To Approach or to Avoid: The Role of Ambivalent Motivation in Attentional Biases to Threat and Spider Fear
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that anxiety persistence may have more to do with goal prioritization than innate attentional biases. Future studies of attentional biases to threat should take motivation into account and study attention across the time course. Ambivalent motivation to threat should also be targeted in exposure therapy. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Social Anxiety Disorder and the Fear of Death: An Empirical Investigation of the Terror Management Approach towards Understanding Clinical Anxiety
ConclusionThese results suggest that more robust theoretical frameworks may be needed to explain the evident, but likely complex, relationship between death fears and clinical anxiety. Directions for future research are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Effects of Interpersonal Support on Treatment Outcomes Using Cognitive Processing Therapy
AbstractBackgroundAlthough there has been research connecting PTSD and social support, there has been little research on effects of treatment, especially in military samples. The current study examined the relationship between these variables over the course of PTSD treatment and assessed differences based on treatment modality (i.e. group versus individual).MethodsParticipants were 322 active duty service members in a randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of group and individual Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) treatment modalities and were assessed for PTSD symptoms and social support both prior to an...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Regulating Emotionality to Manage Adversity: A Systematic Review of the Relation Between Emotion Regulation and Psychological Resilience
ConclusionsER is positively associated with PR. ER may facilitate emotion- and problem-focused coping, promoting PR. Specific ER strategies uniquely related to PR and vary in effectiveness in strengthening PR depending on contextual factors (e.g., intense emotion-eliciting situations). (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Interpersonal Patterns in Social Anxiety Disorder: Predictors and Outcomes of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that although higher levels of interpersonal problems and lower levels of secure attachment predict greater social anxiety, interpersonal problems and insecure attachment do not predict poorer treatment outcome. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Money Versus Social Rank: An Empirical Investigation of Unfairness in Social Anxiety
ConclusionTaken together, our findings show that given the chance, individuals with elevated SA can resort to active punishment instead than acting submissively in asymmetric interactions, in partial disagreement with theoretical models of SA. We further advance that social rank threats are important drivers of punitive actions in SA. Empirical and practical implications, as well as interpretative caveats, are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Effects of Stoic Training and Adaptive Working Memory Training on Emotional Vulnerability in High Worriers
ConclusionsThe study provides a positive foundation for the further research and development of Stoic training. The wider implications of these results are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Bodily Maps of Emotion in Major Depressive Disorder
ConclusionsWe could show that emotion experience was associated with bodily sensations that are weaker in depression than in healthy controls and that antidepressant medication was correlated with an increased feeling of bodily deactivation. Results give insights into the relevance for clinicians to acknowledge bodily sensations in the treatment of depression. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How Depressive Symptoms Hinder Positive Information Processing: An Experimental Study on the Interplay of Cognitive Immunisation and Negative Mood in the Context of Expectation Adjustment
ConclusionsConsistent with previous work, depressive symptoms were associated with a reduced ability to integrate positive information. Furthermore, our results suggest that the activation of negative mood in people with elevated levels of depression may hamper learning from new positive experience. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Developmental Differences in Child and Adolescent Reasoning About Anxiety Sensations
ConclusionsThe results add to the existing understanding of emotional development and are consistent with the idea that the process of cognitive-emotional understanding is not a simple linear one because various domains may show differential development. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Role of Facial Appearance Concern and Appraisal Perspective in the Experience of Task-Irrelevant Intrusions
ConclusionsThe current findings are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated facial appearance concerns are underpinned by highly frequent and distressing task-irrelevant intrusions about past appearance-related experiences. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotion-in-Motion: An ABM Approach that Modifies Attentional Disengagement from, Rather than Attentional Engagement with, Negative Information
ConclusionsIt is concluded that the Emotion-in-Motion task serves to independently manipulate selective attentional disengagement from negative information and may be useful in investigating the specific role of biased attentional disengagement in emotional vulnerability. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Comparing the Efficacy of Competitive Memory Training (COMET) and MEmory Specificity Training (MEST) on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Newly Diagnosed Cancer Patients
ConclusionsThis study suggests that COMET is a promising brief intervention for the treatment of PTSD in cancer patients. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Change in Attentional Control Predicts Change in Attentional Bias to Negative Information in Response to Elevated State Anxiety
ConclusionsFindings support proposal of a relationship between attentional control and attentional bias to negative information, though are inconsistent with the proposal that heightened attentional bias to negative information is uniformly underpinned by greater impairment in attentional control. Implications are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

An Analysis of the Pattern of Adaptive Emotion Regulation Associated with Low Paranoid Ideation in Healthy and Clinical Samples
ConclusionThe results indicate that comprehending and accepting/tolerating emotions could be protective against paranoid ideation. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Predictors of Depressive Symptoms: Cognitive Reactivity, Mood Reactivity, and Dysfunctional Attitudes
ConclusionsResults suggest that different vulnerabilities may be relevant to predicting increases in depressive symptoms over time in those individuals who have not previously been depressed vs. those who have. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dialectical Behavior Therapy in the Treatment of Comorbid Borderline Personality Disorder and Eating Disorder in a Naturalistic Setting: A Six-Year Follow-up Study
ConclusionsFindings of this study contribute to determinate the long-term treatment effectiveness of DBT for people with BPD and ED in routine psychotherapeutic practice. Longitudinal studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these results. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Effects of Emotional Working Memory Training on Worry Symptoms and Error-Related Negativity of Individuals with High Trait Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Study
ConclusionsThese results show that emotional WM training can improve neurocognitive processes of attention and WM as well as symptoms of worrying. Overall, this study encourages the development of a standalone or adjunctive cognitive intervention focused on WM for vulnerable populations with high trait anxiety or worry symptoms. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Impact of Moral-Based Appraisals on Psychological Outcomes in Response to Analogue Trauma: An Experimental Paradigm of Moral Injury
ConclusionsFindings provide preliminary evidence for the role of moral appraisals in responses associated with moral injury, which may aide the development of current conceptualizations regarding moral injury-related responses. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Does Self-Efficacy Predict Functioning in Older Adults with Schizophrenia? A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Mediation Analysis
ConclusionsThis study suggests direct and indirect effects of self-efficacy, via negative symptoms, on functioning in older adults with schizophrenia. Self-efficacy and negative symptoms should be intervention targets to improve functional difficulties in older adults with schizophrenia. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Attention Deployment to the Eye Region of Emotional Faces among Adolescents with and without Social Anxiety Disorder
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that vigilance to the eye region of faces, especially angry faces, (when compared with happy faces) is characteristic of adolescents with SAD. Adolescents with SAD seem drawn to the eye region, more so than teens without SAD. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Couples ’ Diminished Social and Financial Capital Exacerbate the Association Between Maladaptive Attributions and Relationship Satisfaction
ConclusionContextual factors may alter the effects that partners ’ cognitions have on relationship satisfaction, suggesting that influences far removed from the dyad itself can affect basic processes arising between partners. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Reframing the Past: Role of Memory Processes in Emotion Regulation
ConclusionsBased on this literature, we conclude that memory reactivation plays a crucial role in memory modification. We discuss further the potential role of memory reactivation in mediating the success of cognitive reappraisal, which may be considered a special case of memory modification. We propose that the completeness, or strength, of reactivation during retrospective emotion regulation will be related to the likelihood of updating an episodic memory, reducing its emotional impact upon later recall. Understanding the role of memory processes in emotion regulation can help to inform research on memory-based treatment...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Which Variations of a Brief Cognitive Bias Modification Session for Interpretations Lead to the Strongest Effects?
ConclusionsPresenting valenced interpretations of ambiguous information during brief CBM-I, regardless of the format, can lead to changes in interpretation bias. However, most conditions did not differ from the no task control condition on other post-training assessments (and differences that did occur may be due to chance). Future trials should consider further testing of CBM-I that targets flexibility related to emotional material, and should include an increased number of sessions and trials. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Testing the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Relieving Nurses ’ Ageism Toward Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial
ConclusionsCBT is an effective evidence-based psychological intervention for relieving nurses ’ ageism towards older adults. The psychological well-being of nurses caring for older adults is crucial, and new techniques should be adopted to relieve nurses’ accumulated stress and decrease their death anxiety. Future studies which investigate the effectiveness of CBT on other forms of discr imination, such as racism and sexism in healthcare settings, are recommended. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotion-Regulation in Psychosis: Patients with Psychotic Disorders Apply Reappraisal Successfully
ConclusionThese findings question the common assumption that PD use reappraisal less often or less successfully. At least under laboratory condition, PD do not appear to be impaired in reducing negative affect via reappraisal successfully. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Manipulating Alcohol Expectancies in Social Anxiety: A Focus on Beliefs About Losing Control
ConclusionsAlthough this experiment used a non-clinical sample, beliefs about losing control may be important to consider when conceptualizing social anxiety and treating associated symptoms from a cognitive-behavioural framework. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Early Life Adversity as a Moderator of Symptom Change following Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
ConclusionsFindings suggest that SSRIs may be particularly effective for individuals with ELA and CBT may be particularly effective for individuals without ELA in reducing depression, but not anxiety, symptoms. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Inducing Affective Learning Biases with Cognitive Training and Prefrontal tDCS: A Proof-of-Concept Study
ConclusionsNegative training induced a mild negative bias in healthy adults as reflected in loss-driven choice behaviour. Prefrontal tDCS had no effect. Further research is needed to assess if this training procedure can be adapted to enhance learning from positive outcomes and whether effects translate to affective disorders. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Frontal tDCS and Emotional Reactivity to Negative Content: Examining the Roles of Biased Interpretation and Emotion Regulation
ConclusionsThe present results are consistent with neural models implicating increased frontal activity with reduction in emotional reactivity, but provides no support for the role of interpretive bias in this relationship, and no evidence that tDCS enhanced the effects of emotion regulation. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Psychotherapy, Atomoxetine or Both? Preliminary Evidence from a Comparative Study of Three Types of Treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children
ConclusionsThe combined treatment seems to be superior to the medication alone on parent ratings on ADHD symptoms, however, on clinical ratings on ADHD diagnosis and functioning there are no significant group differences between treatments. Future larger trials with follow-up assessments are needed to test the stability of the effects over time. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Brief Training to Modify the Breadth of Attention Influences the Generalisation of Fear
ConclusionsParticipants trained to attend to stimuli in a local/analytical manner showed higher magnitude of fear acquisition and generalisation than participants trained to attend in a global/holistic way. Breadth of attentional focus can influence overall fear levels and fear generalisation and this can be manipulated via attentional training. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Self-Reported Cognitive Functions Predict the Trajectory of Paranoid Ideation Over a 15-Year Prospective Follow-Up
ConclusionsSelf-reported cognitive functions seem to predict paranoid ideation over a long-term follow-up. Promoting cognitive functions in early interventions may have long-term protective influences against the development of paranoid ideation in non-clinical populations. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Daily-Life Negative Affect in Emotional Distress Disorders Associated with Altered Frontoinsular Emotion Regulation Activation and Cortical Gyrification
ConclusionsResults suggest frontoinsular emotion regulation activation and gyrification abnormalities could be markers of increased daily-life negative affect and important treatment targets for emotional distress disorders. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

CBT MobileWork © : User-Centered Development and Testing of a Mobile Mental Health Application for Depression
ConclusionsCBT MobileWork© has preliminary feasibility for CBT skills practice and may benefit patients with CBT homework completion. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Control Training in Healthy Older Adults: A Proof of Concept Study on the Effects on Cognitive Functioning, Emotion Regulation and Affect
ConclusionAt this point, the CCT seems not suitable to enhance cognitive resilience factors in older non-depressed individuals. However, there is need for more research on possible moderators of the effects, as well as larger-scale studies with longer follow-up measurements. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

“What Might Have Been…”: Counterfactual Thinking, Psychological Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth When a Loved One is Missing
ConclusionsVarious types of CFT are differentially related to psychological symptoms with downward CFT facilitating posttraumatic growth in some individuals. Implications for psychological interventions are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Imagery Rescripting of Painful Memories in Social Anxiety Disorder: A Qualitative Analysis of Needs Fulfillment and Memory Updating
ConclusionsFindings illuminate the clinical processes through which socially traumatic memories in SAD may be updated in IR by guiding patients to fulfill their needs and promote improved emotional health. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Weekly Self-Ratings of Treatment Involvement and Their Relation to Symptom Reduction in Internet Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia
ConclusionsThe results strengthen subjective knowledge gain as a candidate for use as a predictor of treatment effects in ICBT-i. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Residual Anxiety in Patients with Bipolar Disorder in Full or Partial Remission: Metacognitive Beliefs and Neurocognitive Function
ConclusionsMaladaptive metacognitive beliefs are associated with residual anxiety in remitted patients with BD. Treatments that specifically target maladaptive metacognitive beliefs may have potential to reduce anxiety in remitted phases of BD  and enhance patients’ functional recovery and quality of life. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Bridges over Troubled Waters: Mapping the Interplay Between Anxiety, Depression and Stress Through Network Analysis of the DASS-21
ConclusionsSpecific symptoms can function as bridges between depression, anxiety and stress, which is clinically relevant on top of being theoretically important. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Advancing the Assessment of Mindfulness-Based Meditation Practice: Psychometric Evaluation of the Mindfulness Adherence Questionnaire
ConclusionsThe MAQ is reliable and has a meaningful scale structure, may usefully distinguish both quality versus quantity and formal versus informal MBP, and is sensitive to variations in MBP and does not solely measure trait mindfulness. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Development of the A-DISS Rejection Task to Demonstrate the Unique and Overlapping Affective Features of Social Anxiety and Depression
ConclusionsFindings provide preliminary validation of a novel peer rejection task for research on understanding the affective experience of real-time rejection overall, especially for those with elevated SA and depression. SA and depression symptoms each uniquely moderating the effects of Rejection exposure on similar affective states, suggests individuals with SA or depression may benefit from interventions targeting specific reactions to rejection/stress and transdiagnostic risk factors. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Brain of Thrones: Cognitive Effort and Perceived Performance During a Cognitive Task in Major Depressive Disorder
ConclusionsAvoidance of cognitive challenges in depression has implications for understanding mechanisms related to cognitive performance and efforts to modify cognitive impairment. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Online Intervention Reduces Hostile Attribution Bias, Anger, Aggressive Driving, and Cyber-Aggression, Results of Two Randomized Trials
AbstractBackgroundAnger and aggression often result from attributing hostile intent to the ambiguous actions of other people.MethodsTwo online double-blind parallel randomized pilot studies with healthy adult volunteers tested a novel online cognitive intervention called Hostile Bias Modification Training (HBMT). We hypothesized HBMT would reduce hostile attribution bias, anger, and aggression. In study one, 180 volunteers were randomized to one of three versions of HBMT (active, alternative, and placebo). In study two, 217 volunteers were randomized to either active or placebo HBMT and returned 24 –96 h later t...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Impact of Covid-19 Experiences and Associated Stress on Anxiety, Depression, and Functional Impairment in American Adults
ConclusionsThese findings highlight that personal experiences related to the diagnosis of COVID-19, mortality in acquaintances, and COVID-19 associated stress is associated with a greatly elevated risk of emotional disorder symptomatology and that the COVID-19 pandemic may result in increased demand for mental health services. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Impact of Two Brief Web-Based Psychological Interventions on Functional Outcomes
ConclusionsThe results of the current study suggest that brief online interventions may have a significant impact on functional impairment, particularly social functioning. This provides further support for the continued development and implementation of brief online interventions. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Effects of Affective Expectations on Experience in Individuals Varying in Anhedonia
ConclusionsFuture research should determine whether we can use expectation effects to improve motivation in anhedonic individuals, so that they can engage in more enjoyable activities and improve their treatment outcomes. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Personalized Psychotherapy for Outpatients with Major Depression and Anxiety Disorders: Transdiagnostic Versus Diagnosis-Specific Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
ConclusionsOur findings give insufficient evidence to support a recommendation of either transdiagnostic or diagnosis-specific CBT for a given patient or to predict the response to the applied group therapies. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Impact of Intolerance of Uncertainty and Cognitive Behavioural Instructions on Safety Learning
ConclusionsThese initial results provide some insight into how simple cognitive behavioural instructions combined with exposure are applied differently in individuals with varying levels of self-reported anxiety. The results further our understanding of the role of basic cognitive behavioural principles and self-reported anxiety in safety learning. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research