, Thome C, Zhang J Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Imaging the role of inflammation in mood and anxiety-related disorders.
CONCLUSIONS: Neuroimaging effects of inflammation on reward and threat circuitry may be used as biomarkers of inflammation for future development of novel therapeutic strategies to better treat mood and anxiety-related disorders in patients with high inflammation. PMID: 29173175 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - November 23, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Felger JC Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research