Cholinesterase Inhibitory Potential of Quercetin towards Alzheimer's Disease - A Promising Natural Molecule or Fashion of the Day? - A Narrowed Review.
Abstract Natural substances are known to have strong protective effects against neurodegenerative diseases. Among them, phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, come to the fore with their neuroprotective effects. Since quercetin, which is found in many medicinal plants and foods, is also taken through diet, its physiological effects on humans are imperative. Many studies have been published up to date on the neuroprotective properties of quercetin, a flavanol derivative. However, there is no review published so far summarizing the effect of quercetin on the cholinesterase (ChE) enzymes related to the cholinergi...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - November 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Orhan IE Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The brain-gut axis - where are we now and how can we modulate these connections?
Abstract A traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates an inflammatory response with molecular cascades triggered by the presence of necrotic debris including damaged myelin, hemorrhages and injured neuronal cells. Molecular cascades prominent in TBI-induced inflammation include the release of an excess of proinflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors, the degradation of tight junctions (TJs), cytoskeletal rearrangements and leukocyte and protein extravasation promoted by increased expression of adhesion molecules. The brain-gut axis consists of a complex network involving neuroendocrine and immunological signaling ...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - November 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Dabrowski W, Siwicka-Gieroba D, Kotfis K, Zaid S, Terpilowska S, Robba C, Siwicki AK Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The investigation into neurotoxicity mechanisms of Nonylphenol: A narrative review.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Nonylphenol (NP), as a chemical compound that widely used in industry, is the result of the nonylphenol ethoxylate decomposition and it is known as an estrogen-like compound. Numerous studies and researches have shown that it has many destructive functions of various organs such as the brain. This toxicant causes oxidative stress in the cortex and hippocampus cells, which are two essential regions to preserve memory and learning in the brain. METHODS: This review examines recent findings to better understand the mechanisms of NP neurotoxicity. We used Scopus, Google Scholar and PubMed dat...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - November 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lotfi M, Hasanpour AH, Moghadamnia AA, Kazemi S Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Interplay of BDNF and GDNF in the mature spinal somatosensory system and its potential therapeutic relevance.
Abstract The growth factors BDNF and GDNF are gaining more and more attention as modulators of synaptic transmission in the mature central nervous system (CNS). The two molecules undergo a regulated secretion in neurons and may be anterogradely transported to terminals where they can positively or negatively modulate fast synaptic transmission. There is today wide consensus on the role of BDNF as a pro-nociceptive modulator, as the neurotrophin has an important part in the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory, chronic, and/or neuropathic pain at peripheral and central level. At spinal level, BDNF intervenes ...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - November 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ferrini F, Salio C, Boggio E, Merighi A Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

C-terminus of Hsp70 Interacting Protein (CHIP) and Neurodegeneration: Lessons from the Bench and Bedside.
Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the increasing dysfunction and death of neurons, resulting in progressive impairment of a person's mobility and/or cognition. Protein misfolding and aggregation are commonly hypothesized to cause the neurotoxicity and eventual neuronal degeneration that are associated with these diseases. Emerging experimental evidence, as well as recent findings from human studies, reveal that C-terminus of Hsp70 Interacting Protein (CHIP), or STIP1 Homology and U-box containing Protein 1 (STUB1), is a quality control protein involved in neurodegeneration. Here, we review e...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - November 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mylvaganam S, Earnshaw R, Heymann G, Kalia SK, Kalia LV Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Cholecystokinin-mediated Neuromodulation of Anxiety and Schizophrenia: A "Dimmer-Switch" Hypothesis.
Cholecystokinin-mediated Neuromodulation of Anxiety and Schizophrenia: A "Dimmer-Switch" Hypothesis. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2020 Nov 13;: Authors: Ballaz SJ, Bourin M Abstract Cholecystokin (CCK), the most abundant brain neuropeptide, is involved in relevant behavioral functions like memory, cognition, and reward through its interactions with the opioid and dopaminergic systems in the limbic system. CCK excites neurons by binding two receptors, CCK1 and CCK2, expressed at low and high levels in the brain, respectively. Historically, CCK2 receptors have been related to the induction of panic at...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - November 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ballaz SJ, Bourin M Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Putative Involvement of Endocrine Disruptors in the Alzheimer's disease Via the Insulin-Regulated Aminopeptidase / GLUT4 Pathway.
lar Carrera González M Abstract It has been well established that there is a connection between type II diabetes (DMTII) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In fact, the increase in AD incidence may be an emerging complication of DMTII. Both pathologies are related to estradiol (E2) exposure; on the one hand, estrogen receptors (ER) are emerging as important modulators of glucose homeostasis through ß-pancreatic cell function; on the other hand, brain bioenergetic and cognitive deficits have been related to the down regulation of brain ERs, contributing to women ageing and AD susceptibility, both related to...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - November 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ramírez-Expósito MJ, Martínez-Martos JM, Cantón-Habas V, Del Pilar Carrera González M Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Xenogeneic decellularized extracellular matrix-based biomaterials for peripheral nerve repair and regeneration.
Abstract Peripheral nerve injury could lead to either impairment or a complete loss of function for affected patients, and a variety of nerve repair materials have been developed for surgical approaches to repair it. Although autologous or allologous tissue-derived biomaterials remain preferred treatment for peripheral nerve injury, the lack of donor sources has led biomedical researchers to explore more other biomaterials. As a reliable alternative, xenogeneic decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM)-based biomaterials have been widely employed for surgical nerve repair. The dECM derived from animal donors is a...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - November 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Li T, Javed R, Ao Q Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Glia-driven neuroinflammation and systemic inflammation in Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract The neuroinflammatory hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was proposed more than 30 years ago. The involvement of the two main types of glial cells, microglia and astrocytes, in neuroinflammation was suggested early on. In this review we highlight that the exact contributions of reactive glia to AD pathogenesis remain difficult to define likely due to the heterogeneity of glia populations and alterations in their activation states through the stages of AD progression. In the case of microglia, it is becoming apparent that both beneficially and adversely activated cell populations can be identified at v...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - November 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hashioka S, Wu Z, Klegeris A Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Naturally inspired Pyrimidines analogues for Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifarious and developing neurodegenerative disorder. The treatment of AD is still a challenge and availability of drug therapy on the basis of symptoms is not up to the mark. In the context of the existence, which is getting worse for the human brain, is necessary to taken care of the all critical measures. The disease causes due to multidirectional pathology of the body, which demands the multi-target-directed ligand (MTDL) approach and provides a hope for the new drugs for AD, which is summarized herein with the pyrimidine based natural product inspired molecule as a lea...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - November 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Singh S, Dhanawat M, Gupta S, Kumar D, Kakkar S, Nair A, Verma I, Sharma P Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Mimicking extracellular matrix via engineered nanostructured biomaterials for neural repair.
Abstract Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a meshwork consisting of proteins, proteoglycans, and different soluble molecules. ECM provides structural support to mammalian cells. ECM is responsible for important cell functions, as well as assembling cells into various tissues and organs, regulating growth and cell-cell interaction. Recent studies have shown the potential of nanostructured biomaterials to mimic native ECM. Developing tailor-made biomaterials that mimic the complex nanoscale mesh of local ECM is not a trivial endeavor: bio-inspired biomaterials are designed to supply a healthy ECM-like structure, capable...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - November 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Raspa A, Gelain F Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Neurophysiological Mechanisms Related to Pain Management in Bone Tumors.
CONCLUSION: Cancer-induced bone pain could include neuropathic and inflammatory pain, but with different modifications to the periphery tissue, nerves and neurochemical changes in different neurological levels. In this sense, here we explore opportunity areas in pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain management, according to pain-involved mechanisms. PMID: 33176655 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - November 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Romero-Morelos P, Ruvalcaba-Paredes E, Garciadiego-Cázares D, PérezSantos M, Reyes-Long S, Salcedo M, Mancilla-Ramírez J, Bandala C Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Expanding the arsenal against Huntington's disease- Herbal drugs and their nanoformulations.
Abstract Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal fatal genetic disease in which degeneration of neuronal cells occurs in central nervous system (CNS). Commonly used therapeutics in cludemonoamine depletors, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and tranquilizers. However, these drugs cannot prevent the psychotic, cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions associated with HD. In addition to this, their chronic use is limited by their long-term side effects. Herbal drugs offer a plausible alternative to this and have shown substantial therapeutic effect against HD. Moreover, their safety profile is better in terms of side e...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - November 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Vishwas S, Gulati M, Kapoor B, Gupta S, Singh SK, Awasthi A, Singh TG, Baishnab S, Khan A, Goyal A, Bansal A, Porwal O Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The potentials of Uncariae Ramulus Cum Uncis for treatment of migraine: Targeting CGRP in the trigeminovascular system.
Abstract Migraine is a common chronic neurovascular disease, characterized by headaches. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) signaling in the trigeminovascular system plays a critical role in the development of migraine. The monoclonal antibodies against CGRP and its receptor have been used clinically for the prevention of migraine, however, they may not be a cost-effective option for patients with low-frequency episodic migraine. Thus, it is quite valuable to search for an alternative strategy to downregulate CGRP signaling. Uncariae Ramulus Cum Uncis (UR) has a long-term history for the treatment of cardiovas...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chong CM, Zhong Z, Vong CT, Wang S, Lu JJ, Zhong H, Su H, Wang Y Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and antipsychotic efficacy in schizophrenia: an updated meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Pooled evidence supports the hypothesis that the COMT Val158Met polymorphism influences the antipsychotic response in both Caucasian and Asian schizophrenia patient populations. Prediction of antipsychotic response by patient genotyping may warrant closer consideration in randomized clinical trials of efficacy. PMID: 33100205 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ma J, Zhao M, Zhou W, Li M, Huai C, Shen L, Wang T, Wu H, Zhang N, Zhang Z, He L, Qin S Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Peripheral and central glutamate dyshomeostasis in neurodegenerative disorders.
Abstract Glutamate's role as the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the mammalian central nervous system requires that its brain concentrations be kept tightly-controlled. However, in hepatic encephalopathy resulting from liver dysfunction; disruption of central neurotransmission and elevation of brain glutamate levels have been observed. These had been associated with certain neurological changes. While neurological changes resulting from hepatic encephalopathy are believed to be transient, the discovery of alterations in liver enzymes in Alzheimer's disease and the role of glutamate and glutamate homeostasis i...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Onaolapo AY, Onaolapo OJ Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

5-HT3 receptor antagonism a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of depression and other disorders.
CONCLUSION: The present article focused on the role of 5-HT3R and their antagonists in the treatment of depression and anxiety. Further studies are warranted to prove their efficacy with respect to other standard anti-depressants. PMID: 33059577 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bhatt S, Devadoss T, Manjula SN, Rajangam J Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Gestational Exposure to Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Pregnancy Outcome ; Exploring the Role of Bias and Confounders.
The objectives of the present review was to identify and discuss sources of bias that may lead clinicians and scientists to believe that SRI cause malformation or other adverse outcomes, where, in fact, they may not. The present study highlights sources of bias which may explain why children exposed in utero to SRI exhibit higher rates of congenital malformations, mostly cardiovascular and other complications. It appears that pregnant women treated for depression and anxiety are distinctively different from healthy women in numerous covariates which may confound pregnancy outcome. Acknowledging and adjusting for these sour...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Frcpc Facmt GKM, Ornoy A Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Suicidality and Cannabidiol: Opportunities and Challenges.
Abstract Cannabidiol (CBD) is gaining considerable attention in the research community with promising results in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions. In particular, there are replicated findings for the therapeutic effects of CBD on psychotic and anxiety symptoms as well as substance use disorders, all of which are highly prevalent in patients who present with suicidality. Meanwhile, there has been a lack of suicide research on cannabidiol. This perspective provides an overview of the available evidence, potential reasons behind the halt on suicide research on cannabidiol, and recommendations for future inves...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Moazen-Zadeh E, Galynker II Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The neuroprotective role of neuroserpin in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.
Abstract Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is commonly used to treat acute ischemic stroke within an appropriate therapeutic window. Its inhibitor, neuroserpin (NSP), is reported to exhibit neuroprotective effects on stroke. This review aims to summarize, from literature, the available evidence, potential mechanisms, and knowledge limitations regarding the neuroprotective role of NSP in stroke. All the available evidence indicates that regulation of the inflammatory response may play a key role in the mechanisms of NSP, which involve all the constituents of the neuroimmune axis. The neuroinflammatory response tri...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - October 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ding S, Chen Q, Chen H, Luo B, Li C, Wang L, Asakawa T Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Inflammation Drives Alzheimer's Disease: Emphasis on 5-lipoxygenase pathways.
Abstract It is a known fact that inflammation affects several physiological processes, including the functioning of the central nervous system. Additionally, impairment of lipid mechanisms/pathways have been associated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is one of them. However, much attention has been given to the link between tau and beta-amyloid hypothesis in AD pathogenesis/prognosis. Increasing evidences suggest that biologically active lipid molecules could influence the pathophysiology of AD via different mechanism of inflammation. In this review, we intend to highlight...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - September 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Siddiqui A, Akhtar MS, Shah Z, Othman I, Kumari Y Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Personalized Medicine Using Cutting Edge Technologies for Genetic Epilepsies.
Abstract Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurologic disorder in the world, affecting 1-2% of the population. Besides, 30% of epilepsy patients are drug-resistant. Genomic mutations seem to play a key role in its etiology and knowledge of strong effect mutations in protein structures might improve prediction and the development of efficacious drugs to treat epilepsy. Several genetic association studies have been undertaken to examine the effect of a range of candidate genes for resistance. Although, few studies have explored the effect of the mutations into protein structure and biophysics in the epilepsy field...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - September 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Garcia-Rosa S, de Freitas Brenha B, da Rocha VF, Goulart E, Silva Araujo BH Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

From hybrids to new scaffolds: the latest medicinal chemistry goals in multi-target directed ligands for Alzheimer's disease.
ute;guez-Lavado J Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic, progressive, and fatal neurodegenerative disorder affecting cognition, behavior, and function, being one of the most common causes of mental deterioration in elderly people. Once thought as being just developed because of β amyloid depositions or neurofibrillary Tau tangles, during the last decades, numerous ADrelated targets have been established, the multifactorial nature of AD became evident. In this context, the one drug-one target paradigm has resulted to be inefficient in facing AD and other disorders with complex etiology, opening the fi...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - September 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Alarcón-Espósito J, Mallea M, Rodríguez-Lavado J Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The Updated Role of the Blood Brain Barrier in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: From Basic and Clinical Studies.
Abstract Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a type of hemorrhagic stroke associated with high mortality and morbidity. The blood-brain-barrier (BBB) is a structure consisting primarily of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells, end feet of astrocytes, extracellular matrix, and pericytes. Post-SAH pathophysiology included early brain injury and delayed cerebral ischemia. BBB disruption was a critical mechanism of early brain injury, and was associated with other pathophysiological events. These pathophysiological events may propel the development of secondary brain injury, known as delayed cerebral ischemia. Imagin...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - September 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chen S, Xu P, Fang Y, Lenahan C Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The Effects and Underlying Mechanisms of Cell Therapy on Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity After Ischemic Stroke.
Abstract Ischemic stroke is one of the main causes of mortality and disability worldwide. However, the efficient therapeutic strategies are still lacking. Stem/progenitor cell-based therapy, with its vigorous advantages, has emerged as a promising tool for the treatments of ischemic stroke. The mechanisms involve new neural cells and neuronal circuitry formation, antioxidation, inflammation alleviation, angiogenesis and neurogenesis promotion. In the past decades, in-depth studies have suggested that cell therapy could promote vascular stabilization and decrease blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage after ischemic str...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - September 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gao L, Song Z, Mi J, Hou P, Xie C, Shi J, Li Y, Manaenko A Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Role of hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides in neurological diseases: focus on protein S-Persulfidation.
Abstract Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and hydrogen polysulfides are recognized as important signaling molecules that are generated physiologically in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS). Studies have shown that these two molecules are involved in cytoprotection against oxidative stress and inflammatory response. In the brain system, H2S and polysulfides exert multiple functions in both health and diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), memory decline, and glioma. Mechanistically, S-Persulfidation (also known as S-sulfuration or S-sulfhydration) ...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - September 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sun HJ, Wu ZY, Nie XW, Bian JS Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

A Scientometrics Analysis and Visualization of Depressive Disorder.
Abstract Multiple studies on the pathomechanisms of depressive disorder and antidepressants have been reported. However, literature involving scientometric analysis of depressive disorder is sparse. Here, we use scientometric analysis and a historical review to highlight recent research on depression. We use the former to examine research on depressive disorders from 1998 to 2018. The latter is used to identify the most frequent keywords in keyword analysis, as well as explore hotspots and depression trends. Scientometric analysis uncovered field distribution, knowledge structure, research topic evolution, and top...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - September 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Xu D, Wang YL, Wang KT, Wang Y, Dong XR, Tang J, Cui YL Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Methods for Evaluating Sensory, Affective and Cognitive Disorders in Neuropathic Rodents.
Abstract The animal models of neuropathic pain that faithfully reproduce the symptoms that occur in humans are a fundamental tool for understanding the mechanisms underlying the disease, identifying new targets, and developing effective drugs. So far, the studies aimed at describing the animal models of neuropathic pain have been focused mainly on the sensory symptoms associated with the disease consisting of mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia, cold allodynia and hyperalgesia, and heat hyperalgesia. However, affective, and cognitive comorbidities occur in patients suffering from neuropathic pain, arising in a c...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - August 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Palazzo E, Marabese I, Gargano F, Guida F, Belardo C, Maione S Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Targeting Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors In The Treatment Of Epilepsy.
Conclusion: This review is expected to help dissecting those steps induced by iGlu receptors activation, which may be altered to provide antiepileptic efficacy without altering key physiological brain functions, thus improving safety and tolerability of iGlu-receptor directed antiepileptic agents. This effort mostly applies to drug resistant seizures, which impact the quality of life and often lead to status epilepticus, which is a medical urgency. PMID: 32867642 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - August 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Roberta C, Francesco F Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Drug Delivery Nanosystems in Glioblastoma Multiforme Treatment: Current State of the Art.
lli M Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant Central Nervous System cancer, responsible for about 4% of all deaths associated with neoplasia, characterized as one of the most fatal human cancers. Tumor resection does not possess curative character, thereby radio and/or chemotherapy are often necessary for the treatment of GBM. However, drugs used in GBM chemotherapy present some limitations, such as side effects associated with nonspecific drug biodistribution as well as limited bioavailability, which limits their clinical use. To attenuate the systemic toxicity and overcome th...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - August 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Di Filippo LD, Duarte JL, Luiz MT, de Araújo JTC, Chorilli M Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Is adult hippocampal neurogenesis really relevant for the treatment of psychiatric disorders?
Abstract Adult neurogenesis consists in the generation of newborn neurons from neural stem cells taking place in the adult brain. In mammals, this process is limited to very few areas of the brain, and one of these neurogenic niches is the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Adult newborn neurons are generated from quiescent neural progenitors (QNPs), which differentiate through different steps into mature granule cells (GCs), to be finally integrated into the existing hippocampal circuitry. In animal models, adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is relevant for pattern discrimination, c...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - August 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Carli M, Aringhieri S, Kolachalam S, Longoni B, Grenno G, Rossi M, Gemignani A, Fornai F, Maggio R, Scarselli M Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Risks associated with vortioxetine in the established therapeutic indication.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, more data is required to establish the strong relationship between vortioxetine and reported unlisted ADRs. PMID: 32811416 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - August 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Verma A, Kumar A Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Behavioral Tasks Evaluating Schizophrenia-like Symptoms in Animal Models: A Recent Update.
CONCLUSION: Based on the most recent advances in the field, it is apparent that a myriad of behavior tests are needed to confirm and evaluate the congruency of animal models with the numerous behaviors and clinical signs exhibited by patients with schizophrenia. PMID: 32798374 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - August 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ang MJ, Lee S, Kim JC, Kim SH, Moon C Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Src Family Kinases in the Central Nervous System :Their Emerging Role in Pathophysiology of Migraine and Neuropathic Pain.
This article briefly reviews the recent advances uncovering the interplay of SFK with diverse membrane proteins and intracellular proteins in the CNS and the importance of SFK in the pathophysiology of migraine and neuropathic pain. Mechanisms underlying the role of SFK in these conditions and potential clinical applications of SFK inhibitors in neurological diseases are also summarised. We propose that SFK are the convergent point of signalling pathways in migraine and neuropathic pain and may constitute a promising therapeutic target for these diseases. PMID: 32798375 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cur...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - August 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nie L, Ye WR, Chen S, Chirchiglia D, Wang M Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

A systematic review of traditionally used herbs and animal-derived products as potential analgesics.
Abstract Pain is a distressing but fundamental manifestation that prepares the body for potentially detrimental stimuli while ensuring its protection. Plant and animal products have traditionally been used to relieve pain for centuries. However, no attempt has been made to compile a single report of plant and animal products possessing analgesic properties. This review enadeavours to recover data from published articles to establish a collective literature review on folk remedies from plant and animal sources used as analgesics and in the treatment of pain-related conditions, identifying gaps in existing knowledge...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - August 7, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rengasamy KR, Mahomoodally MF, Joaheer T, Zhang Y Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

A healthy gut for a healthy brain: preclinical, clinical and regulatory as-pects.
ve; R Abstract A large body of research has shown the presence of a complex pathway of communications between the gut and the brain. It is now recognized that, through this pathway, the microbiota can influence brain homeostasis and plasticity under normal and pathological conditions. This review aims at providing an overview of preclinical and clinical pieces of evidence supporting the possible role of gutbrain axis modulation in physiological aging, in a neurodevelopmental disorder, the autism spectrum disorders and in a substance abuse disorder, the alcohol addiction. Since the normalization of gut flora can pr...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - July 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Petrella C, Farioli-Vecchioli S, Cisale GY, Strimpakos G, Borg JJ, Ceccanti M, Fiore M, Monteleone G, Nisticò R Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Tetrahydrobioterin (BH4) pathway: from metabolism to neuropsychiatry.
Abstract Tetrahydrobipterin (BH4) is a pivotal enzymatic cofactor required for the synthesis of serotonin, dopamine and nitric oxide. BH4 is essential for numerous physiological processes at periphery and central level, such as vascularization, inflammation, glucose homeostasis, regulation of oxidative stress and neurotransmission. BH4 de novo synthesis involves the sequential activation of three enzymes, the major controlling point being GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH1). Complementary salvage and recycling pathways ensure that BH4 levels are tightly kept within a physiological range in the body. Even if the way of tra...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - July 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Fanet H, Capuron L, Castanon N, Calon F, Vancassel S Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

SIRT1 promotes neuronal fortification in neurodegenerative diseases through attenuation of pathological hallmarks and enhancement of cellular lifespan.
Abstract Neurodegeneration is a complex neurological phenomenon characterized by disturbed coherence in neuronal efflux. Progressive neuronal loss and brain damage due to various age-related pathological hallmarks perturb the behavioral balance and quality of life. Sirtuins have been widely investigated for their neuroprotective role, with SIRT1 being the most contemplated member of the family. SIRT1 exhibits significant capabilities to enhance neurogenesis and cellular lifespan by regulating various pathways, which makes it an exciting therapeutic target to inhibit neurodegenerative disease progression. SIRT1 med...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - July 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mishra P, Mittal AK, Kalonia H, Madan S, Ghosh S, Sinha JK, Rajput SK Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Invasive and Not Invasive Electrical Neuromodulation in Trigeminal Nerve Neuralgia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
CONCLUSION: In the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, the continuous radiofrequency provides better short and medium-term results, but pulsed radiofrequency shows less adverse effects after treatment, and has better results in the long-term. PMID: 32727329 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - July 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Garcia-Isidoro S, Castellanos-Sanchez VO, Iglesias-Lopez E, PerpiñaMartinez S Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Pharmacological strategy for congenital myasthenic syndrome with CHRNE mutations: a meta-analysis of case reports.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis provides evidence that (1) β2-adrenergic receptor agonist therapy could be the first choice of pharmacological strategy for treating CMS with CHRNE mutations; (2) a single-drug-regime, rather than a combination therapy, should be the first choice of treatment; and (3) it is never too late to initiate pharmacological treatment. PMID: 32727330 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - July 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Huang K, Luo YB, Bi FF, Yang H Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The Links between Cardiovascular Diseases and Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract The root cause of non-inherited Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unknown despite hundreds of research studies performed to attempt to solve this problem. Since proper prophylaxis remains the best strategy, many scientists have studied risk factors that may affect AD development. There is robust evidence supporting the hypothesis that cardiovascular diseases (CVD) may contribute to AD progression; the diseases often coexist. Therefore, a lack of well-defined diagnostic criteria makes studying the relationship between AD and CVD complicated. Additionally, inflammation accompanies the pathogenesis of AD and ...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - July 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Leszek J, Mikhaylenko EV, Belousov DM, Koutsouraki E, Szczechowiak K, Kobusiak-Prokopowicz M, Mysiak A, Diniz BS, Somasundaram SG, Kirkland CE, Aliev G Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Targetting S100b Protein as a Surrogate Biomarker and Its Role in Various Neurological Disorders.
Abstract Neurological disorders (ND) are the central nervous system (CNS) related complications originated by enhanced oxidative stress, mitochondrial failure and overexpression of proteins like S100B. S100B is a helix-loop-helix protein with calcium-binding domain associated to various neurological disorders through activation of MAPK pathway, increased NFkB expression results in cell survival, proliferation and gene up-regulation. S100B protein plays a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Schizophrenia and epilepsy because high expression of this protein directly targets ...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - July 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Langeh U, Singh S Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke.
Abstract Autophagy is a strictly regulated process which degrades and recycles long-lived or misfolded proteins and damaged organelles for the maintenance of energy and function homeostasis of cells. Insufficient oxygen and glucose supply caused by cerebral ischemia leads to higher ratio of AMP/ATP, which will activate AMPK pathway to initiate the process of autophagy. Accumulating evidence shows that autophagy participates in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke as a doubleedge sword. However, the exact role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke is controversial and yet to be elucidated. In this revi...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - July 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shi Q, Cheng Q, Chen C Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Phytocannabinoids: General Aspects and Pharmacological Potential in Neurodegenerative Diseases.
Abstract In the last few years research into Cannabis and its constituent phytocannabinoids has burgeoned, particularly in the potential application of novel cannabis phytochemicals for the treatment of diverse illnesses related to neurodegeneration and dementia, including Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). To date, these neurological diseases have mostly relied on symptomatological management. However, with an aging population globally, the search for more efficient and disease-modifying treatments that could delay or mitigate disease progression is imperative. In this context, this...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - July 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Dos Reis Franco G, Smid S, Viegas C Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Angiogenesis and Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability in Vascular Remodeling after Stroke.
Abstract Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, is a natural defense mechanism helping to restore oxygen and nutrient supply to the affected brain tissue following an ischemic stroke. By stimulating vessel growth, angiogenesis may stabilize brain perfusion thereby promoting neuronal survival, brain plasticity, and neurologic recovery. However, therapeutic angiogenesis after stroke faces challenges: new angiogenesisinduced vessels have a higher than normal permeability, and treatment to promote angiogenesis may exacerbate outcome in stroke patients. The development of therapies requires elucidation of the p...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - July 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yang Y, Torbey MT Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Therapeutic Potential of Ultrasound Neuromodulation in Decreasing Neuropathic Pain: Clinical and Experimental Evidence.
CONCLUSION: Although an emerging set of studies brings new evidence on the therapeutic potential of both LIFUS and HIFUS for managing NP with minor side-effects, we need more controlled clinical trials to conclude about its safety and efficacy. PMID: 32691714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - July 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pérez-Neri I, González-Aguilar A, Sandoval H, Pineda C, Ríos C Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

The Role of Astrogliosis in Formation of the Syrinx in spinal cord injury.
Abstract A massive localized trauma to the spinal cord results in complex pathologic events driven by necrosis and vascular damage which in turn leads to hemorrhage and edema. Severe, destructive and very protracted inflammatory response is characterized by infiltration by phagocytic macrophages of a site of injury which is converted into a cavity of injury (COI) surrounded by astroglial reaction mounted by the spinal cord. The tissue response to the spinal cord injury (SCI) has been poorly understood but the final outcome appears to be a mature syrinx filled with the cerebrospinal fluid with related neural tissue...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - July 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kwiecien JM, Dąbrowski W, Yaron JR, Zhang L, Delaney KH, Lucas AR Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Temozolomide: An Updated Overview of Resistance Mechanisms, Nanotechnology Advances and Clinical Applications.
izo C Abstract Temozolomide (TMZ), an oral alkylating prodrug which delivers a methyl group to purine bases of DNA (O6- guanine; N7-guanine and N3-adenine), is frequently used together with radiotherapy as part of the first-line treatment of high-grade gliomas. The main advantages are its high oral bioavailability (almost 100% although the concentration found in the cerebrospinal fluid was approximately 20% of the plasma concentration of TMZ), its lipophilic properties, and small size that confer the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Furthermore, this agent has demonstrated activity not only in brain tumor...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - June 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ortiz R, Perazzoli G, Cabeza L, Jiménez-Luna C, Luque R, Prados J, Melguizo C Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Alzheimer's disease: new concepts on the role of autoimmunity and of NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of the disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD), recognized as the most common neurodegenerative disorder, is clinically characterized by the presence of extracellular beta amyloid (Aβ) plaques and by intracellular neurofibrillary tau tangles, accompanied by glial activation and neuroinflammation. Increasing evidence suggests that self-misfolded proteins stimulate an immune response mediated by glial cells, inducing release of inflammatory mediators and the recruitment of peripheral macrophages into the brain, which in turn aggravate AD pathology. Aim of the present review is to update the current knowledge on the role of ...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - June 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Severini C, Barbato C, Di Certo MG, Gabanella F, Petrella C, Di Stadio A, de Vincentiis M, Polimeni A, Ralli M, Greco A Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Crosstalk between Inflammation and the BBB in Stroke.
Abstract The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is located at the interface between the central nervous system (CNS) and the circulatory system, is instrumental in establishing and maintaining the microenvironmental homeostasis of the CNS. BBB disruption following stroke promotes inflammation by enabling leukocytes, T cells and other immune cells to migrate via both the paracellular and transcellular routes across the BBB and to infiltrate the CNS parenchyma. Leukocytes promote the removal of necrotic tissues and neuronal recovery, but they also aggravate BBB injury and exacerbate stroke outcomes, especially after l...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - June 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Huang Y, Chen S, Luo Y, Han Z Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research