Pharmacologic overview of chlorogenic acid and its metabolites in chronic pain and inflammation.
CONCLUSION: The consensus of the literature search was that systemic CGA may facilitate pain management via bolstering antioxidant defenses against inflammatory insults. PMID: 31631820 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bagdas D, Gul Z, Meade JA, Cam B, Cinkilic N, Gurun MS Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Molecular Hybridization as a Tool in the Design of Multi-Target Directed Drug Candidates for Neurodegenerative Diseases.
Abstract Neurodegenerative Diseases (NDs) are progressive multifactorial neurological pathologies related to neuronal impairment and lost form different brain regions. Currently, no effective treatments are available for any NDs, and this lack in efficacy have been attributed to the multitude of interconnected factors involved in their pathophysiology and severity. In the last two decades, a new approach for the rational design of new drug candidates, also called multitarget-directed ligands (MTDLs) strategy, has been discussed and used to the design and development of a variety of hybrid compounds capable to act ...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gontijo VS, Viegas FPD, Ortiz CJC, de Freitas Silva M, Damasio CM, Rosa MC, Campos TG, Couto DS, Tranches Dias KS, Viegas C Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Human Dermal Fibroblast: A promising Cellular Model to Study Biological Mechanisms of Major Depression and Antidepressant Drug Response.
CONCLUSION: The imbalance in the number of papers between the two parts highlights the great and still underused potential of HDF, which stands out as a very promising tool in our understanding of MDD and AD mechanisms of action. PMID: 31631822 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mesdom P, Colle R, Lebigot E, Trabado S, Deflesselle E, Fève B, Becquemont L, Corruble E, Verstuyft C Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The contribution of formyl peptide receptor dysfunction to the course of neuroinflammation: A potential role in the brain pathology.
Abstract Chronic inflammatory processes within the central nervous system (CNS) are in part responsible for the development of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. These processes are associated with, among other things, the increased and disturbed activation of microglia and the elevated production of proinflammatory factors. Recent studies have indicated that the disruption of the process of resolution of inflammation (RoI) may be the cause of CNS disorders. It has been shown that the RoI is regulated by endogenous molecules called specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), which interact with specific m...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Trojan E, Bryniarska N, Leśkiewicz M, Regulska M, Chamera K, Szuster M, Leopoldo M, Lacivita E, Basta-Kaim A Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Drug Choices and Advancements for Managing Depression in Parkinson`s Disease.
Abstract Depression is a frequent non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD), and may even precede the onset of motor symptoms of parkinsonism. Beyond its negative influence on mood and affection, depression in PD is frequently associated with other neuropsychiatric symptoms and with late- stage complications such as dementia. Despite its profound impact on quality of life and cognitive functioning in PD, depression in PD is often under-recognized and poorly treated. Pathophysiological studies demonstrated that depression in PD is associated with global dysfunction of interactions between discrete brain areas r...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Assogna F, Pellicano C, Savini C, Macchiusi L, Pellicano GR, Alborghetti M, Caltagirone C, Spalletta G, Pontieri FE Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Animal Galectins and Plant Lectins as Tools for Studies in Neurosciences.
a ACO Abstract Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins of non-immunological origin capable of reversibly and specifically binding to glycoconjugates. They exist in free form or associated with cells and are widely distributed in nature, being found in plants, microorganisms and animals. Due to their characteristics and mainly due to the possibility of reversible binding to glycoconjugates, lectins have stood out as important tools in research involving Neurobiology. These proteins have the ability to modulate molecular targets in the central nervous system (CNS) which may be involved with neuroplasticity, neurobehav...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Araújo JRC, Coelho CB, Campos AR, Moreira RA, Monteiro-Moreira ACO Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Trigeminal Neuralgia: Basic and clinical aspects.
Abstract The trigeminal nerve is the largest of all cranial nerves. It has three branches that provide the main sensory innervation of the anterior two-thirds of the head and face. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by sudden, severe, brief and stabbing recurrent episodes of facial pain in one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve. Pain attacks can occur spontaneously or can be triggered by normally non-noxious stimuli, such as talking, eating, washing the face, brushing teeth, shaving, a light touch or even a cool breeze. In addition to pain attacks, a proportion of the patients also experience persist...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Araya EI, Claudino RF, Piovesan EJ, Chichorro JG Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Recent Advances in Epilepsy.
Abstract PMID: 31580242 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 5, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jin Y, Yao X, Sun L, Yang W, Cui R, Li B Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

New Psychoactive Substances: A Matter of Time.
ini S Abstract In the last few years, a wide range of new psychoactive substances (NPS) have been produced and marketed to elude the controlled substance lists. These molecules enter the traditional illegal and web market with poor knowledge about their toxicity, mechanism of action, metabolism, abuse potential so that they are directly tested by the consumers. This perspective highlights the main issues connected with NPS: the celerity they enter and leave the market once included in the banning laws to be substituted by new legal analogues; the unavailability of analytical screening tests and certified standards...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pantano F, Graziano S, Pacifici R, Busardò FP, Pichini S Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The kinetic component in drug discovery: Using the most basic pharmacological concepts to advance in selecting drugs to combat CNS diseases.
la EI Abstract To reach the central nervous system (CNS) drugs must cross the brain-blood barrier and have appropriate pharmaco-kinetic/dynamic properties. However, in early drug discovery steps, selection of lead compounds, for example those targeting G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), is made according to i) affinity, which is calculated in in vitro equilibrium conditions, and ii) potency, a signal transduction-related parameter, usually quantified at a fixed time-point in a heterologous expression system. This paper argues that kinetics must be considered already in early steps of lead compound selection. Whi...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Franco R, Castelló J, Canela EI Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Modeling neuronal diseases in zebrafish in the era of CRISPR.
CONCLUSION: Today, CRISPR is the preferred method to modify genomes of practically any living organism. Despite the rapid development of CRISPR technologies to generate disease models in zebrafish, more efforts are needed to efficiently combine different disciplines to find the etiology and treatments for many brain diseases. PMID: 31573887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Espino-Saldaña AE, Rodríguez-Ortiz R, Pereida-Jaramillo E, Martínez-Torres A Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Serotonergic Modulation of Nociceptive Circuits in Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn.
CONCLUSION: The effects of serotonin on pain transmission in dorsal horn depend on several factors, including the type of receptors activated and the populations of neurons involved. Recently, studies performed by activating and/or recording from identified neurons have importantly contributed to the understanding of serotonergic modulation on dorsal horn circuits. PMID: 31573888 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bardoni R Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The cold case of metabotropic glutamate receptor 6: Unjust detention in the retina?
Abstract It is a common opinion that metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 6 (mGluR6) is expressed exclusively in the retina, and in particular in the dendrites of ON-bipolar cells. Glutamate released at the darkness from photoreceptors activates mGluR6 which is negatively associated with a membrane non-selective cation channel, the transient receptor potential melanoma-related 1 (TRPM1), hyperpolarizing the cell. Evidence that mGluR6 is expressed not only in the retina but also in other tissues and cell populations has accumulated over time. The expression of mGluR6 has been identified in microglia, bone marrow...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Palazzo E, Boccella S, Marabese I, Pierretti G, Guida F, Maione S Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

An overview of the heterogeneity of major depressive disorder: Current knowledge and Future prospective.
Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD) is estimated to impose maximum debilitating effects on the society by 2030, with its critical effects on health, functioning, quality of life and concomitant high levels of morbidity and mortality. Yet the disease is inadequately understood, diagnosed and treated. Moreover, with the recent drastic rise in pace of life, stress has materialized as one of the most potent environmental factor for depression. In this scenario, it is important to understand the modern pathogenetic hypotheses and mechanisms, and possibly try to shift from the traditional approaches in depression t...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: K V A, Bandopadhyay S, Samudrala PK, Vgm N, Lahkar M, Chakravarty S Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Nimodipine Reappraised: An Old Drug With a Future.
CW Abstract Nimodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist that blocks the flux of extracellular calcium through L-type, voltage-gated calcium channels. While nimodipine is FDA-approved for the prevention and treatment of neurological deficits in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), it affects myriad cell types throughout the body, and thus, likely has more complex mechanisms of action than simple inhibition of cerebral vasoconstriction. Newer understanding of the pathophysiology of delayed ischemic injury after a variety of acute neurologic injuries including aSAH, traumatic brain...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - September 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Carlson AP, Hänggi D, Macdonald RL, Shuttleworth CW Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The "entourage effect": Terpenes coupled with cannabinoids for the treatment of mood disorders and anxiety disorders.
The "entourage effect": Terpenes coupled with cannabinoids for the treatment of mood disorders and anxiety disorders. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2019 Sep 02;: Authors: Ferber SG, Namdar D, Hen-Shoval D, Eger G, Koltai H, Shoval G, Shbiro L, Weller A Abstract Mood disorders are the most prevalent mental conditions encountered in psychiatric practice. Numerous patients suffering from mood disorders present with treatment-resistant forms of depression, co-morbid anxiety, other psychiatric disorders and bipolar disorders. Standardized essential oils (such as that of Lavender officinalis) have been sho...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - September 2, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ferber SG, Namdar D, Hen-Shoval D, Eger G, Koltai H, Shoval G, Shbiro L, Weller A Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Targeting Serotonin1A Receptors for Treating Chronic Pain and Depression.
This article targets the 5-HT1A receptors to show that indiscriminate activation of pre and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors is likely to produce no therapeutic benefits; biased activation of the 5-HT heteroreceptors may be a useful strategy for treating chronic pain and depression individually as well as in the comorbid condition. PMID: 31418663 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - August 11, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Haleem DJ Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Current Psychopharmacology of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders.
PMID: 31393238 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - August 10, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Del Casale A, Kotzalidis GD, Rapinesi C, Girardi P Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The Endocannabinoid System May Modulate Sleep Disorders In Aging.
This article addresses this less-studied field, focusing on the likely perspective of the implication of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of sleep problems reported in aged. We conclude that beneficial effects regarding the putative efficacy of the endocannabinoid system as therapeutic tools in aging is either inconclusive or still missing. PMID: 31368874 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - August 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Murillo-Rodríguez E, Budde H, Veras AB, Rocha NB, Telles-Correia D, Monteiro D, Cid L, Yamamoto T, Machado S, Torterolo P Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Neuro-toxic and reproductive effects of BPA.
CONCLUSION: BPA and its analogues impair neuronal activity, HPG axis function, reproduction, and fertility. Contrasting results have emerged in animal models and human. Thus, further studies are needed to better define their safety levels. This review offers new insights on these issues with the aim to find the "fil rouge", if any, that characterize BPA's mechanism of action with outcomes on neuronal function and reproduction. PMID: 31362658 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - July 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Santoro A, Chianese R, Troisi J, Richards S, Nori SL, Fasano S, Guida M, Plunck E, Viggiano A, Pierantoni R, Meccariello R Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Emerging Perspectives on DNA double-strand breaks in Neurodegenerative Diseases.
Abstract DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are common events that were recognized as one of the most toxic lesions in eukaryotic cells. DSBs are widely involved in many physiological processes such as V(D)J recombination, meiotic recombination, DNA replication and transcription. Deregulation of DSBs has been reported in multiple diseases in human beings such as the neurodegenerative diseases, with which the underlying mechanisms are needed to be illustrated. Here, we reviewed the recent insights into dysfunction of DSB formation and repair contributing to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders including Alz...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - July 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zhu LS, Wang DQ, Cui K, Liu D, Zhu LQ Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Pharmacological interventions and rehabilitation approach for enhancing brain self-repair and stroke recovery.
Abstract Neuroplasticity is a natural process occurring in the brain for entire life. Stroke is the leading cause of long term disability and huge medical and financial problem throughout the world. Research conducted over the past decade focused mainly on neuroprotection in the acute phase of stroke while very little studies targets chronic stage. Recovery after stroke depends on the ability of our brain to reestablish structural and functional organization of neurovascular networks. Combining adjuvant therapies and drugs may enhance the repair processes and restore impaired brain functions. Currently, there are ...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - July 25, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Szelenberger R, Kostka J, Saluk-Bijak J, Miller E Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Zinc-mediated neurotransmission in Alzheimer's disease: A potential role of the GPR39 in dementia.
Abstract With more people reaching an advanced age in modern society, there is a growing need for strategies to slow down age-related neuropathology and loss of cognitive functions, which are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Neuroprotective drugs and candidate drug compounds target one or more processes involved in the neurodegenerative cascade, such as excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, misfolded protein aggregation and/or ion dyshomeostasis. A growing body of research shows that a G-protein coupled zinc (Zn2+) receptor (GPR39) can modulate the abovementioned processes. Zn2+ itself has a diverse activity profile...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - July 4, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rychlik M, Mlyniec K Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The Modulation of Pain by Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors 7 and 8 in the Dorsal Striatum.
Abstract The dorsal striatum, apart from controlling voluntary movement, displays a recently demonstrated pain inhibition. It is connected to the descending pain modulatory system and in particular to the rostral ventromedial medulla through the medullary dorsal reticular nucleus. Diseases of the basal ganglia, such as Parkinson's disease, in addition to being characterized by motor disorders, are associated with pain and hyperactivation of the excitatory transmission. A way to counteract glutamatergic hyperactivation is through the activation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), which are l...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - June 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Boccella S, Marabese I, Guida F, Luongo L, Maione S, Palazzo E Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Partners in crime: NGF and BDNF in visceral dysfunction.
Abstract Neurotrophins (NTs), particularly Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), have attracted increasing attention in the context of visceral function for some years. Here, we examined current literature and produced a thorough review on the subject. After initial studies linking NGF to cystitis, it is now well-established that this neurotrophin (NT) is a key modulator of bladder pathologies, including Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis (BPS/IC) and Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS. NGF is upregulated in bladder tissue and its blockade results i...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - June 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Coelho A, Oliveira R, Antunes-Lopes T, Cruz CD Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Highlighting the role of cognitive and brain reserve in the substance use disorder field.
CONCLUSION: CR and BR are variables not taken yet into account in drug addiction. However, they could give us a valuable information about people at risk, as well as patient's prognosis. PMID: 31204624 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - June 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cutuli D, de Guevara-Miranda DL, Castilla-Ortega E, Santín LJ, Sampedro-Piquero P Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Cocaine-induced changes in the expression of NMDA receptor subunits.
Abstract Cocaine use disorder is manifested by repeated cycles of drug seeking and drug taking. Cocaine exposure causes synaptic transmission in the brain to exhibit persistent changes, which are poorly understood, while the pharmacotherapy of this disease has not been determined. Multiple potential mechanisms have been indicated to be involved in the etiology of cocaine use disorder. The glutamatergic system, especially N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, may play a role in several physiological processes (synaptic plasticity, learning and memory) and in the pathogenesis of cocaine use disorder. The compositio...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - June 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Smaga I, Sanak M, Filip M Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Cannabidiol Adverse Effects and Toxicity.
CONCLUSION: CBD has proven therapeutic efficacy for serious conditions such as Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes and is likely to be recommended off label by physicians for other conditions. However, AEs and potential drug-drug interactions must be taken into consideration by clinicians prior to recommending off-label CBD. PMID: 31161980 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - June 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Huestis MA, Solimini R, Pichini S, Pacifici R, Carlier J, Busardò FP Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Synaptic Elimination in Neurological Disorders.
Abstract Synapses are well known as the main structures responsible for transmitting information through the release and recognition of neurotransmitters by pre- and post-synaptic neurons. These structures are widely formed and eliminated throughout the whole lifespan via processes termed synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning, respectively. Whilst the first process is needed for ensuring proper connectivity between brain regions and also with the periphery, the second phenomenon is important for their refinement by eliminating weaker and unnecessary synapses and, at the same time, maintaining and favoring the strong...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - June 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ribeiro FM, Cardozo PL, de Lima IBQ, Maciel EMA, Silva NC, Dobransky T Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Mouse Models of Familial Hemiplegic Migraine for Studying Migraine Pathophysiology.
Abstract Migraine, an extremely disabling neurological disorder, has a strong genetic component. Since monogenic migraines (resulting from mutations or changes in a single gene) may help researchers discover migraine pathophysiology, transgenic mice models harboring gene mutations identified in familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) patients have been generated. Studies in these FHM mutant mice models have shed light on the mechanisms of migraine and may aid in the identification of novel targets for treatment. More specifically, the studies shed light on how gene mutations, hormones, and other factors impact the path...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Dehghani A, Karatas H Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The Forgotten Cells: Role of Astrocytes in Mood Disorders During the Aging.
Abstract PMID: 30990134 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sampedro-Piquero P, Moreno-Fernandez RD Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Brain Stimulation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): A Systematic Review.
CONCLUSION: Different brain stimulation techniques are promising as add-on treatment of refractory OCD, although studies frequently reported inconsistent results. TMS, DBS, and tDCS could possibly find some use with adequate testing, but their standard methodology still needs to be established. PMID: 30963971 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rapinesi C, Kotzalidis GD, Ferracuti S, Sani G, Girardi P, Casale AD Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Monoamines and their derivatives on GPCRs: potential therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.
z MC, Pinto-Almazán R, Soriano-Ursúa MA Abstract Albeit cholinergic depletion remains the key event in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), recent information describes stronger links between monoamines (trace amines, catecholamines, histamine, serotonin, and melatonin) and AD than those known in the past century. Therefore, new drug design strategies focus efforts to translate the scope on these topics and to offer new drugs which can be applied as therapeutic tools in AD. In the present work, we reviewed the state-of-art regarding genetic, neuropathology and neurochemistry of AD involving monoamine systems. T...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Farfán-García ED, Gómez-Marques R, Barrón-González M, Pérez-Capistran T, Rosales-Hernández MC, Pinto-Almazán R, Soriano-Ursúa MA Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Drug Treatment Of Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder), Excoriation (Skin-Picking) Disorder, And Nail-Biting (Onychophagia).
CONCLUSIONS: The treatment of TTM, excoriation disorder and nail-biting is still rather disappointing. Conjectures made from preclinical studies and the relative pathophysiological hypotheses found poor confirmations at a clinical level. There is need for further studies and the integration of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic. Our results point to the need of integrating personalised medicine principles in the treatment of these patients. PMID: 30892151 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - March 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sani G, Gualtieri I, Paolini M, Bonanni L, Spinazzola E, Maggiora M, Pinzone V, Brugnoli R, Angeletti G, Girardi P, Rapinesi C, Kotzalidis GD Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Calpain-1 and calpain-2 in the brain: Dr. Jekill and Mr Hyde?
Abstract While the calpain system has now been discovered for over 50 years, there is still a paucity of information regarding the organization and functions of the signaling pathways regulated by these proteases, although calpains play critical roles in many cell functions. Moreover, calpain overactivation has been shown to be involved in numerous diseases. Among the 15 calpain isoforms identified, calpain-1 (aka µ-calpain) and calpain-2 (aka m-calpain) are ubiquitously distributed in most tissues and organs, including the brain. We have recently proposed that calpain-1 and calpain-2 play opposite functions...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - February 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Baudry M Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Association between serum lipids and antipsychotic response in schizophrenia.
Abstract Metabolic abnormalities are serious health problems in individuals with schizophrenia. Paradoxically, studies have noted an association where individuals who gained body weight or who have increases in their serum lipids demonstrated better antipsychotic response. As serum lipids serve as more specific physiological markers than body weight, the objective of this study was to review studies that examined the association between changes in serum lipids and changes in symptoms during antipsychotic treatment in individuals with schizophrenia. A Medline® literature search was performed. Fourteen studies w...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - February 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kim DD, Barr AM, Fredrikson DH, Honer WG, Procyshyn RM Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Far-infrared ray-mediated antioxidant potentials are important for attenuating psychotoxic disorders.
Abstract Far-infrared ray (FIR) is an electromagnetic wave that produces various health benefits against pathophysiological conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, renocardiovascular disorders, stress, and depression etc. However, the therapeutic application on the FIR-mediated protective potentials remains to be further extended. To achieve the better understanding on FIR-mediated therapeutic potentials, we summarized additional findings in the present study that exposure to FIR ameliorates stressful condition, memory impairments, drug dependence, and mitochondrial dysfunction in the central nervous system. In thi...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - February 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sharma N, Shin EJ, Kim NH, Cho EH, Nguyen BT, Jeong JH, Jang CG, Nah SY, Kim HC Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy for hoarding disorder: How did the picture change since its excision from OCD?
Abstract This brief review deals with the various issues that contributed to the creation of the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual condition of hoarding disorder (HD) and attempts at reviewing its pharmacotherapy. It appears that after the newly founded diagnosis appeared in the literature as an autonomous entity, distinct from obsessive-compulsive disorder, drug trials are not being conducted and the disorder is left in the hands of psychotherapists, who on their part, report fair results in some core dimensions of HD. The few trials on HD specifically regard the serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor ven...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - January 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Piacentino D, Pasquini M, Sani G, Chetoni C, Cappelletti S, Kotzalidis GD Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Preface.
Abstract PMID: 30582472 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - December 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Salt TE Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The Era of Cerebellar Therapy.
Abstract Major advances in our understanding of the neurology/pathology, anatomy/physiology, and molecular biology of the cerebellum have opened a new door for cerebellar ataxias (CAs). We have now entered in the 'era of therapies'. Cures are knocking at the door. We discuss the hot topics in the therapeutic protocols available for CAs, including aminopyridines, noninvasive cerebellar stimulation, anti-oxidant drugs and therapies for immune-mediated cerbellar ataxias (IMCAs), topics emphasized in this issue. The history of the cerebellum is a typical example of the importance of apparently divergent and multi-disc...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - December 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mitoma H, Manto M Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Application of the Co-Agonist Concerted Transition Model to Analysis of GABAA Receptor Properties.
Abstract The co-agonist concerted transition model is a simple and practical solution to analyzing various aspects of GABAA receptor function. Several model-based predictions have been verified experimentally in previous reports. We review here the practical implications of the model and demonstrate how it enables simplification of the experimental procedure and data analysis to characterize the effects of mutations or properties of novel ligands. Specifically, we show that the value of EC50 and the magnitude of current response are directly affected by basal activity, and that coapplication of a background agonis...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - December 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Germann AL, Steinbach JH, Akk G Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Neuroprotective role of hypothermia in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: combined therapies using estrogen.
ani F Abstract Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a complex network of factors, which is mainly characterized by a decrease in levels of oxygen concentration and blood flow, which lead to an inefficient supply of nutrients to the brain. Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury can be found in perinatal asphyxia and ischemic-stroke, which represent one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity in children and adults worldwide. Therefore, knowledge on underlying mechanisms triggering these insults may help establish neuroprotective treatments. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators and Selective Tissue Estrogenic Activity Re...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - December 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Toro-Urrego N, Vesga-Jiménez DJ, Herrera MI, Luaces JP, Capani F Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Sense of Smell: Structural, Functional, Mechanistic Advancements and Challenges in Human Olfactory Research.
Abstract Olfaction, the sense of smell detects and discriminate odors as well as social cues which influence our innate responses. The olfactory system in human beings is found to be weak as compare to other animals; however, it seems to be very precise. It can detect and discriminate millions of chemical moieties (odorants) even in minuscule quantities. The process initiates with the binding of odorants to specialized olfactory receptors, encoded by a large family of Olfactory Receptor (OR) genes belonging to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Stimulation of ORs converts the chemical information encoded ...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - December 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sharma A, Kumar R, Aier I, Semwal R, Tyagi P, Varadwaj P Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Evolving Mechanistic Concepts Of Epileptiform Synchronization And Their Relevance In Curing Focal Epileptic Disorders.
oli M Abstract The synchronized activity of neuronal networks under physiological conditions is mirrored by specific oscillatory patterns of the EEG that are associated with different behavioral states and cognitive functions. Excessive synchronization can however lead to focal epileptiform activity characterized by interictal and ictal discharges in epileptic patients and animal models. This review focusses on studies that have addressed epileptiform synchronization in temporal lobe regions by employing in vitro and in vivo recording techniques. First, we consider the role of ionotropic and metabotropic excitator...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - November 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lévesque M, Ragsdale D, Avoli M Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Current drugs and potential future neuroprotective compounds for Parkinson's disease.
Abstract The research progress of understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) has yet lead to the development of some clinical approaches intended to treat cognitive and behavioral symptoms, such as memory and perception disorders. Despite the major advances in different genetic causes and risk factors for PD, which share common pathways to cell dysfunction and death, there is not yet a complete model of PD that can be used to accurately predict the effect of drugs on disease progression. Clinical trials are also important to test any novel neuro-protective agent, and recently ther...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - November 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Carrera I, Cacabelos R Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Systematic Review of Food Addiction as Measured With the Yale Food Addiction Scale: Implications for the Food Addiction Construct.
Conclusion The concept of food addiction has not been established to this day although it can be grouped with other EDs such as BED. More research is needed to understand this behavior and the differences between food addiction and other EDs. The criteria for food addiction should be revisited in light of the concepts currently used to examine behavioral addictions. PMID: 30406740 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - November 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Penzenstadler L, Soares C, Karila L, Khazaal Y Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Placebo effect in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Placebo response and placebo responders in OCD: The trend over time.
tric Disorders Abstract BACKGROUND: Placebo response appears to be increasing in antidepressant, antipsychotic and various internal medicine trials. A similar trend has been reported for OCD during 1989-1999. Placebo response is generally considered as the extent to which placebo treatment is associated with core symptom improvement. In this analysis we used Joinpoint regression to assess the time trend of both placebo response and placebo responder rates according to year of publication with no time restriction in OCD drug trials. METHOD: We included drug and/or psychotherapy trials vs. placebo from PubMed, ...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kotzalidis GD, Casale AD, Simmaco M, Pancheri L, Brugnoli R, Paolini M, Gualtieri I, Ferracuti S, Savoja V, Cuomo I, Chiara L, Mosca A, Sani G, Girardi P, Pompili M, Rapinesi C, On Behalf Of The Sapienza Group For The Study Of The Placebo Effect In Psychi Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Special Issue on Programmed Cell Death in Stroke.
PMID: 30328396 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hu Q Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Omics-based biomarkers for the early Alzheimer Disease diagnosis and reliable therapeutic targets development.
CONCLUSION: The assessment of metabolomic/lipidomic, epigenomic and proteomic changes associated with AD to identify early biomarkers in non-invasive samples from well-defined participants groups will potentially allow the advancement in the early diagnosis and improvement of therapeutic interventions. PMID: 30255758 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - September 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pena-Bautista C, Baquero M, Vento M, Chafer-Pericas C Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Alzheimer Disease - Future Therapy Based on Dendrimers.
Abstract Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by the loss of neurons. It is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly population accompanied by pathological degeneration of neurofibrillary tangles. Senile plaques are formed with beta-amyloid, hyperphosphoryled tau protein, apolipoprotein E and presenilin associated with protease activity [amyloid beta (Aβ), gamma-secretase (γS)]. The molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration include apoptosis, oxidative shock (free radical generation), inflammation, immune activation, and others. The lack of effective treatments for AD stems mainly from the in...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - September 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Aliev G, Ashraf GM, Tarasov VV, Chubarev VN, Leszek J, Gasiorowski K, Makhmutovа A, Baeesa SS, Avila-Rodriguez M, Ustyugov AA, Bachurin SO Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research