Chairwork in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: A Narrative Review
AbstractChairwork represents an assembly of versatile experiential interventions which have been incorporated into many evidence-based psychotherapies. This narrative review explores the applications, efficacy and mechanisms of action of chairwork techniques utilised in cognitive and behavioural therapies. Relevant literature was acquired through research database searches and manual reviews of leading cognitive behavioural manuals. The clinical literature indicates that chairwork has multifarious applications in second-wave, third-wave and integrative cognitive therapies, and provides a powerful medium within which the ta...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Impact of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Scale: Initial Psychometric Validation
AbstractThe current study examined the psychometric properties of the impact of non-suicidal self-injury scale (INS), a scale developed to assess the social, behavioral, and emotional consequences of engaging in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). University students (N=128) who endorsed a history of NSSI were administered the INS, as well as measures of hypothesized convergent and divergent validity. Results suggested that the INS is best conceptualized as a one-factor scale, and internal consistency analyses indicated excellent reliability. The INS was significantly correlated with well-known measures of NSSI severity (i.e....
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Mindfulness, Obsessive –Compulsive Symptoms, and Executive Dysfunction
AbstractRecent investigations have included mindfulness as a component of intervention for OCD. However, the extent to which processes underlying OCD interfere with mindfulness has not been examined. Limited research has examined neuropsychological functions as mechanisms to explain different levels of mindfulness across individuals. Research in OCD highlights impairment in visual/spatial working memory as possible unique deficits; these and other components of executive functioning may also be important for mindfulness. Participants (N  = 103) exceeding clinical cutoffs on measures of OCD, depressive, or general...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Can ’t Look Away: An Eye-Tracking Based Attentional Disengagement Training for Depression
AbstractTo address shortcomings of purely reaction-time based attentional bias modification (ABM) paradigms, we developed an ABM task that is controlled by eye-tracking. This task allows to assess and train both disengagement from negative pictures and maintained attention to positive pictures. As a proof-of-principle study with an unselected student sample, this positive training (PT; N  = 44) was compared to a negative training (NT; N = 42), which reinforced the opposite attentional pattern. Importantly, training trials were completed only if participants performed the correct gaze patterns. Results s...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Examining a Novel Gamified Approach to Attentional Retraining: Effects of Single and Multiple Session Training
AbstractNegative attention biases (AB) may play a causal role in the development of emotional disorders. In order to examine this proposed causal role, researchers have developed Attention Bias Modification (ABM) paradigms to experimentally induce or reduce AB. To date, most ABM studies have been based on modified dot-probe tasks. However, this task is only moderately successful in changing patterns of AB. In two laboratory-based experiments, we explored the effects of a novel visual search ABM paradigm, called “Intrinsically-Motivating Playable Attentional Control Training”, on AB processes and mood in undergr...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Catastrophic Thoughts About Insomnia Scale (CTIS): Development and Validation
AbstractInsomnia involves difficulty initiating, maintaining, receiving an adequate amount of, or returning to sleep. The study objective was to develop and validate a scale, the Catastrophic Thoughts About Insomnia Scale (CTIS), in order to assess the extent to which sleep-related catastrophic thinking contributes to the determination of sleep quality as assessed by psychometric questionnaires tapping self-reported insomnia severity. University student participants (N  = 765) completed the CTIS as well as measures of sleep quality, insomnia severity, neuroticism, depression, and maladaptive thoughts about insomn...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Positive Emotion Specificity and Mood Symptoms in an Adolescent Outpatient Sample
AbstractResearch on positive emotion disturbance has gained increasing attention, yet it is not clear which specific positive emotions are affected by mood symptoms, particularly during the critical period of adolescence. This is especially pertinent for identifying potential endophenotypic markers associated with mood disorder onset and course. The present study examined self-reported discrete positive and negative emotions in association with clinician-rated manic and depressive mood symptoms in a clinically and demographically diverse group of 401 outpatient adolescents between 11 and 18  years of age. Results indi...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Treatment of Depression from a Self-Regulation Perspective: Basic Concepts and Applied Strategies in Self-System Therapy
AbstractSelf-regulation models of psychopathology provide a theory-based, empirically supported framework for developing psychotherapeutic interventions that complement and extend current cognitive-behavioral models. However, many clinicians are only minimally familiar  with the psychology of self-regulation. The aim of the present manuscript is twofold. First, we provide an overview of self-regulation as a motivational process essential to well-being and introduce two related theories of self-regulation which have been applied to depression. Second, we describe how self-regulatory concepts and processes from those tw...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Role of Executive Functioning in Adolescent Rumination and Depression
AbstractResearch has underscored the importance of adolescence in the development of depression and its associated key risk factors, namely rumination. Recently, there has been an emphasis on exploring the neuropsychological correlates of depression and rumination, including the role of executive functioning (EF). However, research has yet to fully elucidate the relationship among these constructs from a developmental perspective. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between various components of EF, rumination, and depression among a normative sample of adolescents. A secondary aim of this stud...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Loneliness and Psychotic Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Depression
AbstractPsychotic symptoms have been shown to be associated with numerous social factors, such as migration and urban upbringing, of which one plausible common component is loneliness. This suggests a relationship between loneliness and positive psychotic symptoms. According to current cognitive models of psychosis, the relationship between loneliness and positive symptoms is likely to be explained by affective states. The current study examined the cross-sectional relationship between loneliness, depression, and positive symptoms in four separate community samples (combinedN = 766) with regression based mediatio...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 23, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Reducing Child-Related Negative Attitudes, Attributions of Hostile Intent, Anger, Harsh Parenting Behaviors, and Punishment Through Evaluative Conditioning
AbstractSix studies explored the extent to which evaluative conditioning (EC) can change adults ’ child-related attitudes and expectations. A subset of studies also investigated the extent to which EC can change child-related attributions of hostile intent, anger, use of harsh discipline, and use of punishment. An initial study demonstrated that a brief EC procedure increased positive attitu des, decreased negative attitudes, and decreased expected need for future child discipline; findings that were replicated in five additional studies. A randomized controlled trial demonstrated these findings were present in the E...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Techniques for Overcoming Depression Questionnaire: Mokken Scale Analysis, Reliability, and Concurrent Validity in Depressed Cardiac Patients
This study examined its latent structure, reliability and concurrent validity in depressed cardiac patients. The TOD was administered at the initial and final treatment sessions in three trials of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) (n = 260) for depression in cardiac patients. Mokken scaling was used to determine its dimensionality. The TOD is unidimensional in depressed cardiac patients, both at the initial evaluation (H = .46) and the end of treatment (H = .47). It is sensitive to change and the total score correlates wi th therapist ratings of the patient’s socialization to CBT (r = .40,p 
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dampening, Positive Rumination, and Positive Life Events: Associations with Depressive Symptoms in Children at Risk for Depression
AbstractBlunted positive affect is characteristic of depression. Altered positive affect regulation may contribute to this blunting, and two regulation strategies, dampening positive affect and positive rumination, have been implicated in depression. However, the conditions under which these strategies impart risk/protective effects prior to onset of depression are unknown. The current study examined 81 healthy children (age 7 –10) at low and high risk for depression on the basis of maternal history of depression and tested how dampening and positive rumination interacted with the experience of recent positive life e...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Mental Imagery-Based Training to Modify Mood and Cognitive Bias in Adolescents: Effects of Valence and Perspective
AbstractMental imagery has a powerful impact on emotion and cognitive processing in adults, and is implicated in emotional disorders. Research suggests the perspective adopted in mental imagery modulates its emotional impact. However, little is known about the impact of mental imagery in adolescence, despite adolescence being the key time for the onset of emotional dysfunction. We administered computerised positive versus mixed valence picture-word mental imagery training to male adolescent participants (N  = 60, aged 11–16 years) across separate field and observer perspective sessions. Positive mood i...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 7, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Children ’s Negative Cognitive Error Questionnaire—Revised: The Factor Structure and Associations with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Across Age, Gender, and Clinical/Community Samples
This study evaluated the factor structure of the Children ’s Negative Cognitive Error Questionnaire—Revised (CNCEQ-R) and its relationship with anxiety and depressive symptoms. The study included a community sample of 257 children and adolescents and a clinical sample of 201 referred youths, aged 9–18 years. Participants completed the CNCEQ-R and th e revised child anxiety and depression scale (RCADS). For the original five-factor model, confirmatory factor analysis indicated an overall good fit to the data for the entire sample. The model was found fully invariant between boys and girls, children an...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Predictive Importance of Antenatal Depressive Rumination and Worrying for Maternal –Foetal Attachment and Maternal Well-Being
Abstract Rumination and worrying are relevant to the onset and maintenance of depression and anxiety. Yet, it is unclear, whether depressive rumination and worrying are predictive for depressive and anxious symptomatology during pregnancy. Likewise, the potential role of depressive rumination and worrying for maternal –foetal attachment has been rarely explored. In the present longitudinal study, N  = 215 pregnant women were assessed within the first 4 months of pregnancy and again in the last 4 months of pregnancy. Using regression analysis, associations between worrying and depressive ruminatio...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Interactions Between Reappraisal and Emotional Nonacceptance in Psychopathology: Examining Disability and Depression Symptoms in Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Abstract Recent research has emphasized the importance of studying the interaction between adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in predicting mental health. In this respect, putatively maladaptive strategies (e.g., avoidance) have been found to moderate the link between putatively adaptive strategies (e.g., reappraisal) and psychopathology symptoms (e.g., Aldao and Nolen-Hoeksema in J Abnorm Psychol 121(1):276–281, 2012; Aldao et al. in J Anxiety Disord 28(4):382–389, 2014). Moreover, this line of work suggests that the direction of this moderation might vary as a function of symptom ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Assessing Disruptions in Meaning: Development of the Global Meaning Violation Scale
We describe the development of a new instrument, the Global Meaning Violation Scale (GMVS), for directly assessing belief and goal violations. We establish the psychometric integrity of the GMVS across three studies. In Study 1, we identify and replicate a factor structure consisting of three subscales: belief violation, intrinsic goal violation, and extrinsic goal violation. In Study 2, we provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the GMVS. In Study 3, we test the predictive validity of the GMVS in a sample of undergraduates reporting on the most stressful experiences of their lives. Our findings indicate that ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 7, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Bias Modification to Enhance Resilience to a Panic Challenge
This study tested an intervention to enhance resilience among people at risk for developing panic disorder. Participants (N = 50) high in anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety symptoms) were randomly assigned to either four sessions of resilience-enhancing interpretation bias modification (CBM-I) or a control (Sham) condition. Following the intervention, participants engaged in a 7.5 % steady state carbon dioxide (CO2) breathing challenge, an established panic stressor. In line with hypotheses, CBM-I resulted in an increase in resilience-congruent interpretations (though no change for general panic interpreta...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotion Regulation in Women with Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): Explicit and Implicit Assessments
Abstract Psychological factors, such as cognitive-emotional processes, are proposed to play an important role in the etiology of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Our aim was to determine whether there are differences in emotion regulation between women with PMS and non-PMS controls. The study included 54 women who suffered from PMS (confirmed by prospective daily ratings during two menstrual cycles), as well as 52 non-PMS controls. All participants completed the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) as an explicit and the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) as an implicit measure of emotion regulation. E...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 19, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Impaired De Novo Fear Conditioning in Opiate-Dependent Outpatients
Abstract Substance use disorders are characterized by excessive seeking and taking of drugs in the face of adverse consequences. Impaired learning of contingencies around negative outcomes may influence such drug-use patterns. To our knowledge, no studies to date have examined fear conditioning in drug-dependent humans, nor have they investigated the association between fear conditioning outcomes and neuropsychological functioning. The current study compared de novo fear conditioning in a sample of opiate-dependent outpatients to that in a healthy and an affective-disordered sample in an attempt to isolate the con...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Anxiety Sensitivity and Alcohol Use Among Acute-Care Psychiatric Inpatients: The Mediating Role of Emotion Regulation Difficulties
Abstract There is strong empirical support for the association between anxiety sensitivity and alcohol use, although this has not been investigated in psychiatric inpatients. Further, little is known about mechanisms mediating these associations, such as emotion regulation difficulties. Self-report questionnaires measuring anxiety sensitivity, difficulties regulating emotion, and alcohol use were administered to 119 adults admitted to an acute-care inpatient psychiatric hospital. The current study examined emotion regulation difficulties as a mediator in the anxiety sensitivity–alcohol use severity associati...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Practicing Emotionally Biased Retrieval Affects Mood and Establishes Biased Recall a Week Later
Abstract Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) can yield clinically relevant results. Only few studies have directly manipulated memory bias, which is prominent in depression. In a new approach to CBM, we sought to simulate or oppose ruminative processes by training the retrieval of negative or positive words. Participants studied positive and negative word pairs (Swahili cues with Dutch translations). In the positive and negative conditions, each of the three study trials was followed by a cued-recall test of training-congruent translations; a no-practice condition merely studied the pairs. Recall of the translations...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 7, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Pilot Open Trial of Cognitive Bias Modification for Panic Disorder
Abstract Although cognitive biases are involved in the maintenance of panic disorder (PD), cognitive bias modification (CBM) has not been tested in PD. The current study developed and piloted a combined CBM-attention/CBM-interpretation PD treatment to determine initial acceptability and efficacy. Ten individuals diagnosed with PD (nine with Agoraphobia) were asked to complete 8, 20-min sessions of a CBM-A (Dot Probe task with fearful faces) and CBM-I (Word-Sentence Association Paradigm) intervention. Cognitive bias, panic symptom severity, and anxiety during interoceptive exercises were assessed at pre- and post-a...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 7, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

An Examination of the Specific Associations Between Facets of Difficulties in Emotion Regulation and Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Clusters
Abstract Prior research has shown that difficulties in emotion regulation is associated with overall levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). However, it is currently unclear which facets of difficulties in emotion regulation (e.g., lack of emotion regulation strategies, impulse control problems, non-acceptance of emotional responses) are associated with specific PTSS clusters. This information may be valuable in refining treatment approaches in PTSS. The aim of the current study was to use structural equation modeling to test the relationships between Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) subfact...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

What Predicts Positive Life Events that Influence the Course of Depression? A Longitudinal Examination of Gratitude and Meaning in Life
In this study, we sought to understand if personality strengths could predict positive life events that aid in the alleviation of depression. We tested a longitudinal mediation model where gratitude and meaning in life lead to increased positive life events and, in turn, decreased depression. The sample consisted of 797 adult participants from 43 different countries who completed online surveys at five timepoints. Higher levels of gratitude and meaning in life each predicted decreases in depression over 3 and 6 months time. Increases in positive life events mediated the effects of these personality strengths on d...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 29, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of Childhood Abuse on Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Current Major Depressive Disorder
Abstract In a sample of adults diagnosed with major depressive disorder (N = 77), we examined the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and childhood physical and sexual abuse. We hypothesised that childhood abuse would be related to retrieving fewer specific autobiographical memories, even after statistically covarying psychopathology-related variables, including posttraumatic stress disorder and depression severity. Our hypotheses were supported for childhood physical abuse but not for childhood sexual abuse. Childhood physical abuse was related to the recall of fewer specific memori...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 13, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Pilot Study of an Adaptive, Idiographic, and Multi-Component Attention Bias Modification Program for Social Anxiety Disorder
We report task characteristics and preliminary evidence that this task consistently modifies attentional bias and that changes in attentional bias (but not number of trials) correlate with the level of symptom reduction. These results suggest that AABM may be a targeted method for the next generation of studies examining the utility of attention training. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Stress-Related Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation: The Roles of Rumination and Depressive Symptoms Vary by Gender
Abstract There is a growing body of literature suggesting that reactions to stressful life events, such as intrusive thoughts, physiological hyperarousal, and cognitive/behavioral avoidance (i.e., stress-related symptoms) may increase risk for thinking about and attempting suicide. Cognitive vulnerability models have identified rumination (i.e., perseverating on a negative mood) as a maladaptive response that may increase risk for suicidal behavior, as it has also been linked to depression. The present study examined the direct and indirect effects of stress-related symptoms on suicidal ideation through rumination...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Parental Emotion Socialization Strategies and Their Interaction with Child Interpretation Biases Among Children with Anxiety Disorders
This study examined associations between parental use of punitive and minimization reactions to children’s displays of negative affect, child interpretation biases (self-reports and computerized assessments), and child anxiety symptom severity in a clinical sample of children with anxiety disorders. Forty-four children between 8–12 years of age (M = 9.60, SD = 1.30; 52 % girls; 52 % African American) and their mothers (M = 38.48, SD = 6.86; 57 % married) participated in this study. Child interpretation biases were significantly associated with child-re...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Mediators and Moderators of a School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program
This study tested potential moderators and mediators of an indicated depression prevention program for middle school students, Positive Thoughts and Actions (PTA). Participants were 120 students randomly assigned to PTA, or a brief, individually administered supportive intervention (Individual Support Program). Youths completed measures of depressive symptoms at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-month follow-up. Hierarchical regression was used to test three moderators—ethnic minority status, gender, and baseline depressive symptoms—and three mediators representing functional outcomes targeted by PTA—pa...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 27, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Comparative Study on the Efficacy of a Positive Psychology Intervention and a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Clinical Depression
This study aims to compare the efficacy of a manualized protocol of empirically-validated positive psychology interventions (PPI) with a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol. This controlled clinical trial included 96 adult women with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depression or dysthymia. Participants were blindly allocated to a 10-session PPI (n = 47) or CBT (n = 49) group therapy condition. Intention to treat analysis showed that both interventions were effective in reducing clinical symptoms and increasing well-being. There were no significant differences between groups in either main outcomes (...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Preliminary Validation of Subjective Anchor Scales for Worry and Rumination
Abstract This research is a preliminary validation of two single-item visual analogue scales. The worry visual analogue scale (WVAS) and the rumination visual analogue scale (RVAS) are self-report measures developed to track state changes in worry and rumination. Each of these scales uses an idiographic anchor sheet, enabling each participant to quantify their personal scale of worry or rumination. We compared ratings on the WVAS and RVAS with self-report measures of trait worry and rumination as well as other constructs administered concurrently in two separate studies. In study 1 we compared results within an un...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Mindfulness, Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms, and Executive Dysfunction
Abstract Recent investigations have included mindfulness as a component of intervention for OCD. However, the extent to which processes underlying OCD interfere with mindfulness has not been examined. Limited research has examined neuropsychological functions as mechanisms to explain different levels of mindfulness across individuals. Research in OCD highlights impairment in visual/spatial working memory as possible unique deficits; these and other components of executive functioning may also be important for mindfulness. Participants (N = 103) exceeding clinical cutoffs on measures of OCD, depressive, o...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Remembering the Good Ole Days: Fear of Positive Emotion Relates to Affect Repair Using Positive Memories
Abstract Recalling positive autobiographical memories is a powerful strategy to repair affect. Positive memory recall operates as a reparative strategy by enhancing positive affect, which facilitates the down-regulation of negative affect. There are individual differences, however, in the ability to use positive material to repair mood. Participants with elevated depression scores, for example, are less likely to profit from this strategy. Depression has been associated with elevated fear of positive emotion and the current study examined whether elevated fear of positive emotion is associated with depression-rela...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 10, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of Engaging in Repeated Mental Imagery of Future Positive Events on Behavioural Activation in Individuals with Major Depressive Disorder
Abstract Depression is associated with decreased engagement in behavioural activities. A wide range of activities can be promoted by simulating them via mental imagery. Mental imagery of positive events could thus provide a route to increasing adaptive behaviour in depression. The current study tested whether repeated engagement in positive mental imagery led to increases in behavioural activation in participants with depression, using data from a randomized controlled trial (Blackwell et al. in Clin Psychol Sci 3(1):91–111, 2015. doi:10.1177/2167702614560746). Participants (N = 150) were randomize...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Why Does Positive Mental Health Buffer Against Psychopathology? An Exploratory Study on Self-Compassion as a Resilience Mechanism and Adaptive Emotion Regulation Strategy
Abstract Growing evidence suggests that positive mental health or wellbeing protects against psychopathology. How and why those who flourish derive these resilient outcomes is, however, unknown. This exploratory study investigated if self-compassion, as it continuously provides a friendly, accepting and situational context for negative experiences, functions as a resilience mechanism and adaptive emotion regulation strategy that protects against psychopathology for those with high levels of positive mental health. Participants from the general population (n = 349) provided measures at one time-point on p...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Measuring Suitability for Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Self-Report Measure
Abstract While cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered an evidence based treatment for a range of disorders, individuals differ in their response to treatment. Research investigating the pre-treatment factors that can predict better response to CBT is important because it allows identified factors to be addressed prior to commencing standard CBT protocols, enables modifications to be made to standard CBT protocols, or provides information about suitability for CBT. Pre-treatment attitudes aligned with therapy is a potential predictor of outcome, yet no self-report measure exists. This three-study paper re...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 31, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Identifying Patterns and Predictors of PTSD and Depressive Symptom Change During Cognitive Processing Therapy
This study sought to identify specific trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptom change (and the relationship thereof) within a variable length course of cognitive processing therapy (CPT). Clinical characteristics, including initial severity of PTSD and depressive symptoms and characterological features consistent with personality disorder diagnoses, were examined as potential predictors of treatment response trajectory. Male and female interpersonal violence survivors (N = 69) with PTSD were treated with a modified form of CPT wherein treatment end was dictated by individual co...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Positive Affectivity: Specificity of Its Facet Level Relations with Psychopathology
This study sought to explicate the strength and direction of the relations between specific facets of positive affectivity (joviality, self-assurance, attentiveness, and serenity) and a broad range of psychopathology. Internalizing, externalizing, mania, and psychoticism were assessed using both self-report and interview measures in a diverse community sample (N = 255; Mage = 45.1 years; 58.4 % African American, 33.3 % Caucasian). Our results indicated that these positive affectivity facets demonstrated distinctive patterns of relations with psychopathology and exhibited incremental predi...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Perspective on a New RDoC Domain
Abstract It is widely agreed that emotion regulation plays an important role in many psychological disorders. We make the case that emotion regulation is in fact a key transdiagnostic factor, using the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) as an organizing framework. In particular, we first consider how transdiagnostic and RDoC approaches have extended categorical views. Next, we examine links among emotion generation, emotion regulation, and psychopathology, with particular attention to key emotion regulation stages including identification, strategy selection, implementation, and monitoring. We then propose that emoti...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 23, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Can’t Look Away: An Eye-Tracking Based Attentional Disengagement Training for Depression
Abstract To address shortcomings of purely reaction-time based attentional bias modification (ABM) paradigms, we developed an ABM task that is controlled by eye-tracking. This task allows to assess and train both disengagement from negative pictures and maintained attention to positive pictures. As a proof-of-principle study with an unselected student sample, this positive training (PT; N = 44) was compared to a negative training (NT; N = 42), which reinforced the opposite attentional pattern. Importantly, training trials were completed only if participants performed the correct gaze patterns. ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue: Emotion Regulation as a Transdiagnostic Process
Abstract In the past 15 years, there has been an exponential growth in the study of affective processes in psychopathology to the point that a new discipline has emerged, clinical affective science. In this respect, the emotion regulation framework has begun to be utilized in order identify transdiagnostic and disorder-specific aspects of dysfunction. This Special Issue seeks to advance the work on emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic factor by presenting 12 empirical articles that include the latest, most cutting edge research on emotion regulation across mental disorders. The commentary, written by James...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Upward Spirals of Mindfulness and Reappraisal: Testing the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory with Autoregressive Latent Trajectory Modeling
Abstract The mindful reappraisal hypothesis of the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory (Garland et al. in Psychol Inquiry 26(4):293–314, 2015a; Psychol Inquiry 26(4):377–387, 2015b) proposes that mindfulness generates eudaimonic well-being by promoting positive reappraisal, the positive psychological process through which stressful events are re-construed as benign, meaningful, or growth-promoting. To test this hypothesis, we examined prospective relations between state mindfulness and positive reappraisal in a community sample participating in a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI). At seven weekly time poi...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Personal Goals, Well-Being and Deliberate Self-Harm
Abstract The present study sought to understand the perceived well-being value of future goals as a possible explanation for why persons who are suicidal remain attached to goals that are seen as unattainable. Deliberate self-harm patients (DSH; N = 24) were compared with matched hospital controls (N = 24) on a range of measures including current well-being and perceived future well-being in the context of imagined goal attainment. Despite the DSH group having substantially lower current levels of well-being, there was no difference between the groups when forecasting their future well-being in...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Treating Social Anxiety Disorder with CBT: Impact on Emotion Regulation and Satisfaction with Life
We examined whether cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) would influence the relationship between two distinct forms of emotion regulation (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and satisfaction with life in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). When compared to healthy adults (n = 42) at baseline (Study 1), patients with SAD (n = 128) reported lesser use of cognitive reappraisal, greater use of expressive suppression, and lower levels of satisfaction with life. In a randomized controlled trial of CBT (n = 40) versus a waitlist control group (n = 32) (Study 2), resul...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 5, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Children’s Negative Cognitive Error Questionnaire—Revised: The Factor Structure and Associations with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Across Age, Gender, and Clinical/Community Samples
This study evaluated the factor structure of the Children’s Negative Cognitive Error Questionnaire—Revised (CNCEQ-R) and its relationship with anxiety and depressive symptoms. The study included a community sample of 257 children and adolescents and a clinical sample of 201 referred youths, aged 9–18 years. Participants completed the CNCEQ-R and the revised child anxiety and depression scale (RCADS). For the original five-factor model, confirmatory factor analysis indicated an overall good fit to the data for the entire sample. The model was found fully invariant between boys and girls, children and ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 23, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotion Malleability Beliefs Influence the Spontaneous Regulation of Social Anxiety
Abstract The current study examined how manipulating individuals’ beliefs about emotion’s malleability influences the choices they make in how they spontaneously regulate their anxiety during a stressful social situation. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either an experimental manipulation that emotions are malleable or that emotions are fixed then completed an impromptu, brief speech task designed to elicit anxiety. We predicted that participants in the malleable emotion condition, compared to those in the fixed condition, would engage in more cognitive reappraisal to change the unfoldin...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Catastrophic Thinking: A Transdiagnostic Process Across Psychiatric Disorders
Abstract Since the description of catastrophizing by Ellis (Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. Lyle Stuart, Oxford, 1962) as a general factor in psychopathology, numerous studies have explored this construct and its association with many common disorders. This paper investigates the role of catastrophic thinking across psychiatric disorders. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature on the role of catastrophic beliefs as a predictor and correlate of psychopathological disorders including panic, phobia, health anxiety, obsessive–compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, pain, and traum...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Attentional Bias Moderates the Link Between Attachment-Related Expectations and Non-suicidal Self-Injury
Abstract Insecure attachment is a transdiagnostic risk factor for the development of emotional and behavior problems. In the present study, we investigated the association between attachment-related expectations and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a sample of 42 university students, taking into account the attentional bias around mother as a mechanism to explain this association. All participants completed the Self-Harm Inventory to assess life-time NSSI and the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment and the Attentional Breadth Task. Overall, 28.6 % of the participants engaged in at least one type of life...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research