The Main and Interactive Effects of Maternal Interpersonal Emotion Regulation and Negative Affect on Adolescent Girls’ Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms
Abstract The transaction of adolescent’s expressed negative affect and parental interpersonal emotion regulation are theoretically implicated in the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Although problem solving and support/validation are interpersonal strategies that foster emotion regulation, little is known about whether these strategies are associated with less BPD severity among adolescents. Adolescent girls (age 16; N = 74) and their mothers completed a conflict discussion task, and maternal problem solving, support/validation, and girls’ negative affect were coded. ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 7, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Explanatory Flexibility and Explanatory Style in Treatment-Seeking Patients with Axis I Psychopathology
Abstract Cognitive diathesis stress models of depression emphasize individual styles of attributing causal explanations to negative and positive events in life. The Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) has traditionally been used to measure explanatory style, defined as an individual’s habitual way of assigning causes to negative events. Explanatory flexibility, rather than focusing on the content of one’s thoughts, emphasizes the extent to which individuals are able to make different attributions depending on the particular context of each event. The underlying notion is that individuals who are be...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Measuring Beliefs About Distraction: Might the Function of Distraction Matter More than Distraction Itself?
Abstract Distraction is often discouraged in exposure therapy for anxiety disorders, but little is known about how beliefs about distraction may impact treatment outcome (with or without distraction). One barrier to understanding the impact of these beliefs is the lack of an available measure to assess this construct. In addition to proposing a theoretical basis for beliefs about distraction, we created and validated a questionnaire assessing maladaptive beliefs about distraction, the Beliefs about Distraction Inventory. An exploratory factor analysis with an unselected student sample (N = 506, 86 %...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Autobiographical Memory Perspectives in Task and Suicide Attempt Recall: A Study of Young Adults With and Without Symptoms of Suicidality
Abstract Memories recalled from the field, or first person, perspective tend to be specific, more detail-oriented, and emotional. In contrast, memories from the observer, or third person, perspective, tend to be more general, less detail-oriented and emotional. Research suggests that individuals with a history of suicidality exhibit over-general autobiographical memories (i.e., lacking in detail). We propose that individuals with a history of suicidality may encode and recall memories more from the observer perspective, which is associated with recalling fewer details about events. This hypothesis was tested by ex...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Relation Between Attributional Style and Subsequent Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies
Abstract This meta-analysis examined the relation between attributional style and subsequent depressive symptoms. Results were based on 52 longitudinal studies comprising 57 samples involving 12,594 participants. A moderate correlation was found between depressogenic explanatory style of negative events and subsequent depressive symptoms. Controlling for prior depressive symptoms, the weighted mean effect of prior negative attributional style on subsequent depressive symptoms was small at β = .10. The relation between attributional style and subsequent depressive symptoms was not associated with mod...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 26, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Tracing “Fearbola”: Psychological Predictors of Anxious Responding to the Threat of Ebola
Abstract Serious illnesses such as Ebola are often highly publicized in the mass media and can be associated with varying levels of anxiety and compensatory safety behavior (e.g., avoidance of air travel). The present study investigated psychological processes associated with Ebola-related anxiety and safety behaviors during the outbreak in late 2014. Between October 30 and December 3, 2014, which encompassed the peak of concerns and of the media’s attention to this particular outbreak, 107 university students completed a battery of measures assessing fear of Ebola, performance of safety behaviors, factual k...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dwell or Decenter? Rumination and Decentering Predict Working Memory Updating After Interpersonal Criticism
Abstract Rumination and mindful decentering are cognitive responses to emotional experiences. Rumination involves dwelling on negative thoughts, whereas decentering involves observing negative thoughts as temporary mental events. However, the question of how rumination or decentering shape the effects of emotional experiences on cognitive or behavioral functioning remains ambiguous. The present study investigated the relationships between trait rumination, trait decentering, and working memory following exposure to interpersonal criticism. Results showed that rumination and decentering were negatively correlated, ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Arousal, Unhelpful Beliefs and Maladaptive Sleep Behaviors as Mediators in Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Insomnia: A Quasi-Experimental Study
Abstract The purpose with the investigation was to examine whether improvements in pre-sleep cognitive arousal, unhelpful beliefs about sleep, and maladaptive sleep behaviors mediate the outcomes in in-person CBT-I. Fifty-eight participants with insomnia were administered either cognitive behavioral therapy or belonged to a waitlist. At pre- and post-treatment, participants completed questionnaires and sleep diaries assessing cognitive arousal, unhelpful beliefs about sleep, maladaptive sleep behaviors, insomnia severity, dysfunction, and subjective sleep parameters. Outcome measures were re-administered at a 3-mo...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Visual Attention to Threat-Related Faces and Delusion-Proneness: An Eye Tracking Study Using Dynamic Stimuli
Abstract Visual attention to threat-related facial expressions possibly contributes to delusion formation and maintenance and may serve as a vulnerability marker. The aim of the present study was to examine visual attention to threat-related facial expressions using dynamic stimuli in people with differing levels of delusion-proneness. We expected that threat-relevant facial expressions would attract more foveal attention compared to neutral faces. Additionally, we hypothesized that more delusion-prone individuals would show foveal avoidance and that this avoidance would occur particularly in the visual processing...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Role of Anxiety Sensitivity in the Relation Between Experiential Avoidance and Anxious Arousal, Depressive, and Suicidal Symptoms Among Latinos in Primary Care
Abstract The present investigation examined the explanatory role of anxiety sensitivity in the relation between experiential avoidance and anxious arousal, depressive, and suicidal symptoms among Latinos seeking health services at a primary healthcare facility. Participants included 138 adult Latinos (86.2 % female; Mage = 38.4, SD = 10.8 and 97.8 % used Spanish as their first language). Results indicated that experiential avoidance was indirectly related to anxious arousal, depressive, and suicidal symptoms through anxiety sensitivity. These observed effects were evident above and be...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Establishing the Reliability and Validity of a Performance Measure of Big Picture Appraisal
Abstract Three separate studies established the psychometric properties of the scrambled sentences test for big picture appraisal (SST–BPA), a performance measure which entails viewing difficult situations and one’s reactions to them in terms of a larger context that includes perspectives such as extended time, one’s broader life, and common human struggles. Study 1 established the content validity of the SST–BPA by showing that judges rated SST–BPA items as consistent with a description of the construct. In Studies 2 and 3, participants completed paper- and computer-administered vers...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Examining the Relationships Among Social Anxiety, Fears of Evaluation, and Interpretation Bias
Abstract Previous research suggests that individuals with high levels of social anxiety (SA) tend to make negative interpretations of ambiguous social situations but fail to make positive interpretations of such situations. These biases have been shown to occur at both faster (more immediate) and slower (more reflective) levels of processing. Fears of evaluation may play a role in the tendency of individuals with SA to exhibit interpretation biases. As an extension of previous research, we examined the unique variance accounted for by fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and fear of positive evaluation (FPE) in the r...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Examining the Shared and Unique Features of Self-Concept Content and Structure in Borderline Personality Disorder and Depression
Abstract A number of clinical theories emphasise self-concept disturbance as central to borderline personality disorder (BPD). To date, however, there has been limited empirical examination of exactly how BPD changes the content and structure of self-concept. Moreover, it is unclear if patterns of self-concept disturbance are unique to BPD or are driven by axis-I comorbidities such as depression. To examine this issue, the present study adopted a dimensional design, examining how performance on a novel adaptation of a well-validated measure of self-concept (the Psychological Distance Scaling Task) was related to B...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Benefits of Doubt : Cognitive Bias Correction Reduces Hasty Decision-Making in Schizophrenia
Abstract Many patients with schizophrenia display neuropsychological deficits in concert with cognitive biases, particularly the tendency to jump to conclusions (JTC). The present study examined the effects of a generic psychoeducational cognitive bias correction (CBC) program. We hypothesized that demonstrating the fallibility of human cognition to patients would diminish their susceptibility to the JTC bias. A total of 70 participants with schizophrenia were recruited online. At baseline, patients were asked to fill out a JTC task (primary outcome) and the Paranoia Checklist before being randomized to either the...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 17, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Clinical Change in Cognitive Distortions and Core Schemas After a Cognitive–Behavioral Group Intervention: Preliminary Findings from a Randomized Trial with Male Prison Inmates
Abstract The goal of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy of a cognitive–behavioral program in reducing cognitive distortions and schemas in prison inmates. The Angry Cognitions Scale and the Young Schema Questionnaire was answered by a treatment and control group, and the treatment effects were tested using ANCOVA with baseline as covariate and condition as fixed factor. In order to assess clinical change, the Reliable Change Index was computed. At baseline, no differences were found between groups, except for one subscale of the Angry Cognitions Scale (Maladaptive Processes), where controls scored h...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 13, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Feeling You Can’t Let Go: Temporal Stability and Vulnerability to Thought–Shape Fusion in Eating Disorders
The objectives of the current study were to (1) investigate whether high TSF endorsement is associated with differences in cognitive, affective and behavioural reactions to a TSF induction in comparison to those who are low in TSF, and (2) evaluate whether TSF shows temporal stability. TSF was assessed in 32 individuals with eating disorders over a 1-month period. Participants were classified as either low (n = 16) or high (n = 16) in trait TSF. Participants attended three sessions (baseline, experimental session, and follow-up), and were exposed to a TSF induction during the experimental session. High ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 12, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Relationships Between Probability Estimates, Cost Estimates, and Social Anxiety During CBT for Social Anxiety Disorder
Abstract The present study examined the reciprocal relationships between probability estimates, cost estimates, and social anxiety during a 12-week course of cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD). One hundred and sixty-three individuals with a principal diagnosis of SAD completed a weekly tracking measure that included questions about probability and cost estimates for negative consequences and current levels of social anxiety relating to a hypothetical speech task. Paired-samples t tests revealed that these variables changed from pre-to-post treatment. Cross-lagged path analyses reve...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 10, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Buffering Effects of Emotion Regulation in the Relationship Between Experiences of Racism and Anxiety in a Black American Sample
Abstract The current study explores the potential moderating effect of difficulties in emotion regulation on the relationship between racist experiences and anxiety symptomology in a Black American sample. One hundred forty participants completed a questionnaire packet containing measures of anxious arousal and stress (general anxiety) symptoms, difficulties in emotion regulation, and experiences of racist events. Results indicated that difficulties in emotion regulation moderated the relationship between past week frequency of racist events and anxious arousal as well as past year frequency of racist events and a...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Fear of Negative Evaluation, Social Anxiety and Response to Positive and Negative Online Social Cues
Abstract High social anxiety is associated with negative interpretations of social feedback, maladaptive attributions for success and failure, and excessive attention to internal and external threat cues. In the present study, 40 undergraduate participants with either high or low levels of social anxiety engaged in a series of social interactions with varying types of social feedback: negative, mixed-negative, mixed-positive, and positive. Given the increasing engagement in computer-mediated communication among individuals with high levels of social anxiety, these interactions took place via instant messaging soft...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Facilitating Emotional Processing: An Experimental Induction of Psychotherapeutically Relevant Affective States
This study explores the underlying micro-processes by inducing specific cognitive-affective states and studying their immediate effects on emotional activation, the resolution of interpersonal grievances, and factors related to therapeutic progress, e.g., mastery experiences, clarification of meaning. Participants suffering from interpersonal grievances were randomly assigned to two conditions. A sentence completion task was employed to induce either the expression of emotional distress or cognitive-affective meaning making. Expressive writing was used to deepen processing. Findings of those participants adhering to the in...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Development and Validation of the Sleep Inertia Questionnaire (SIQ) and Assessment of Sleep Inertia in Analogue and Clinical Depression
In conclusion, the SIQ is a reliable measure of sleep inertia and has potential for improving the assessment of sleep inertia in clinical and research settings. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Child Anxiety and the Processing of Ambiguity
Abstract An association between interpretation of ambiguity and anxiety may exist in children, but findings have been equivocal. The present research utilized the Interpretation Generation Questionnaire for Children (IGQ-C), a novel measure that breaks down the processing of ambiguity into three steps: the generation of possible interpretations, the selection of the most likely interpretation and the anticipated emotional response to the ambiguous situation. The IGQ-C was completed by 103 children aged 11–12 years, 28 of whom had a clinical anxiety disorder. There was some evidence for an association be...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Perinatal Women with Depression or Bipolar Spectrum Disorder
This study examined feasibility, acceptability, and improvement associated with mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in perinatal women with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar spectrum disorder (BSD). Following a diagnostic evaluation, 39 perinatal women with a lifetime history of MDD (n = 27) or BSD (n = 12) enrolled in an 8-week program of MBCT classes (2 h each) that incorporated meditation, yoga, and mood regulation strategies. Participants were pregnant (n = 12), planning pregnancy (n = 11), or up to 1-year postpartum (n = 16). Participants were self...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Anxiety Sensitivity and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: What is the Impact of Nicotine Withdrawal?
Abstract Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is related to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among cigarette smokers, and is also implicated in the amplification of acute nicotine withdrawal symptoms. The present study sought to examine the role of nicotine withdrawal in moderating the association between AS and PTSD symptom severity among a sample of treatment-seeking smokers with PTSD. Participants (n = 117) were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial for the treatment of PTSD and nicotine dependence. Cross-sectional data were randomly sampled from three different study ti...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Initial Psychometric Properties of the Attentional Fixation on Suicide Experiences Questionnaire
Abstract Attentional fixation is a cognitive process characterized by a narrowing of attention on and preoccupation with suicide as the only solution to one’s problems. The present study sought to investigate the experience of attentional fixation on suicide by establishing the psychometric properties of the Attentional Fixation on Suicide Experiences Questionnaire (AFSEQ) in a sample of 64 patients who recently attempted suicide. The AFSEQ evidenced strong psychometric properties, including good internal consistency and construct validity through moderate correlations with measures of suicidal id...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 12, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Perceived Emotion Control Moderates the Relationship Between Neuroticism and Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Abstract The relationships between neuroticism, perceived emotion control, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) severity were examined in 293 individuals diagnosed with GAD at a specialty anxiety disorders clinic. Hierarchical regression analyses performed within a structural equation modeling framework revealed that (1) neuroticism and perceived emotion control both predicted a latent variable of GAD in the expected direction, and (2) perceived emotion control moderated the relationship between neuroticism and GAD severity, such that lower levels of perceived emotion control were associated with a stronger rela...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 7, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Validation of a Self-Report Measure of Self-Efficacy in Contamination Fear: The Contamination Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES)
Abstract Contamination fear is a common symptom of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Research suggests that self-efficacy, or perceived sense of mastery and confidence in a given situation, is an important determinant of anxiety and approach behavior. However, there is currently no published measure of self-efficacy for situations specifically involving perceived contamination. The current study aimed to validate a self-report measure of contamination-related self-efficacy, the Contamination Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES), which was developed from an existing measure of self-efficacy in specific phobia. Four hundre...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Feeling Good and Taking a Chance? Associations of Hypomania Risk with Cognitive and Behavioral Risk Taking
Abstract Although elevated impulsivity among individuals at risk for or with a clinical history of mania has been identified in prior work, questions remain regarding ways in which impulsivity may manifest as risky decision-making and behavior. The present investigation examined how hypomania risk, measured using the Hypomanic Personality Scale, was associated with two facets of risk-taking: cognitive appraisals of risks and benefits that will result from risk-taking, and behavioral risk-taking on a validated task and self-report measures. Hypomania risk was associated with appraising future risk-taking as having ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 3, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Role of Early Experience and Cognitive Vulnerability: Presenting a Unified Model of the Etiology of Panic
This study takes a step forward by presenting a unified vulnerability model that incorporates a continuum of proximal and distal factors involved in the etiology of panic. The present study tested distal elements of the model, including childhood histories of vicarious and instrumental learning, and cognitive constructs such as anxiety sensitivity and perceived control. Our study found that parental modeling of the dangerousness of anxiety symptoms accounted for more model variance than from direct experiences with arousal-reactive symptoms or from parental reinforcement of the child’s own sick role behavior when exp...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Age Differences in Interpretation Bias in Community and Comorbid Depressed and Anxious Samples
This study conducted a signal detection analysis to assess differences in interpretation biases to ambiguous sentences in a control and a depressed and anxious sample of younger (18–30 years) and older (60+ years) adults. Participants completed an interpretation bias task in which they were presented with unambiguous neutral sentences and ambiguous sentences related to threat. In addition, participants completed a recognition memory task to assess sensitivity and response biases to threat. Clinical anxiety and depression was associated with a negative interpretation bias; however, there were no significant ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 26, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Preliminary Evidence for the Enhancement of Self-Conducted Exposures for OCD Using Cognitive Bias Modification
Abstract Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP) is the most effective treatment for OCD but it is not accessible to most patients. Attempts to increase the accessibility of ERP via self-directed ERP (sERP) programs such as computerized delivery and bibliotherapy have met with noncompliance, presumably because patients find the exposure exercises unacceptable. Previous research suggests that Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) interventions may help individuals approach feared situations. The goal of the current study was to test the efficacy of a treatment program for OCD that integrates sERP with CBM. Twenty-two in...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Modeling the Neuroanatomical and Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Cognitive Insight in Non-clinical Subjects
Abstract Cognitive insight, measured through one’s “Self-Reflectiveness” and “Self-Certainty”, involves the evaluation and correction of distorted beliefs and interpretations, and is important for clinical insight (i.e., awareness of illness) in psychosis. In psychosis, cognitive insight may depend on hippocampal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortical (VLPFC) structure, and verbal memory and executive functions. We explored whether similar relations exist in non-clinical participants. Fifty-one non-clinical subjects completed the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. Hippocampal volumes an...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Contextual Influences on Distress Intolerance: Priming Effects on Behavioral Persistence
Abstract Distress intolerance (DI), the inability to tolerate stressful experiences, has been linked to multiple psychiatric conditions and maladaptive coping patterns. Although DI is often considered a trait-like variable, evidence indicates that self-report and behavioral indices of DI can be manipulated by contextual factors. Understanding such contextual influences is important given evidence of unexpected variability in these presumed trait-like measures over brief intervals. The current study examined the influence of context (manipulated by priming concepts of “Interminability” and “Brevit...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Response Styles to Positive Affect and Depression: Concurrent and Prospective Associations in a Community Sample
We examined the concurrent and prospective relations between response styles to positive affect and depression in a community sample. Participants (n = 345) completed self-report measures of current and past depressive episodes, depressive symptoms, anhedonia, and responses to positive affect (including dampening and positive rumination) at two time points, with a 5-month interval. Higher levels of dampening responses to positive affect were related to higher concurrent levels of depressive symptoms. The tendency to positively ruminate on positive affect was negatively related to concurrent anhedonic symptoms. Wh...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Group Metacognitive Therapy for Severe Antidepressant and CBT Resistant Depression: A Baseline-Controlled Trial
This study evaluated the effectiveness of group metacognitive therapy (GMCT) for patients who had not responded to both antidepressants and cognitive-behaviour therapy. Following a no-treatment baseline monitoring period, ten patients received 12 2-h weekly sessions, two post-treatment booster sessions and were followed up at 6 months. All of the patients completed GMCT, suggesting that this treatment was acceptable. GMCT was associated with significant improvements across measures of depression, anxiety, rumination, and positive and negative metacognitive beliefs about rumination. These gains were maintained at follo...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Schizophrenia and Metacognition: An Investigation of Course of Illness and Metacognitive Beliefs Within a First Episode Psychosis
This study tested for relationships between course of illness and levels of specific metacognitions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A large cohort of people with first episode psychosis (n = 578) recruited as part the OPUS trial (1998–2000) were tested. Information about course of illness (remitted, episodic or continually psychotic) and metacognitive belief ratings were collected. Data obtained from 367 participants revealed that levels of maladaptive metacognitive beliefs varied as a function of course of illness and distinguished between remitted patients and non-patients. Metacognitive beliefs expl...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Randomised Controlled Study of the Effects of the Attention Training Technique on Traumatic Stress Symptoms, Emotional Attention Set Shifting and Flexibility
Abstract Attention Training (ATT) is a technique used in metacognitive therapy but it has also been shown to produce stand-alone effects. The present study replicates and extends an earlier study of the effects of ATT on traumatic-stress symptoms. A sample of 60 university students who reported a traumatic life event were randomly assigned to either an ATT group (n = 29) or a control group (n = 31). They were exposed to a recorded narrative of their stressful experience before and after the intervention and the primary outcomes were frequency of intrusions and negative affect reported. Sec...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Use of Motivation Enhancement Therapy to Increase Utilization of a Preventative Intervention for Anxiety Sensitivity
We examined this issue in a randomized controlled pilot study. Participants (N = 23) were randomized to one of two groups: (1) a MET group (n = 12) group or (2) a control group focused on healthy behaviors (n = 11). Those in the MET group received MET focused on enhancing motivation to reduce AS, whereas those in the control group received psychoeducation about health and general well being. At the end of the study, all of the participants were given the option to receive a computerized intervention previously found to be effective at reducing AS. Results revealed that the MET group had signif...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 31, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Trait Anxiety, State Anxiety, and Attentional Bias to Threat: Assessing the Psychometric Properties of Response Time Measures
Abstract Attentional biases to threat are thought to play a central role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Various measures have been developed to index these biases; unfortunately, the psychometric properties of response time measures of attentional bias have not been thoroughly evaluated, and the reliability of those that have been evaluated is poor. The current study assessed the reliability and convergent validity of dot probe and emotional cueing bias scores in high-anxious and low-anxious participants in the context of a state anxiety manipulation to increase the likelihood of producin...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Patients’ Outcome Expectations Matter in Psychological Interventions for Patients with Diabetes and Comorbid Depressive Symptoms
This study examined whether patients’ expectations of treatment outcome predict treatment completion, homework compliance, and depressive symptom improvement in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Study participants were patients with diabetes and comorbid depressive symptoms who were randomized to 8 sessions of either CBT (n = 45) or MBCT (n = 46), both individually delivered. The results showed that high outcome expectations were predictive of post-treatment depressive symptoms in CBT and MBCT, but not of early and mid-treatment symptoms. Patients&rsq...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Eye Gaze Tracking Reveals Different Effects of a Sad Mood Induction on the Attention of Previously Depressed and Never Depressed Women
This study examined the effect of a sad mood induction (MI) on attention to emotional information and whether the effect varies as a function of depression vulnerability. Previously depressed (N = 42) and never depressed women (N = 58) were randomly assigned to a sad or a neutral MI and then viewed sets of depression-related, anxiety-related, positive, and neutral images. Attention was measured by tracking eye fixations to the images throughout an 8-s presentation. The sad MI had a substantial impact on the attention of never depressed participants: never depressed participants who experienced the sad M...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 17, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Advancing the Theory and Practice of Metacognitive Therapy: A Commentary on the Special Issue
Abstract This commentary evaluates the accomplishments of research on metacognitive therapy (MCT) featured in the Special Issue on this topic. It begins with an overview of key features of MCT and highlights its basis in information-processing theory. A summary of the contributions to the Special Issue demonstrates that contemporary research supports both the theoretical principles and clinical effectiveness of MCT. Several challenges will remain as MCT becomes further established as a therapy of first recourse for a range of emotional disorders. At a theoretical level, more fine-grained understanding of the tempo...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Development of an Anxiety Sensitivity (AS) Intervention for High-AS Individuals in Substance Use Disorders Treatment
The objectives of the current study were to develop and pilot test a brief treatment aimed at reducing AS and substance use. Twenty-one individuals concurrently participating in a community-based intensive outpatient SUD treatment program received six 1.5-h sessions of an AS-targeted intervention, primarily utilizing interoceptive exposures, cognitive challenging, and psychoeducation about the relationship between substance use and anxiety. At post-treatment, participants had significant reductions in AS as measured by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (d = 1.62; ASI; Reiss et al. in Behav Res Ther 24(1):1–8, 1...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotion Regulation Flexibility
Abstract How do people flexibly regulate their emotions in order to manage the diverse demands of varying situations? This question assumes particular importance given the central role that emotion regulation (ER) deficits play in many forms of psychopathology. In this review, we propose a translational framework for the study of ER flexibility that is relevant to normative and clinical populations. We also offer a set of computational tools that are useful for work on ER flexibility. We specify how such tools can be used in a variety of settings, such as basic research, experimental psychopathology, and clinical ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dysfunctional Attitudes and Affective Responses to Daily Stressors: Separating Cognitive, Genetic, and Clinical Influences on Stress Reactivity
Abstract Despite decades of research examining diathesis-stress models of emotional disorders, it remains unclear whether dysfunctional attitudes interact with stressful experiences to shape affect on a daily basis and, if so, how clinical and genetic factors influence these associations. To address these issues, we conducted a multi-level daily diary study that examined how dysfunctional attitudes and stressful events relate to daily fluctuations in negative and positive affect in 104 young adults. Given evidence that clinical and genetic factors underlie stress sensitivity, we also examined how daily affect is i...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 31, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Parental Depression Risk and Reduced Physiological Responses During a Valence Identification Task
Abstract Examining pupillary motility as a psychophysiological measure of cognitive-affective processing, the current study aimed to elucidate psychophysiological correlates of early resilience to parental depression risk. Forty-one never-depressed female college students were categorized based on presence or absence of parental depression history. Participants completed an emotional valence identification task, while pupil data were gathered to examine whether correlates consistent with negative potentiated processing and emotion context insensitivity might precede first onsets. Instead, results showed that havin...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 23, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Intolerance of Uncertainty in Relation to Motives for Alcohol Use
Abstract Various anxiety-related risk factors have been proposed to contribute to the development of drinking motives. However, little is known about how intolerance of uncertainty (IU), defined as a cognitive bias to interpret ambiguity in a negative fashion, relates to motives for alcohol use. IU, as measured by the IUS-12, is comprised of prospective IU (cognitive perceptions of future uncertainty as threatening) and inhibitory IU (apprehension due to uncertainty). The current study sought to test whether IU was associated with the various motives for alcohol use, namely coping and conformity motives, and to in...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 23, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Social Problem Solving Under Assault: Understanding the Impact of Sexual Assault on the Relation Between Social Problem Solving and Suicidal Risk in Female College Students
Abstract The present study sought to examine how social problem solving and sexual assault are involved in suicidal risk in a sample of 221 female college students. Specifically, we were interested to examine whether sexual assault may play an additive as well as interactive role in the prediction of suicidal risk (viz., hopelessness and suicidal behaviors) above and beyond social problem solving. Results from regression analyses indicated that deficits in social problem solving, especially low positive problem orientation, and sexual assault were important and unique predictors of suicidal risk in female students...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 21, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Schemas Activated in Sexual Context: A Comparative Study with Homosexual and Heterosexual Men and Women, With and Without Sexual Problems
Abstract The role of cognitive schemas on sexual functioning has been studied in samples of heterosexual men and women. However, there are no published studies on the impact of cognitive schemas on sexual functioning in gay men or lesbian women. The current study analyzed the differences in cognitive schemas associated with negative sexual events in a sample of heterosexual and homosexual men and women, with and without sexual problems. A total of 168 women and 148 men completed a web-survey. Participants answered questions about self-perceived sexual problems, and completed the Questionnaire of Cognitive Schemas ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 14, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Stress-Related Changes in Attentional Bias to Social Threat in Young Adults: Psychobiological Associations with the Early Family Environment
This study investigated the association of chronic childhood stress exposure with acute stress-related attentional alterations that have been previously linked to vulnerability to mental and physical illness in early adulthood. Participants were randomized in a crossover design to complete both a mild laboratory social stress task and a computerized task assessing attentional bias to socially threatening words. Salivary cortisol was measured throughout the study. Exposure to acute laboratory stress altered attentional processing, and this relationship was moderated by chronic childhood stress exposure. Also, a positive ass...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 9, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research