Temozolomide: An Updated Overview of Resistance Mechanisms, Nanotechnology Advances and Clinical Applications.
izo C Abstract Temozolomide (TMZ), an oral alkylating prodrug which delivers a methyl group to purine bases of DNA (O6- guanine; N7-guanine and N3-adenine), is frequently used together with radiotherapy as part of the first-line treatment of high-grade gliomas. The main advantages are its high oral bioavailability (almost 100% although the concentration found in the cerebrospinal fluid was approximately 20% of the plasma concentration of TMZ), its lipophilic properties, and small size that confer the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Furthermore, this agent has demonstrated activity not only in brain tumor...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - June 26, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ortiz R, Perazzoli G, Cabeza L, Jiménez-Luna C, Luque R, Prados J, Melguizo C Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Alzheimer's disease: new concepts on the role of autoimmunity and of NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of the disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD), recognized as the most common neurodegenerative disorder, is clinically characterized by the presence of extracellular beta amyloid (Aβ) plaques and by intracellular neurofibrillary tau tangles, accompanied by glial activation and neuroinflammation. Increasing evidence suggests that self-misfolded proteins stimulate an immune response mediated by glial cells, inducing release of inflammatory mediators and the recruitment of peripheral macrophages into the brain, which in turn aggravate AD pathology. Aim of the present review is to update the current knowledge on the role of ...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - June 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Severini C, Barbato C, Di Certo MG, Gabanella F, Petrella C, Di Stadio A, de Vincentiis M, Polimeni A, Ralli M, Greco A Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Crosstalk between Inflammation and the BBB in Stroke.
Abstract The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is located at the interface between the central nervous system (CNS) and the circulatory system, is instrumental in establishing and maintaining the microenvironmental homeostasis of the CNS. BBB disruption following stroke promotes inflammation by enabling leukocytes, T cells and other immune cells to migrate via both the paracellular and transcellular routes across the BBB and to infiltrate the CNS parenchyma. Leukocytes promote the removal of necrotic tissues and neuronal recovery, but they also aggravate BBB injury and exacerbate stroke outcomes, especially after l...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - June 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Huang Y, Chen S, Luo Y, Han Z Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Polydatin Against Dementia-Related Disorders.
Abstract Dementia is a collection of symptoms affecting a person's cognition. Dementia is debilitating, and therefore, finding an effective treatment is of the utmost importance. Resveratrol, which exhibits neuroprotective effects, has low bioavailability. However, it's glucoside polydatin is more bioavailable. Here, the evidence that supports the protective role of polydatin against dementia-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, alcohol-related dementia, and Lewy body dementias is presented. The beneficial effects of polydatin from a mechanistic perspective are specifically emphasized i...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - June 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tang KS Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Progress and Promise of Nur77-based Therapeutics for Central Nervous System Disorders.
Abstract Nur77 belongs to the NR4A subgroup of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Unlike other nuclear receptors, a natural ligand for Nur77 has not been identified yet. However, a few small molecules can interact with this receptor and induce a conformational change to mediate its activity. The expression and activation of Nur77 can be rapidly increased using various physiological and pathological stimuli. In vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated its regulatory role in tissues and cells of multiple systems by means of participation in cell differentiation, apoptosis, metabolism, mitochondrial homeostasis, an...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - June 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Liu L, Ma D, Zhuo, Pang X, You J, Feng J Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Dysregulation of the Gut-Brain Axis, Dysbiosis and Influence of numerous factors on Gut Microbiota associated Parkinson's Disease.
CONCLUSION: The microbiota greatly affects the bidirectional interaction between the brain and the gut via synchronized neurological, immunological, and neuroendocrine mechanisms. It can be concluded that a multitude of factors discussed in this review steadily induce the onset of dysbacteriosis that may exacerbate the etiologic mechanism of Parkinson's disease. PMID: 32504503 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - June 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kaur G, Behl T, Bungau S, Kumar A, Uddin MS, Mehta V, Zengin G, Mathew B, Shah MA, Arora S Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The Dual Role of Microglia in Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction after Stroke.
Abstract It is well-known that stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability all over the world. After stroke, the blood-brain barrier subsequently breaks down. The BBB consists of endothelial cells surrounded by astrocytes. Microglia, considered the long-living resident immune cells of the brain, play a vital role in BBB function. M1 microglia worsen BBB disruption, while M2 microglia assist in repairing BBB damage. Microglia can also directly interact with endothelial cells and affect BBB permeability. In this review, we are going to discuss the mechanisms responsible for the dual role of microglia...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kang R, Gamdzyk M, Lenahan C, Tang J, Tan S, Zhang JH Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Effects of risperidone in autistic children and young adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Conclusion, it was possible to suggest the efficacy of risperidone for the treatment of lethargy and inadequate speech. Finally, we emphasize that the risk-benefit in its use should be evaluated. Protocol number CRD42019122316. PMID: 32469700 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mano-Sousa BJ, Pedrosa AM, Alves BC, Galduróz JCF, Belo VS, Chaves VE, Duarte-Almeida JM Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Green Tea, A medicinal food with promising neurological benefits.
Abstract Neurological disorders and their sequelae, as of the widespread and critical humans complications, affect the body's nervous systems, organ functions, and behaviors. According to WHO, neurological disorders are currently predicted to affect more than one billion people globally. It is well-established that complementary medicine is one of the high accepted interventions that could have been considered for the management of neurological ailments. The current review aimed to compile a frame from all the crucial data reporting the investigation on the conspicuous intervention of green tea (made of Camellia s...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Akbarialiabad H, Dahroud MD, Khazaei MM, Razmeh S, Zarshenas MM Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The role of mitochondrial impairment on Alzheimer ´s disease neurodegeneration: the Tau connection.
The role of mitochondrial impairment on Alzheimer´s disease neurodegeneration: the Tau connection. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2020 May 24;: Authors: Quntanilla RA, Tapia-Monsalves C Abstract Accumulative evidence has shown that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mitochondrial impairment actively contributes to the synaptic and cognitive failure that characterizes AD. The presence of soluble pathological forms of tau like hyperphosphorylated at Ser396 and Ser404 and cleaved at Asp421 by caspase 3, negatively impacts mitochondrial bioenergetic...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Quntanilla RA, Tapia-Monsalves C Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Transcriptional Factors and Protein Biomarkers as Target Therapeutics in Traumatic Spinal Cord and Brain Injury.
Abstract Traumatic injury to the spinal cord (SCI) and brain (TBI) are serious health problems and affect many people every year throughout the world. These devastating injuries are affecting not only patients but also their families socially as well as financially. SCI and TBI lead to neurological dysfunction besides continuous inflammation, ischemia, and necrosis followed by progressive neurodegeneration. There are well-established changes in several other processes such as gene expression as well as protein levels that are the important key factors to control the progression of these diseases. We are not yet ab...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kumar S, Fritz Z, Sulakhiya K, Theis T, Berthiaume F Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The Dawn of Mitophagy: What Do We Know by Now?
The objective of the present review is to analyze research findings regarding the main pathways of mitophagy induction, recruitment of the autophagy machinery, and their regulations at the levels of transcription, post-translational modification and protein-protein interaction that appeared to be main target during the development and maturation of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID: 32442087 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Belousov DM, Mikhaylenko EV, Chubarev VN, Tarasov VV, Somasundaram SG, Kirkland CE, Aliev G Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Therapeutic and Mechanistic effects of Curcumin in Huntington's disease.
Abstract Curcumin is a spice derived nutraceutical which gained tremendous attention because of its profound medicinal values. It alters a number of molecular pathways such as nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and cyclooxygenases-2 (COX-2), which make it potential therapeutic choice in treating multiple disorders. It also possesses potential to prevent protein aggregation and thus protect against degeneration of neurons in neurodegenerative disorders including H...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Labanca F, Ullah H, Khan H, Milella L, Xiao J, Dajic-Stevanovic Z, Jeandet P Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The Protective Roles and Molecular Mechanisms of Troxerutin (vitamin P4) for Treatment of Chronic Diseases: A Mechanistic Review.
Abstract Troxerutin (TRX), a semi-synthetic bioflavonoid derived from rutin, has been reported to exert several pharmacological effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, and nephroprotective. However, the related molecular details and its mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present review, we presented evidences from the diversity in vitro and in vivo studies on the therapeutic potential of TRX against neurodegenerative, diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases with the purpose to find molecular pathways related to the treatment efficacy. TRX has a beneficial role in many di...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zamanian M, Bazmandegan G, Sureda A, Sobarzo-Sanchez E, Yousefi-Manesh H, Shirooie S Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Recent Findings on the Effects of Pharmacological Agents on the Nerve Regeneration after Peripheral Nerve Injury.
This study aimed to review the effects of some pharmacological agents on the nerve regeneration after traumatic PNI evaluated by functional, histological and electrophysiological assessments. Also, some cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for their therapeutic actions, restricted to neural tissue, are suggested. These findings can not only help to find better strategies for peripheral nerve repair, but also to identify the neuropathic effects of various medications and their mechanisms of action. PMID: 32379588 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bolandghamt S, Behnam-Rassouli M Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Pharmacological effects of saffron and its constituents in ocular disorders from in vitro studies to clinical trials; a systematic review.
CONCLUSION: The results of this review indicated that saffron and its main ingredients such as crocin could be a potential candidate for the treatment of ocular disease especially eye inflammation; however, further clinical studies are needed to confirm such efficiency. PMID: 32379589 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sepahi S, Ghorani-Azam A, Hossieni SM, Mohajeri SA, Khodavrdi E Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Tyrosol as a neuroprotector: strong effects of a "weak" antioxidant.
Tyrosol as a neuroprotector: strong effects of a "weak" antioxidant. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2020 May 06;: Authors: Plotnikov MB, Plotnikova TM Abstract The use of neuroprotective agents for stroke is pathogenetically justified, but the translation of results of preclinical studies of neuroprotectors into clinical practice has been a noticeable failure. One of the leading reasons for these failures is the one-target mechanism of their activity. p-Tyrosol (Tyr), a biophenol, is present in a variety of natural sources, mainly in foods, such as olive oil and wine. Tyr has a wide spectrum of biolog...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Plotnikov MB, Plotnikova TM Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Effects of Mulberry on the Central Nervous System: A Literature Review.
CONCLUSION: Mulberry species proved beneficial to many neurological functions in animal models. The active ingredients of each species, especially M. alba, should be deeper studied for screening potentially candidates for future treatments. PMID: 32379591 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tam DNH, Nam NH, Elhady MT, Tran L, Hassan OG, Sadik M, Tien PTM, Elshafei GA, Huy NT Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Emerging evidence for neuropsycho-consequences of COVID-19.
Abstract The pandemic novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global concern in which respiratory system is not the only one involved. Previous researches have presented the common clinical manifestations including respiratory symptoms (i.e., fever and cough), fatigue and myalgia. However, there is limited evidence for neurological and psychological influences by SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we discuss the common neurological manifestations of COVID-19 including acute cerebrovascular disease (i.e., cerebral hemorrhage) and muscle ache. Possible viral transmission to the nervous system may occur via circul...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Li J, Long X, Zhang Q, Fang X, Fang F, Lv X, Zhang D, Sun Y, Li N, Hu S, Lin Z, Xiong N Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Monoaminergic Receptors as Modulators of the Perivascular Sympathetic and Sensory CGRPergic Outflows.
z-Islas E, Villalón CM Abstract Blood pressure is a highly controlled cardiovascular parameter that normally guarantees an adequate blood supply to all body tissues. This parameter is mainly regulated by vascular peripheral resistance and is maintained by local mediators (i.e., autacoids), and by the nervous and endocrine systems. Regarding the nervous system, blood pressure can be modulated at central level by regulating the autonomic output. However, at peripheral level there exists a modulation by activation of prejunctional monoaminergic receptors in autonomic- or sensory-perivascular fibers. These modu...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Marichal-Cancino BA, González-Hernández A, Muñóz-Islas E, Villalón CM Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Is It the Twilight of BACE1 Inhibitors?
Abstract β-secretase (BACE1) has been regarded as a prime target for the development of amyloid beta (Aβ) lowering drugs in the therapy of Alzheimer´s disease (AD). Although the enzyme was discovered in 1991 and helped to formulate the Aβ hypothesis as one of the very important features of AD etiopathogenesis, progress in AD treatment utilizing BACE1 inhibitors has remained limited. Moreover, in the last years, major pharmaceutical companies have discontinued clinical trials of five BACE1 inhibitors that had been strongly perceived as prospective. In our review, the Aβ hypothesis, the enz...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hrabinova M, Pejchal J, Kucera T, Juna D, Schmidt M, Soukup O Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The Effect of Melatonin Modulation of Non-coding RNAs on Central Nervous System Disorders: An Updated Review.
Abstract Melatonin is a hormone produced in and secreted by the pineal gland. Besides its role in regulating circadian rhythms, melatonin has a wide range of protective functions in central nervous system (CNS) disorders. The mechanisms underlying this protective function are associated with the regulatory effects of melatonin on related genes and proteins. In addition to messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA) that can be translated into protein, an increasing number of non-coding RNAs in the human body are proven to participate in many diseases. This review discusses the current progress of research on the effects of m...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - May 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lu J, Luo Y, Mei S, Fang Y, Zhang J, Chen S Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Antiepileptogenic Effect of Retinoic Acid.
Abstract Retinoic acid, a metabolite of vitamin A, acts through either genomic or nongenomic actions. The genomic action of retinoids exerts effects on gene transcription through interaction with retinoid receptors such as retinoic acid receptors (RARα, β, and γ) and retinoid X receptors (RXRα, β, and γ) that are primarily concentrated in amygdala, pre-frontal cortex, and hippocampal areas in the brain. In response to retinoid binding, RAR/RXR heterodimers undergo major conformational changes and orchestrate the transcription of specific gene networks. Previous experimental studie...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rosiles-Abonce A, Rubio C, Taddei E, Rosiles D, Rubio-Osornio M Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Management Perspective of Wilson's Disease: Early Diagnosis and Individualized Therapy.
Abstract Wilson's disease (WD) is an inherited disease caused by mutations in ATP7B and is characterized by the pathological accumulation of copper in the liver and brain. Common clinical manifestations of WD include a wide range of liver disease and neurological symptoms. In some patients, psychiatric symptom may be the only manifestation at the time of diagnosis. The clinical features of WD are highly variable and can mimic any disease of the internal medicine. Therefore, for unexplained medical diseases, the possibility of WD should not be ignored. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve the prognosis of WD p...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yuan XZ, Yang RM, Wang XP Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Targeting the Endocannabinoid System in Borderline Personality Disorder.
Abstract Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a chronic debilitating psychiatric disorder characterized mainly by emotional instability, chaotic interpersonal relationships, cognitive disturbance (e.g. dissociation and suicidal thoughts) and maladaptive behaviors. BPD has a high rate of comorbidity with other mental disorders and high burden on society. In this review, we focus on two compromised brain regions in BPD - the hypothalamus and the corticolimbic system, emphasizing the involvement and potential contribution of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) to improvement in symptoms and coping. The hypothalamus-...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ferber SG, Hazani R, Shoval G, Weller A Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Anti- IL-6 therapies for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: A systematic review of safety and efficacy.
CONCLUSIONS: The anti-Il-6 agents tocilizumab and satralizumab show promising results in active NMOSD. Further randomized, larger-scale trials are needed to better define the role of these agents in the growing arsenal of NMOSD treatments. PMID: 32348222 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lotan I, McGowan R, Levy M Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Current status of drug targets and emerging therapeutic strategies in the management of Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease affecting the elderly. AD is associated with a progressive decline in memory and cognitive abilities, drastic changes in behavioural patterns and other psychiatric manifestations. It leads to a significant decline in the quality of life at personal, household as well as national level. Although AD was described about hundred years back and multiple theories have been proposed, its exact pathophysiology is unknown. There is no cure for AD and the life expectancy of AD patients remains low at 3 - 9 years. An accurate understanding of the molecu...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ghosh S, Durgvanshi S, Agarwal S, Raghunath M, Sinha JK Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Circadian rhythm disruption and Alzheimer's disease: The dynamics of a vicious cycle.
Abstract All mammalian cells exhibit circadian rhythm in cellular metabolism and energetics. Autonomous cellular clocks are modulated by various pathways that are essential for robust time keeping. In addition to the canonical transcriptional translational feedback loop, several new pathways of circadian timekeeping - non-transcriptional oscillations, post-translational modifications, epigenetics and cellular signaling in the circadian clock - have been identified. The physiology of circadian rhythm is expansive, and its link to the neurodegeneration is multifactorial. Circadian rhythm disruption is prevelant in c...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sharma A, Sethi G, Tambuwala MM, Aljabali AAA, Chellappan DK, Dua K, Goyal R Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Role of Nitric oxide in neurodegeneration: function, regulation and inhibition.
Abstract Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) collectively known as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are the products of normal cellular metabolism and interact with several vital biomolecules including nucleic acid, proteins, and membrane lipids and alter their function in an irreversible manner which can lead finally to cell death. There is an imperative role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairments and the development and progression of neural injury. Elevated production of higher amounts of nitric oxide (NO) takes place in numerous pathological c...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tewari D, Sah AN, Bawari S, Nabavi SF, Dehpour AR, Shirooie S, Braidy N, Fiebich BL, Vacca RA, Nabavi SM Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Nerve Growth Factor in Alcohol Use Disorders.
Abstract The nerve growth factor (NGF) belongs to the family of neurotrophic factors. Initially discovered as a signaling molecule involved in the survival, protection, differentiation and proliferation of sympathetic and peripheral sensory neurons, it also participates in the regulation of the immune system and endocrine system. NGF biological activity is due to the binding of two classes of receptors: the tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA), and the low-affinity NGF pan-neurotrophin receptor p75. Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) are one of the most frequent mental disorders in developed countries, characterized by he...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ceci FM, Ferraguti G, Petrella C, Greco A, Ralli M, Iannitelli A, Carito V, Tirassa P, Chaldakov GN, Messina MP, Ceccanti M, Fiore M Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

MicroRNAs in the Blood-Brain Barrier in Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury.
Abstract Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury is a leading cause of acute mortality and chronic disability in newborns. Current evidence shows that cerebral microvascular response and compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity occur rapidly and could primarily be responsible for the brain injury observed in many infants with HI brain injury. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of highly conserved non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which consist of 21-25 nucleotides in length and usually lead to suppression of target gene expression. Growing evidence has revealed that brain-enriched miRNAs act as versatile regulators of BBB dy...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shen G, Ma Q Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

From molecular mechanism to pre-clinical results: Anti-epileptic effects of Fingolimod.
Abstract Epilepsy is a devastating neurological condition characterized by long-term tendency to generate unprovoked seizures, affecting around 1-2 % of the population worldwide. Epilepsy is a serious health concern which often associates with other neurobehavioral comorbidities that further worsen disease conditions. Despite tremendous research, the mainstream anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) exert only symptomatic relief leading to a 30% of untreatable patients. This reflects the complexity of the disease pathogenesis and urges the precise understanding of underlying mechanisms in order to explore novel therapeutic s...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Paudel YN, Angelopoulou E, Piperi C, Gnatkovsky V, Othman I, Shaikh MF Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The Therapeutic Potential and Usage Patterns of Cannabinoids in People with Spinal Cord.
CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence suggests cannabinoids may reduce pain and spasticity in people with SCI, but its effect magnitude and clinical significance is unclear. Existing information is lacking on optimal dosage, method of use, composition and concentration of compounds. Longterm, double-blind, RCTs, assessing a wider range of outcomes should be conducted to further understanding of the effects of cannabinoid use in people with SCI. PMID: 32310048 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nabata KJ, Tse EK, Nightingale TE, Lee AHX, Janice J, Querée M, Walter M, Krassioukov AV Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

What about drug checking? Systematic review and netnographic analysis of social media.
Abstract Drug checking services have been operating worldwide as a harm reduction tool in places like festivals and nightclubs. A systematic review and netnographic analysis were conducted to explore the public's perception of drug checking. Although public perceptions of drug checking had not been previously evaluated in the literature, some positive and negative perceptions were captured. From Twitter, a total of 1316 tweets were initially identified. Following the removal of irrelevant tweets, 235 relevant tweets were identified of which about 95% (n = 223) tweets were in favour and about 5% (n = 12) were not i...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Guirguis A, Moosa I, Gittins R, Schifano F Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Depression As An Immunometabolic Disorder: Exploring Shared Pharmacotherapeutics With Cardiovascular Disease.
acute;dez V, Rojas-Quintero J Abstract Modern times have seen depression and cardiovascular disease (CVD) become notorious public health concerns, corresponding to alarming proportions of morbidity, mortality, decreased quality of life, and economic costs. Expanding comprehension of the pathogenesis of depression as an immunometabolic disorder has identified numerous pathophysiologic phenomena in common with CVD, including chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. These shared components could be exploited in order to offer improved alternatives in the joint management of these conditions. Ab...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - April 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chávez-Castillo M, Nava M, Ortega Á, Rojas M, Núñez V, Salazar J, Bermúdez V, Rojas-Quintero J Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Sleep Disturbances and Cognitive Impairment in the Course of Type 2 Diabetes - Possible Link.
Abstract There is increasing number of the patients worldwide with sleep disturbances and diabetes. Various sleep disorders, including long or short sleep duration and poor sleep quality of numerous causes, may increase the risk of diabetes. Some symptoms of diabetes, such as painful peripheral neuropathy and nocturia, or associated other sleep disorders, such as sleep breathing disorders or sleep movement disorders, may influence the sleep quality and quantity. Both sleep disorders and diabetes may lead to cognitive impairment. The risk of development of cognitive impairment in the diabetic patients may be relate...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - March 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Brzecka A, Madetko N, Nikolenko VN, Ashraf GM, Ejma M, Leszek J, Daroszewski C, Sarul K, Mikhaleva LM, Somasundaram SG, Kirkland CE, Bachurin SO, Aliev G Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Role of GRINA/NMDARA1 in Central Nervous System Diseases.
Abstract Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl-D-aspartate associated protein 1 (GRINA) is a member of the NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and involved in several neurological diseases, which governs the key processes of neuronal cell death or the release of neurotransmitters. Upregulation of GRINA has been reported in multiple diseases in human beings, such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), with which the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this review, we provide a general overview about the expression and physiological function of GRINA in the central nervous system (CNS) diseases, inc...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - March 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chen K, Yang LN, Lai C, Liu D, Zhu LQ Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The e-Psychonauts' 'Spiced' World; Assessment of the Synthetic Cannabinoids' Information Available Online.
CONCLUSIONS: A web crawling approach helped here in identifying a large range of unknown SC likely to possess a misuse potential. Most of these novel/emerging molecules are still relatively unknown. This is a reason for concern; each of these analogues potentially presents with different toxicodynamic profiles and there is a lack of docking, preclinical, and clinical observations. Strengthening multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians and bioinformatics may prove useful in better assessing SC-associated public health risks. PMID: 32116194 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - March 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zangani C, Schifano F, Napoletano F, Arillotta D, Gilgar L, Guirguis A, Corkery JM, Gambini O, Vento A Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The Effects of General Anesthetics on Synaptic Transmission.
Abstract General anesthetics are a class of drugs that target the central nervous system and are widely used for various medical procedures. General anesthetics produce many behavioral changes required for clinical intervention including amnesia, hypnosis, analgesia, and immobility; while may also induce side effects like respiration and cardiovascular depressions. Understanding the mechanism of general anesthesia is essential for the development of selective general anesthetics which can preserve wanted pharmacological actions and exclude the side effects and underlying neural toxicities. However, the exact mecha...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - February 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hao X, Ou M, Zhang D, Zhao W, Yang Y, Liu J, Yang H, Zhu T, Li Y, Zhou C Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with antidepressants for first episode of major depressive disorder.
CONCLUSION: According to a limited evidence, the high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) could accelerate the antidepressant effect of SSRIs in young patients with a first-episode major depressive disorder. However, the acceptability and tolerability of HF-rTMS in the treatment of such patients is no better than an antidepressant alone. However, further well-defined and large sample-size studies of HF-rTMS combined with antidepressant in MDD should be carried out to warrant these results. PMID: 32091338 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - February 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Maneeton B, Maneeton N, Woottiluk P, Likhitsathian S Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

An Overview on Chemotherapy-Induced Cognitive Impairment and Potential Role of Antidepressants.
CONCLUSION: The common causative factor, cytokines can be targeted for the amelioration of an associated symptom of both depression and chemotherapy. Thus, antidepressants can have a beneficial effect on chemotherapy-induced inflammation and cognitive dysfunction via cytokine balance. Also, neurogenesis property of certain antidepressant drugs rationalises their evaluation against CICI. This review briefly glances upon chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI), and the modulatory effect of antidepressants on CICI pathomechanisms. PMID: 32091339 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - February 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Das A, Ranadive N, Kinra M, Nampoothiri M, Arora D, Mudgal J Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Therapeutic Strategies to Protect the Central Nervous System against Shiga Toxin from Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.
nto A Abstract Infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) may cause hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and encephalopathy. The mortality rate derived from HUS adds up to 5% of the cases, and up to 40% when the central nervous system (CNS) is involved. In addition to the well-known deleterious effect of Stx, the gram-negative STEC releases lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and may induce a variety of inflammatory responses when released in the gut. Common clinical signs of severe CNS injury include sensorimotor, cognitive, emotional and/or autonomic alterations. In the last few years, a ...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - February 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Goldstein J, Nuñez-Goluboay K, Pinto A Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Endocannabinoid receptors in the CNS: potential drug targets for the prevention and treatment of neurologic and psychiatric disorders.
Abstract The endocannabinoid system participates in the regulation of CNS homeostasis and functions, including neurotransmission, cell signaling, inflammation and oxidative stress, as well as neuronal and glial cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and survival. Endocannabinoids are produced by multiple cell types within the CNS and their main receptors, CB1 and CB2, are expressed in both neurons and glia. Signaling through these receptors is implicated in the modulation of neuronal and glial alterations in neuroinflammatory, neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - February 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Estrada JA, Contreras I Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Role of Nuclear factor kappa B (NF- κB) Signalling in Neurodegenerative Diseases: An Mechanistic Approach.
Role of Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) Signalling in Neurodegenerative Diseases: An Mechanistic Approach. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2020 Feb 07;: Authors: Singh S, Singh TG Abstract A transcriptional regulatory nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) protein is a modulator of cellular biological activity via binding to a promoter region in the nucleus and transcribing various protein genes. The recent research implicated the intensive role of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in diseases like autoimmune disorder, inflammatory, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, targeting the nu...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - February 7, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Singh S, Singh TG Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Neuron-to-microglia Crosstalk in Psychiatric Disorders.
PMID: 32013811 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - February 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lee YJ, Kim YK Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The ambiguous role of microglia in A β toxicity: Chances for therapeutic intervention.
The ambiguous role of microglia in Aβ toxicity: Chances for therapeutic intervention. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2020 Jan 30;: Authors: Merlo S, Spampinato SF, Caruso GI, Sortino MA Abstract Amyloid-β (Aβ) has long been shown to be critical in Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. Microglia contributes to the earliest responses to Aβ buildup, by direct interaction through multiple receptors. Microglial cells operate Aβ clearance and trigger inflammatory/regenerative processes that take place in the long years of silent disease progression that precede symptomatic appearance. But in t...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - January 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Merlo S, Spampinato SF, Caruso GI, Sortino MA Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Omega-3 Interventions In Alcohol Dependence And Related Outcomes: A Systematic Review And Propositions.
CONCLUSION: Despite the reduced number of studies, omega-3 interventions seem a promising for controlling issues related to alcohol dependence. PMID: 31989899 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - January 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: F Galduróz JC, Bezerra AG, Pires GN, Pauluci R, Noto AR Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Recent trends in management of Alzheimer's disease: Current therapeutic options and drug repurposing approaches.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease is one of the most progressive forms of dementia ultimately leading to death in aged populations. The major hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease include deposition of extracellular amyloid senile plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles in brain neuronal cells. Although there are classical therapeutic options available for the treatment of the diseases, however they provide only a symptomatic relief and do not modify the molecular pathophysiological course of the disease. Recent research advances on Alzheimer's disease have highlighted a potential role of anti-amyloid, anti-tau an...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - January 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Singh RK Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

How to find candidate drug-targets for antiepileptogenic therapy?
Abstract Although over 25 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have become currently available for clinical use, the incidence of epilepsy worldwide and the proportions of drug-resistant epilepsy among them are not significantly reduced during the past decades. Traditional screens for AEDs have been mainly focused on their anti-ictogenic roles, and their efficacies primarily depend on suppressing neuronal excitability or enhancing inhibitory neuronal activity, almost without the influence on the epileptogenesis or with inconsistent results from different studies. Epileptogenesis refers to the pathological process of a brain...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - January 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yu N, Lin XJ, Di Q Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Alzheimer's Disorder: Epigenetic connection and associated risk factors.
Abstract The gene based therapeutics and drug targets have shown incredible and appreciable advances in alleviating human sufferings and complexities. Epigenetics simply means above genetics or which controls the organism beyond genetics. At present it is very clear that all characteristics of an individual are not determined by DNA alone, rather the environment, stress, life style and nutrition play a vital part in determining the response of an organism. Thus nature (genetic makeup) and nurture (exposure) play equally important roles in the responses observed, both at the cellular and organism levels. Epigenetic...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - January 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sharma VK, Mehta V, Singh TG Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research