Reducing Aggressive Children ’s Hostile Attributions: A Cognitive Bias Modification Procedure
AbstractChildren with aggression problems tend to interpret other ’s intentions as hostile in ambiguous social situations. Among clinically referred children with aggressive behavior problems, this hostile attribution style may be relatively rigid and difficult to change, due to prevalent histories of aversive social experience and/or personal vulnerability. The present study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive bias modification (CBM) training to reduce hostile interpretations of facial expressions in clinically referred aggressive boys. We conducted two experiments: Both Study 1 (N = 59,Mage&thin...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Impact of Enhanced Responsibility and Threat Beliefs on Self-Report and Behavioural Indices During a Sorting Task for Young People with OCD
AbstractWe aimed to experimentally assess the role of cognitive processes in provoking anxiety and compulsive behaviours in young people with OCD, and to determine whether specific cognitive appraisal subtypes (e.g., threat) best explain OCD symptoms. 29 young people with a principal diagnosis of OCD, 30 young people with an anxiety disorder other than OCD, and 25 young people meeting no diagnostic criteria completed a sorting task designed to increase or decrease responsibility/threat biases. We expected that OCD participants in the high responsibility/threat group would demonstrate higher scores on subjective (belief and...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Assessing Trauma-Related Appraisals by Means of a Scenario-Based Approach
AbstractDysfunctional appraisals play a key role in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The present study investigated a novel method to assess dysfunctional appraisals via an online study, in which participants (N = 93) were asked to specify a distressing, negative life event and were then presented with ambiguous, open-ended trauma-related scenarios. Participants were asked to generate an ending by writing down their first, spontaneous continuation for each scenario. Results showed that a greater number of dysfunctional appraisals generated on the scenario task was associated with higher scores on the Pos...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Anxiety Sensitivity as a Predictor of Epilepsy-Related Quality of Life and Illness Severity Among Adult Epilepsy
AbstractThe purpose of the current study was to examine the role of anxiety sensitivity in predicting seizure likelihood and QOL among 49 people with epilepsy (PWE; 63.3% female;Mage = 48.53,SD = 15.91). As hypothesized, after controlling for the effects of negative affectivity and past year seizure presence, greater levels of anxiety sensitivity significantly predicted poorer overall QOL as well as the QOL domains of seizure worry, medication effects, work-driving-social limitations, and cognitive functioning (8.8–22.9% unique variance). Anxiety sensitivity did not significantly predict s...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Correction to: Social Anxiety Disorder as a Densely Interconnected Network of Fear and Avoidance for Social Situations
The original version of this article has been updated with an appropriate analytical approach. Hence, the initial findings have been updated on the sections Results, Fig.  1, and References. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Sleep Disturbance Among Firefighters: Understanding Associations with Alcohol Use and Distress Tolerance
AbstractSleep disturbance is related to a variety of health issues and represents a prominent occupational concern among firefighters. Two potential predictors relevant to disturbed sleep are alcohol use and distress tolerance, which refers to the perceived ability to withstand negative emotional states. Main and interactive effects of alcohol use and distress tolerance on sleep disturbance were examined, after controlling for the covariates of service years and occupational stress. Participants included 652 firefighters (93.7% male; 77.9% white; Mage  = 38.4 years), of whom 23.5% screened positive for h...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Incidental Emotion Regulation Deficits in Public Speaking Anxiety
This study examined whether participants with public speaking anxiety showed deficits in incidental emotion regulation compared to non-anxious participants. Ninety-five public speaking anxious and fifteen non-anxious participants completed an affect-labeling task. They viewed negative images, and on half of the trials, they labeled the content of the image, and on the other half, viewed the image without labeling. They then rated their subjective distress after each image. Following the affect-labeling task, participants gave a brief speech in front of a live audience. Physiological reactivity (heart rate and skin conducta...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cannabis Use and Anxiety Sensitivity in Relation to Physical Health and Functioning in Post-9/11 Veterans
AbstractFrequency of cannabis use and cognitive vulnerabilities such as anxiety sensitivity (i.e., the fear of bodily sensations), have been independently linked with poor physical health, however the interplay between these health-mental health processes may compound poor physical health and functioning in cannabis users. Thus, the current study evaluated the direct and interactive effects of cannabis use frequency and anxiety sensitivity on physical health and functioning among cannabis-using veterans. Participants (N = 138) were post-9/11 United States veterans recruited from a Veterans Affairs hospital wh...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Main and Interactive Effects of e-Cigarette Use Health Literacy and Anxiety Sensitivity in Terms of e-Cigarette Perceptions and Dependence
This study provide s the first empirical evidence of the potential role of two cognitive factors in relation to e-cigarette use beliefs and behavior. These data suggest future clinical research may benefit by understanding the potential therapeutic role of e-cigarette health literacy and AS for e-cigarette use behavio r. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Hope Above Racial Discrimination and Social Support in Accounting for Positive and Negative Psychological Adjustment in African American Adults: Is “Knowing You Can Do It” as Important as “Knowing How You Can”?
AbstractIn the present study, we examined the role of racial discrimination, social support (viz., family and friends), and hope (viz., agency and pathways) in accounting for negative psychological adjustment (viz., anxious and depressive symptoms) and positive psychological adjustment (viz., vitality and life satisfaction) in a sample of 249 African Americans. Overall, results of conducting a series of hierarchical regression analyses provided some evidence for the role of racial discrimination and social support in accounting for both negative and positive psychological adjustment. Noteworthy, the inclusion of hope was f...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Anxiety Sensitivity is Associated with Lower Enjoyment and an Anxiogenic Response to Physical Activity in Smokers
AbstractThe subjective affective response to, and enjoyment of, physical activity are strong predictors of engagement in physical activity. Anxiety sensitivity, the fear of bodily sensations, is a cognitive factor that may inhibit the pleasurable affective experience of physical activity, possibly contributing to low levels of physical activity. The current study evaluated anxiety sensitivity in relation to PA enjoyment and affective experience before and after exercise in smokers. Participants were low-active treatment-seeking smokers (n = 201) enrolled in a smoking cessation intervention. At baseline, parti...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Ambivalence over Expression of Anger and Sadness Mediates Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms
AbstractThe gender difference in the prevalence of depression is well-documented, poorly understood and multifactorial. Considering that gender differences exist in the expression of emotions, we hypothesized that ambivalence over the expression of sadness and anger contributes to the difference in depression scores between men and women. Questionnaires on depressive symptoms and ambivalence regarding sadness and anger expression were completed by 550 respondents (66.9% women, average age 27.8  years). Women reported more depressive symptoms and were more ambivalent over the expression of both sadness and anger than m...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Reward and Punishment Sensitivity and Emotion Regulation Processes Differentiate Bipolar and Unipolar Depression
AbstractBipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) cannot be reliably differentiated by depression symptom expression alone, suggesting a need to identify processes that may more effectively differentiate the two disorders. To explore this question, currently depressed adults with BD (n = 30) and MDD (n = 30), and healthy control participants with no history of psychiatric illness (CTL;n = 30), completed self-report measures of reward and punishment sensitivity (i.e., behavioral activation and inhibition) and emotion regulation processes (i.e., rumination and avoidan...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Long-Term Improvements in Probability and Cost Biases Following Brief Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder
This study examines whether improvements in probability and cost biases following cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder endure over the long-term. Participants (N  = 65) diagnosed with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned and completed eight sessions of either exposure group therapy or virtual reality exposure therapy delivered according to a treatment manual. 24 participants completed standardized self-report measures of probability and cost bi ases at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 5½ years, on average, after completing active treatment (range 2.5–6.5 years...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Prospective Relation Between Peer Victimization and Suicidal Ideation: Potential Cognitive Mediators
AbstractThe current study combines models about the effects of peer victimization on negative self-cognitions with models about the effects of negative cognitions on suicidal ideation. In a two-wave longitudinal investigation of high schoolers (N = 192) and college students (N = 142), the study examined perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and hopelessness as mediators of the prospective relation between peer victimization and suicidal ideation. Path analyses yielded three findings: (a) peer victimization predicted perceived burdensomeness but not thwart ed belongingness or hopeless...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Role of Anxiety Sensitivity in the Relationship Between Emotion Dysregulation and Internalizing Psychopathology Among Trauma-Exposed Inpatient Adolescents
AbstractThe present investigation examined the underlying role of anxiety sensitivity and its facets in the association between emotion dysregulation and three of the most prevalent and debilitating symptom classes among trauma-exposed psychiatric inpatient youth: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression symptoms. Participants (N = 50; 52.0% female;Mage = 15.1 years,SD = .51, range 12–17 years) completed an assessment battery that included measures of emotion dysregulation anxiety sensitivity, PTSD, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Consistent with h...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Comparing Cognitive Defusion and Cognitive Restructuring Delivered Through a Mobile App for Individuals High in Self-Criticism
AbstractThere are ongoing questions regarding the similarities and differences in the clinical impact and processes of change for cognitive restructuring and cognitive defusion. This clinical component test compared 87 adults high in self-criticism randomized to a cognitive defusion mobile app, restructuring app, or waitlist condition for 2  weeks. Equivalent improvements were found from the defusion and restructuring apps relative to the waitlist on self-criticism and distress as well as decentering, self-compassion, and dysfunctional attitudes. However, the defusion condition had a more consistent pattern of improve...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Reasons for Living Among U.S. Army Personnel Thinking About Suicide
AbstractReasons for living are associated with reduced suicide risk, but have not received much empirical attention among U.S. military personnel, a population with elevated suicide risk. The present study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Brief Reasons for Living Inventory (BRFLI) in a clinical sample of 97 treatment-seeking Army personnel with recent suicide ideation and/or a history of suicide attempts. Results supported a five-factor structure for the BRFLI. Each factor had good internal consistency ( ω’s >  0.94) and demonstrated convergent and divergent validit...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Frequency of Intrusions and Appraisal of Related Distress After Analogue Trauma: A Comparative Ecological Momentary Assessment Methods Study
AbstractIntrusive thoughts, images, and their appraisal remain difficult to study despite their clinical relevance. Clinical studies typically used time-based (frequency and distress per observation period), while analogue studies mainly used event-based (report upon occurrence) assessment. A comparison of intrusion frequency, distress appraisal, compliance, and reactivity across different assessments is mostly lacking, particularly with regard to analogue research. Here, intrusions were induced via aversive films and assessed by a smart phone application for 4  days. Three sampling modes were compared by randomizing ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Development of the Demotivating Beliefs Inventory and Test of the Cognitive Triad of Amotivation
AbstractRecent cognitive models of negative symptoms in psychosis posit that amotivation relevant beliefs are reflected in the cognitive triad of negative beliefs concerning the self, others and the future. The aim of this study was to test the proposed three-factor structure of putative ‘demotivating beliefs’ and to ascertain the strength of their association with self-reported amotivation. We combined existing scales assessing ‘demotivating beliefs’ to the Demotivating Beliefs Inventory. This scale was used for exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses as well as latent regression analyses with...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How Does Anxiety Affect Adults with Skin Disease? Examining the Indirect Effect of Anxiety Symptoms on Impairment Through Anxiety Sensitivity
AbstractEmerging research suggests social anxiety, health anxiety, and generalized anxiety disorder symptoms are particularly relevant for dermatology patients. Unfortunately, very few studies have investigated how these anxieties affect quality of life among individuals with skin disease. The aims of the present study were to characterize the rates of these anxiety syndromes among adults with active skin disease symptoms, examine correlations between anxiety and skin disease symptoms, and test the mediating role of anxiety sensitivity in skin-related impairment. A considerable number of participants (N = 237...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Rumination and Its Relationship with Thought Suppression in Unipolar Depression and Comorbid PTSD
AbstractDespite research suggesting that rumination may function as a cognitive avoidance strategy, few studies have examined the presence of rumination or its relationship with other cognitive avoidance strategies (e.g., thought suppression) in individuals with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. In the current study, 80 veterans with unipolar depression were categorized into two groups: those with and without a comorbid PTSD diagnosis (PTSD+ and PTSD − groups, respectively). Participants completed a clinician-administered diagnostic interview and measures of clinical symptoms, rumination (...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Review of the Role of Negative Cognitions About Oneself, Others, and the World in the Treatment of PTSD
AbstractNegative cognitions about oneself, others, and the world are central to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We provide a comprehensive review of the literature examining the change in post-trauma negative cognitions in PTSD treatments. We explore the association between change in cognitions and change in PTSD symptoms and the mediational effect of negative cognitions on PTSD symptoms. A review of over 2000 manuscripts resulted in 65 PTSD treatment articles for review that included a measure of negative post-trauma cognitions and PTSD severity. Several studies found that PTSD tre...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Decreasing Event Centrality in Undergraduates Using Cognitive Bias Modification of Appraisals
We examined this causal link in a series of experiments. A pilot test showed that, out of four manipulations, only a cognitive bias modification training of appraisal (CBM-App) decreased event centrality in participants with high event centrality scores. Next, we tested whether the CBM-App training influenced event centrality and PTSD symptoms in a new sample. Participants in the CBM-App condition reported reduced event centrality compared to participants in a non-centrality control condition. No changes in PTSD symptoms were found. The link between event centrality and PTSD symptoms was mediated by posttraumatic cognition...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Does Exposure Therapy Lead to Changes in Attention Bias and Approach-Avoidance Bias in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder?
AbstractCognitive biases have been suggested to play a crucial role in the etiology and maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exposure therapy on attention- and approach-avoidance bias in SAD. In a randomized controlled trial, we compared changes from pre- to posttreatment in both biases in patients receiving stand-alone exposure therapy to a waiting-list control condition comprising 60 participants (Mage  = 36.9 years) with SAD with heterogeneous social fears. Before and after treatment, attention bias was assessed using the dot prob...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Is Integrated CBT Effective in Reducing PTSD Symptoms and Substance Use in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans? Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial
This study is the first to examine integrated cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) in a sample of military veterans with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD). Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine primary outcomes from a small, randomized clinical trial comparing ICBT plus treatment as usual (TAU) to TAU only in a sample (N = 44) of U.S. veterans who served in Iraq and/or Afghanistan. A significant reduction in PTSD and SUD symptoms over time was detected in both conditions. One significant time-by-condition interaction effect for re-experiencing sy...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Understanding the Constellation of Adolescent Emotional Clarity and Cognitive Response Styles when Predicting Depression: A Latent Class Analysis
This study used Latent Class Analysis to identify subgroups of youth based on emotional clarity and cognitive response styles. Participants were 436 adolescents (51.8% female; 48.2% African-American/Black, 47.4% Caucasian/White) who completed measures of emotional clarity, cognitive response styles, and depression at baseline (M = 13.02 years,SD = .83), and at a 1-year and 4-year follow-up. Four classes were identified and used to predict depression outcomes. Overall, youth with above average emotional clarity who reported using a variety of adaptive cognitive response styles also had the lowest...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Maladaptive Post-traumatic Cognitions in Interpersonally Traumatized Adolescents with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: An Analysis of “Stuck-Points”
This study investigated maladaptive post-traumatic cognitions, so-called “stuck-points”, from forty-three adolescent survivors of interpersonal traumatization. Thematic content and relationships between stuck-points and trauma characteristics as well as symptom severity were analyzed. Guilt, esteem and trust were the most frequently named themes. Physical abuse was r elated to stuck-points in the categories trust and control, sexual abuse was related to the categories safety and guilt. Penetration, female sex, an older age at trauma onset and a closer relationship to the perpetrator were related to the category...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Thought –Action Fusion in Individuals with a History of Recurrent Depression and Suicidal Depression: Findings from a Community Sample
AbstractAlthough suicidal ideation is one of the most consistent symptoms across recurrent episodes of depression, the mechanisms underpinning its maintenance are poorly understood. In order to develop effective treatments for suicidally depressed patients, understanding what maintains suicidal distress is critical. We hypothesised that Thought –Action Fusion (TAF), i.e., to assume that having a thought has real world consequences, originally described in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder, might be a bias in recurrently suicidally depressed people. To assess this, we revised the original TAF scale, and assessed TAF...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Personalizing Affective Stimuli Using a Recommender Algorithm: An Example with Threatening Words for Trauma Exposed Populations
AbstractExperimental paradigms used in affective and clinical science often use stimuli such as images, scenarios, videos, or words to elicit emotional responses in study participants. Choosing appropriate stimuli that are highly evocative is essential to the study of emotional processes in both healthy and clinical populations. Selecting one set of stimuli that will be relevant for all subjects can be challenging because not every person responds the same way to a given stimulus. Machine learning can facilitate the personalization of such stimuli. The current study applied a novel statistical approach called a recommender...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Training Less Threatening Interpretations Over the Internet: Impact of Priming Anxious Imagery and Using a Neutral Control Condition
AbstractCognitive Bias Modification to reduce threat interpretations (CBM-I) is a computer-based paradigm designed to train a less negative interpretation bias that has shown some success in the lab, but results for web-based CBM-I are often mixed. To test possible explanations for the poorer results online, participants high in social anxiety (N = 379) were recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk to complete a single-session, proof-of-principle study to investigate: (1) whether web-based CBM-I can shift interpretations of social situations to be less negative and reduce anticipatory social anxiety, (2)...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Self-Esteem Instability in Current, Remitted, Recovered, and Comorbid Depression and Anxiety
AbstractSelf-esteem has not only been observed to be generally low in depression and anxiety, but also unstable. Few studies have looked at unstable self-esteem in clinical samples. The present study compared self-reported self-esteem instability across current depression (n  = 60), anxiety (n = 111), and comorbid depression/anxiety (n = 71), remitted depression (n = 41), and anxiety (n = 29), recovered depression (n = 136) and anxiety (n = 98), and a never clinically depressed or anxious comparison group (n = 38...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Attentional Bias and Its Modification in Contamination OCD Symptomatology
This study examined attentional biases in 54 individuals with contamination OCD symptomatology and whether ABM reduces biases and symptoms. Participants comp leted one 30 min session of either ABM training or a control task and a spatial cueing task before and after to assess attentional bias. Questionnaires and behavioral tasks were also completed. Participants returned for a follow up 1 month later. As expected, there was evidence of difficulty disen gaging from threats directly and indirectly associated with disease. Attention training led to a reduction in this bias, which was maintained for 1 month. How...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Cognitions and Suicidal Ideation Among Veterans Receiving PTSD Treatment
AbstractWith approximately 20 veteran suicide deaths per day, suicidal ideation (SI) among veterans is an important concern. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with SI among veterans, yet mechanisms of this relationship remain unclear. Negative posttraumatic cognitions contribute to the development and maintenance of PTSD, yet no studies have prospectively examined the relationship between posttraumatic cognitions and SI. Veterans (N = 177; 66% Male) participating in a 3-week intensive outpatient program for PTSD completed assessments of PTSD severity, depressive symptoms, SI, and posttraumati...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Implicit Measures of Actual Versus Ideal Body Image: Relations with Self-Reported Body Dissatisfaction and Dieting Behaviors
AbstractBody dissatisfaction refers to a negative appreciation of one ’s own body stemming from a discrepancy between how one perceives his/her body (actual body image) and how he/she wants it to be (ideal body image). To circumvent the limitations of self-report measures of body image, measures were developed that allow for a distinction between actual and ideal body image at the implicit level. The first goal of the present study was to investigate whether self-reported body dissatisfaction is related to implicit measures of actual and ideal body image as captured by the Relational Responding Task (RRT). Secondly, ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Cognitive Therapy Scale and Cognitive Therapy Scale-Revised as Measures of Therapist Competence in Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Depression: Relations with Short and Long Term Outcome
This study reports on a direct comparison of the original Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS) with the revised version, the Cognitive Therapy Scale-Revised (CTS-R), as observational instruments designed to evaluate therapist competence in a completed trial of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) for depression. Treatment sessions (N = 94) from 50 depressed participants (M age  = 39.2 years, 76% female, with an average of 5.9 depressive episodes) were evaluated on the CTS and CTS-R by trained independent observers who were blind to treatment outcome, as well as to subject, and session numbers. A comprehens...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Transdiagnostic Bibliotherapy Program for Anxiety and Related Disorders: Results From Two Studies Using a Benchmarking Approach
This study investigated the effectiveness of a transdiagnostic BCBT intervention in two open trials. While the BCBT intervention in both studies were identical, the first study was unguided (i.e., no clinician support provided), and the second study was guided (i.e., patients were provided with brief clinician support via telephone). Twenty-three participants with mixed anxiety disorders completed the first Study (unguided treatment) and results exhibited significant reductions on the primary outcome measure with within-group effect sizes ofd = 1.29 (95% CI 0.64–1.91) at post-treatment andd =&thi...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Processes of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-Analyses
AbstractCognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) refers to a treatment approach with strong empirical support for its efficacy for various disorders and populations. The goal of the present review was to provide a comprehensive survey of meta-analyses examining the processes of CBT, namely: treatment processes (cognitive reappraisal, behavioral strategies, emotional regulation, motivation strategies, and psychoeducation) and in-session processes (alliance, goal consensus and collaboration, feedback, group cohesion, and homework). We identified 558 meta-analyses of CBT, and 30 meta-analyses met our inclusion criteria as reviews o...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Modifying Negative Self-Imagery Increases the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Benchmarking Study
In this study, we developed an enhanced CBT (ECBT) which focused on changing negative self-imagery through imagery rescripting, repeated video feedback, and increased trials of exposure training and compared it with a historical control that received the conventional group CBT (CCBT). Among 90 patients with SAD, 45 received ECBT and the other 45 received CCBT. Results showed that ECBT were significantly better and faster in reducing social interaction anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, judgment bias, and dysfunctional self-belief than CCBT. ECBT showed a significantly higher rate of clinically significant change than CC...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Diagnostic Features of Nonverbal Synchrony in Psychotherapy: Comparing Depression and Anxiety
In this study, we investigated diagnosis and movement quantity as predictors of nonverbal synchrony. The naturalistic analysis sample consisted of 173 videotaped sessions of patients with a depressive disorder (N  = 68) or an anxiety disorder (N = 25), who were treated with cognitive behavioral therapy at an outpatient clinic in southwest Germany. Therapy videos were routinely collected and nonverbal synchrony was computed using motion energy analysis (MEA). Using multilevel modeling, we first investigat ed the influence of diagnosis and time of assessment on patient and therapist movement quantity. Sec...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Multisession Cognitive Bias Modification Targeting Multiple Biases in Adolescents with Elevated Social Anxiety
This study presents a new multi-session, combined bias CBM package, which uses a mix of training techniques and stimuli to enhance user-engagement. We present preliminary data on its viability, acceptability and effectiveness on reducing symptoms and biases using an A –B case series design. 19 adolescents with elevated social anxiety reported on their social anxiety, real-life social behaviours, general anxiety, depression, and cognitive biases at pre/post time-points during a 2-week baseline phase and a 2-week intervention phase. Retention rate was high. Adole scents also reported finding the CBM training helpful, p...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotion Specific Effects on Attentional Bias Among Women with Shape and Weight Concerns
AbstractEating disorders are characterized by distorted beliefs about one ’s body shape and weight, biased attention to appearance related stimuli, and emotion dysregulation. In separate experiments we tested the impact of two negative emotions on attention to shape and weight concerns among women with and without weight and shape concerns. In Experiment 1, women with h igher body shape and weight concerns, in comparison to those with low shape and weight concerns, demonstrated a bias in attention to shape and weight information during an induced sad emotion. These groups did not differ during a neutral mood inductio...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Development of the Interpretation Bias Index for PTSD
AbstractCognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicate interpretation biases as a maintaining factor of symptoms. Existing measures index symptoms and negative beliefs in PTSD patients, but not threatening interpretation of socially-ambiguous information, which would further inform cognitive models of PTSD. Here we describe the development of a measure of interpretation bias specific to individuals with PTSD. Studies 1 and 2 utilized analog samples to identify the smallest set of items capable of differentiating PTSD-specific interpretation biases. Study 3 utilized a clinical sample to examine the facto...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotion Regulation in Patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Unique Effects for Those with “Taboo Thoughts”
AbstractEmotion regulation (ER) is a modifiable and transdiagnostic construct that has been widely studied across the affective disorders; however, little research has evaluated the relationship between ER and obsessive –compulsive (OC) features (e.g., OC symptom dimensions, OC symptom severity, and obsessive beliefs). The current study therefore evaluates the relationship between ER difficulties and OC features in the largest sample of adults with OCD to date. Participants (N = 57) completed a clinician-administered diagnostic and OC symptom assessment, as well as self-report questionnaires. Results re...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Moderating Effect of Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Strategies on Reappraisal: A Daily Diary Study
AbstractRecent research has investigated how adaptive emotion regulation (ER) strategies and maladaptive ER strategies interact to predict symptoms, but little is known about how specific strategies interact with one another when used in daily life. The present investigation used daily diary data collected over two weeks from an unselected student sample (N = 109) to examine how reappraisal, a putatively adaptive ER strategy, interacts on a given occasion (within-person) and across occasions (between-person) with putatively maladaptive ER strategies (rumination, experiential avoidance, expressive suppression)...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Stress Accounts for the Association Between ADHD Symptoms and Suicide Ideation When Stress-Reactive Rumination Is High
Conclusions did not change after controlling for depressive symptoms. These findings shed light on one explanation of the elevated levels of suicide ideation seen in emerging adults with elevated ADHD symptoms: heightened levels of stressful events and a tendency to respond to stress by ruminating. Implications for theory development and prevention efforts are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 31, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Contribution of Anxiety Sensitivity to Obsessive –Compulsive and Anxiety Symptoms in a Naturalistic Treatment Setting
We examined the relationship between internalizing symptoms and the anxiety sensitivity components of physical, social, and cognitive concerns in a sample of 165 patients seeking treatment in a clinic specializing in cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety-related disorders. Social anxiety symptoms were associated with greater social concerns. Cognitive concerns were characteristic of both depression and generalized anxiety symptoms, suggesting these two classes of symptoms may share AS symptomatology. Physical concerns were specifically related to panic symptoms. Although obsessive –compulsive symptoms were related...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Revisiting How We Assess Therapist Competence in Cognitive Therapy
We report on two approaches to addressing the problem of low reliability in the assessment of therapist competence in cognitive therapy (CT). In Study 1, we utilized ratings of a session from each of six therapists and investigated how CT experts evaluate specific therapist behaviors in making ratings on the Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS). Departures from the consensus on judgments of these therapist behaviors were associated with more discrepant competence ratings. We take these results to suggest that, at least among experts, providing greater clarity about which therapist behaviors are relevant to each CTS item may enhan...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Monocausal Attributions Along Cross-Sections of Psychosis Development and Links with Psychopathology and Data Gathering Style
AbstractSeveral attributional biases have been discussed as putative causal factors in psychosis formation and maintenance. The monocausality bias in particular describes the excessive tendency to disregard multifactorial explanations and to instead attribute events to a single cause. To elucidate the role of monocausality in psychosis development, this study compared patients with an at-risk mental state of psychosis (ARMS,n = 49), first-episode patients (FEP,n = 35), chronic schizophrenia patients (SZ,n = 32) and healthy controls (HC,n = 39) on the Internal Personal...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dialectical Behavior Therapy in the Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder and Eating Disorders  Comorbidity: A Pilot Study in a Naturalistic Setting
AbstractDialectical behavior therapy  (DBT) has been shown to be successful in the treatment of borderline personality disorder and eating disorders separately. The present study compares Standard Dialectical Behavior Therapy with a Treatment as Usual Cognitive Behavior Therapy (TAU CBT) for the treatment of borderline personality di sorder and eating disorders comorbid features. A total of 118 women diagnosed with borderline personality disorders and eating disorders were assigned to one of two treatment groups in a naturalistic setting (DBT = 71; TAU CBT = 47). DBT showed a grea...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research