Of Passions and Positive Spontaneous Thoughts
Abstract Despite the abundance of research on negative intrusive thoughts, far less is known about their positive counterparts. In two studies, we explored how positive spontaneous thoughts are related to people’s favorite activities (i.e., their passions, Vallerand et al. in J Pers Soc Psychol 85(4):756–767. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.85.4.756, 2003), and how passions and associated thoughts contribute to mental health. In Study 1, 170 participants reported on the valence and frequency of the spontaneous thoughts they tend to have about several activities. Harmonious and obsessive passion both predicted mo...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 3, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotional Reactivity to Personally-Relevant and Standardized Sounds in Borderline Personality Disorder
Abstract Theoretical conceptualizations highlight emotional reactivity as a core problem for borderline personality disorder (BPD); however, empirical work investigating emotional reactivity in BPD has produced mixed and inconclusive findings. The current study aimed to clarify emotional reactivity in adults diagnosed with BPD (N = 22) and healthy controls (HCs; N = 31) using a controlled, laboratory experiment that assessed multiple indices of emotional reactivity (i.e., subjective, psychophysiological, and facial expressive) in response to auditory stimuli (i.e., standardized vs. personally-r...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 3, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Predictive Importance of Antenatal Depressive Rumination and Worrying for Maternal–Foetal Attachment and Maternal Well-Being
Abstract Rumination and worrying are relevant to the onset and maintenance of depression and anxiety. Yet, it is unclear, whether depressive rumination and worrying are predictive for depressive and anxious symptomatology during pregnancy. Likewise, the potential role of depressive rumination and worrying for maternal–foetal attachment has been rarely explored. In the present longitudinal study, N = 215 pregnant women were assessed within the first 4 months of pregnancy and again in the last 4 months of pregnancy. Using regression analysis, associations between worrying and depressive rum...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Addressing Self-Control Cognitions in the Treatment of Trichotillomania: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Cognitive Therapy to Behaviour Therapy
Abstract People with trichotillomania often have persistent negative beliefs about giving into one’s habit. Central in the present study was the hypothesis that the follow-up effects of cognitive therapy (CT), in which these negative beliefs are directly addressed, are better compared to the follow-up effects of behaviour therapy (BT). Fifty-six trichotillomania patients were randomly assigned to either six sessions CT or BT. Forty-eight completed their treatment. Follow-up measurements took place after a 3 months treatment-free period, and at 12 and 24 months. CT and BT both resulted in clear redu...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (IERQ): Scale Development and Psychometric Characteristics
Abstract Despite the popularity of emotion regulation in the contemporary literature, research has almost exclusively focused on intrapersonal processes, whereas much less attention has been placed on interpersonal emotion regulation processes. In order to encourage research on interpersonal emotion regulation, we present a series of four studies to develop the Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (IERQ). The final scale consists of 20 items with 4 factors containing five items each. The four factors are: Enhancing Positive Affect; Perspective Taking; Soothing; and Social Modeling. The scale shows excell...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 30, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Development of the Frequency of Suicidal Ideation Inventory: Evidence for the Validity and Reliability of a Brief Measure of Suicidal Ideation Frequency in a College Student Population
Abstract The present research focused on the development of a brief measure of suicidal ideation frequency, namely, the Frequency of Suicidal Ideation Inventory (FSII). Study 1 examined the latent structure of the FSII in a sample of 399 US college students. Results of exploratory factor analysis indicated a one-factor solution accounting for 86.96 % of the variance. Study 2 provided support for the internal reliability of the FSII across four different international samples (viz., US, Turkey, Hungary, and China). Within the US sample, the FSII was found to possess good 6-week test–retest reliability. M...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 29, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Impulsivity, Rejection Sensitivity, and Reactions to Stressors in Borderline Personality Disorder
Abstract This research investigated baseline impulsivity, rejection sensitivity, and reactions to stressors in individuals with borderline personality disorder compared to healthy individuals and those with avoidant personality disorder . The borderline group showed greater impulsivity than the avoidant and healthy groups both in a delay-discounting task with real monetary rewards and in self-reported reactions to stressors; moreover, these findings could not be explained by co-occurring substance use disorders. Distress reactions to stressors were equally elevated in both personality disorder groups (relative ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 20, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Impact of Thought Speed and Variability on Psychological State and Threat Perception: Further Exploration of the Theory of Mental Motion
Abstract Thought speed and variability are purportedly common features of specific psychological states, such as mania and anxiety. The present study explored the independent and combinational influence of these variables upon condition-specific symptoms and affective state, as proposed by Pronin and Jacobs’ (Perspect Psychol Sci, 3:461–485, 2008) theory of mental motion. A general population sample was recruited online (N = 263). Participants completed a thought speed and variability manipulation task, inducing a combination of fast/slow and varied/repetitive thought. Change in mania and anx...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions Increases Goal-Attainment in Individuals with Mild to Moderate Depression
Abstract Depression is associated with difficulties initiating and performing goal-directed behavior. In healthy participants, the self-regulation strategy of mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII) has been demonstrated to facilitate goal-directed behavior. We investigated whether people with depression benefit from using MCII in attaining their goals and whether MCII attenuates symptoms of depression. Forty-seven participants with depression were randomly assigned to a MCII-condition or a waiting-control-condition. Participants in the MCII-condition performed MCII on one depression-relevant goal...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 13, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Effect of Negative, Positive, and Neutral Self-imagery on Symptoms and Processes in Social Anxiety Disorder
Abstract Cognitive models of social anxiety disorder suggest that negative self-images maintain social fears despite repeated exposure to benign social situations. An accumulating body of evidence supports this notion, and preliminary data indicates that modifying self-imagery can potentially reduce fears of negative evaluation in socially anxious individuals. The present study examined the effects of negative, positive, and neutral self-imagery during a speech task in 49 clinically diagnosed and 41 non-clinical participants. The impact of self-imagery on various symptoms and both cognitive and attentional process...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Changes in Anxiety Sensitivity Following Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder
Abstract The current study examined changes in anxiety sensitivity following cognitive behavior therapy as a predictor of treatment outcome in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and patients with panic disorder (PD). One-hundred ninety-seven patients with a principal diagnosis of SAD (n = 108) or PD (n = 89) completed the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Reiss et al in Behav Res Ther 24:1–8, 1986), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond and Lovibond in Behav Res Ther 33:335–343, 1995), Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN; Connor et al in Br J Psychiatry 176:379–...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Is Experiential Avoidance a Mediating, Moderating, Independent, Overlapping, or Proxy Risk Factor in the Onset, Relapse and Maintenance of Depressive Disorders?
Abstract Our study aim was to investigate how experiential avoidance ‘works together’ with bordering psychological constructs (i.e., rumination, worry and neuroticism) in predicting the onset, relapse and maintenance of depressive disorders. We performed a longitudinal cohort study with repeated assessments after 2 and 4 years in a sample of 737 persons with a 6-month recency dysthymic and/or major depressive disorder, a sample of 1150 remitted persons with a history of previous depressive disorders; and a sample of 626 persons with no 6-month recency depressive or anxiety disorders and no previou...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Self-Punishment as a Maladaptive Thought Control Strategy Mediates the Relationship Between Beliefs About Thoughts and Repugnant Obsessions
Abstract Cognitive-behavioral models of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) propose that erroneous beliefs about the importance and need to control thoughts lead individuals with OCD to overuse maladaptive thought control strategies such as worry and self-punishment. These strategies are thought to backfire, leading to obsessional symptoms. Whereas previous studies have examined predictors of the use of thought control strategies, none have investigated these strategies as mediators in the prediction of OCD symptom severity. An additional gap in the literature is the lack of attention to OCD symptom dimensio...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 24, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Effects of Attention Training on Health Anxiety: An Experimental Investigation
Abstract According to cognitive-behavioural theories, attentional biases, especially increased symptom-focused attention, are crucial for the maintenance of health anxiety. Therefore, the attention training technique (ATT) seems to be a promising approach in reducing body-focused attention and hypochondriacal fears in people with high health anxiety. However, previous research has never implemented ATT on its own but always in combination with psychoeducation. The present study experimentally investigates the isolated impact of ATT on self-reported body-focused attention, health anxiety, and attentional bias towar...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Childhood Maltreatment Exposure and Disruptions in Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Pathway to Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology
We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment an...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 12, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Impact of Comorbid Depressive Disorders on Subjective and Physiological Responses to Emotion in Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Abstract Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and unipolar depressive disorders (UDD) have been shown to differ from each other in dimensions of affective functioning despite their high rates of comorbidity. We showed emotional film clips to a community sample (n = 170) with GAD, GAD with secondary UDD, or no diagnosis. Groups had comparable subjective responses to the clips, but the GAD group had significantly lower heart rate variability (HRV) during fear and after sadness, compared to controls. While HRV in the GAD and control groups rose in response to the sadness and happiness clips, it returned to ba...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 12, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Negative Thoughts and Metacognitions in Anxious Children Following CBT
Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate reductions in negative automatic thoughts and metacognitive beliefs as predictors of treatment gains in CBT for childhood anxiety disorders. A sample of 44 clinically anxious children between 7 and 12 years of age, who underwent CBT, completed questionnaires assessing negative thinking, metacognitive beliefs and processes, and anxiety symptoms before, after, and 6 months following treatment. Results indicated that negative thoughts and metacognitions decreased equally during the treatment period. Furthermore, metacognitions continued to decrease during t...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

An Interpersonal CBT Framework for Involving Relatives in Interventions for Psychosis: Evidence Base and Clinical Implications
Abstract Working with families in psychosis improves outcomes and is cost effective. However, implementation is poor, partly due to lack of a clear theoretical framework. This paper presents an interpersonal framework for extending the more familiar cognitive behavioral therapy model of psychosis to include the role of relatives’ behavior in the process of recovery. A summary of the framework is presented, and the evidence to support each link is reviewed in detail. Limitations of the framework are discussed and further research opportunities highlighted. Clinical implications and a case example are describe...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Comparison of Single-Session Positive Reappraisal, Cognitive Restructuring and Supportive Counselling for Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes
This study compared a single-session intervention of positive reappraisal to cognitive restructuring and supportive counselling to examine whether a brief positive reappraisal intervention could significantly increase positive reappraisal coping and positive emotion and lead to reductions in anxiety and depression. Inclusion criteria were: aged 60 years or older, diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, cognitively intact, and English language proficiency. 81 participants were randomly allocated to a condition and self-report measures of positive reappraisal, emotion, anxiety and depression were compared pre-intervention and a...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Unconscious Learning of Cognitive Structures with Emotional Components: Implications for Cognitive Behavior Psychotherapies
Abstract One hypothesized explanation for the resistance to change of cognitive mechanisms associated with dysfunctional emotion, is the fact that these mechanisms are sometimes unconscious. Thus, several researchers and practitioners with a cognitive approach to the clinical field view learning of unconscious cognition as a topic that must be explored in order to improve the theories and the techniques of cognitive behavior therapies (CBTs). However, little empirical research has been done for clarifying whether emotionally-loaded cognitive structures (e.g., cognitive schema) can be acquired in the absence of awa...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 9, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Trait and Daily Emotion Regulation in Social Anxiety Disorder
Abstract Emotion regulation strategies vary widely in use and effectiveness across psychological diagnostic categories. However, little data exists on (1) the use of these strategies in social anxiety disorder (SAD), and (2) how trait measures compare with actual daily use of emotion regulation strategies. We collected trait and daily assessments of emotion suppression, cognitive reappraisal, and positive and negative emotions from 40 adults with SAD and 39 matched healthy controls. Participants with SAD reported greater trait suppression and less cognitive reappraisal than healthy controls, and exhibited this sam...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Distinct Roles of Emotion Reactivity and Regulation in Depressive and Manic Symptoms Among Euthymic Patients
Abstract Investigating differences in the ways that people react to mood-evoking stimuli and regulate subsequent emotions may help to elucidate important mechanisms underlying depressed or hypomanic mood states. Euthymic young adults with bipolar disorder (n = 23) or depression (n = 21) were recruited for a study of emotion and mood. Two mood inductions assessed for differences in mood reactivity. Participants completed measures of current symptoms and emotion regulation strategies. Maladaptive (B = 0.42, p = .021) and adaptive (B = −0.26, p = .011)...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Feeling Without Thinking? Anger Provocation Task Predicts Impaired Cognitive Performance in Bipolar Disorder but not Major Depression or Healthy Adults
Abstract Elevated anger and impairments in executive functioning are prominent features of bipolar disorder (BD). Given that anger has been found to interfere with some aspects of cognition in healthy individuals, it is possible that heightened anger could compromise cognitive processing even more substantially among individuals with BD. Despite the important clinical and psychosocial implications of such an effect, the precise consequences of anger for cognition in BD are not well understood. To address this, the present study employed a validated anger provocation task and examined its impact on performance of a...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem in Previously and Never Depressed Individuals: Baseline Differences and Reactivity to Rumination
Abstract In contrast to cognitive theories that emphasize negative self-views in depression, a recent study demonstrated that previously depressed individuals have higher implicit self-esteem (SE) than never depressed controls (Franck et al. in Cogn Emot 22(8):1588–1599, 2008). The present study was designed to extend this past work by measuring both implicit and explicit SE among previously and never depressed individuals and testing whether a rumination manipulation impacts SE more strongly among individuals with past depression. Previously (n = 28) and never depressed (n = 33) particip...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Shared Cognitive Features of Posttraumatic Cognitions and Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms
This study examined intolerance of uncertainty, inflated responsibility, and a global measure of posttraumatic cognitions as potential shared cognitive constructs that moderate distress associated with OC symptoms. A total of 211 undergraduate students reporting significant trauma histories participated. All participants completed measures of obsessive–compulsive symptoms and beliefs, as well as posttraumatic cognitions. Results indicated that posttraumatic cognitions moderated the relationship between inflated responsibility and intolerance of uncertainty, which in turn predicted all domains of obsessive–compu...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Adolescent Substance Use & Psychopathology: Interactive Effects of Cortisol Reactivity and Emotion Regulation
Abstract How are emotional processes associated with the increased rates of substance use and psychological disorders commonly observed during adolescence? An index of emotion-related physiological arousal—cortisol reactivity—and subjective emotion regulation have both been independently linked to substance use and psychological difficulties among youth. The current study (N = 134 adolescents) sought to elucidate the interactive effects of cortisol reactivity following a stressful parent–child interaction task and self-reported emotion regulation ability on adolescents’ substance ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Longitudinal Study of Emotional Distress Intolerance and Psychopathology Following Exposure to a Potentially Traumatic Event in a Community Sample
This study focused on better understanding the association between anxiety sensitivity (AS), distress tolerance (DT), and psychopathology, including posttraumatic stress, depression, panic and suicidality, in the aftermath of a potentially traumatizing event. A community-based sample of 151 adults exposed to the Mount Carmel Forest Fire Disaster were assessed within 30-days of exposure (T1) and then at 3- (T2) and 6-month (T3) follow-up intervals. At T1, AS, DT, and psychopathology symptoms loaded on a single common latent factor reflecting Emotional Avoidance and Distress; whereas by T2 AS-DT and psychopathology symptoms ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Integrating Positive and Clinical Psychology: Viewing Human Functioning as Continua from Positive to Negative Can Benefit Clinical Assessment, Interventions and Understandings of Resilience
Abstract In this review we argue in favour of further integration between the disciplines of positive and clinical psychology. We argue that most of the constructs studied by both positive and clinical psychology exist on continua ranging from positive to negative (e.g., gratitude to ingratitude, anxiety to calmness) and so it is meaningless to speak of one or other field studying the “positive” or the “negative”. However, we highlight historical and cultural factors which have led positive and clinical psychologies to focus on different constructs; thus the difference between the fields is...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Tracking the Emotional Highs but Missing the Lows: Hypomania Risk is Associated With Positively Biased Empathic Inference
Abstract Empathy plays a vital role in emotional and social functioning. Research suggests that empathy may be disrupted in disorders of negative emotion (e.g., depression, anxiety), though less work has examined how empathy is impacted in disorders of positive emotion (e.g., mania), which are associated with positive biases in emotion experience and perception. The present research explored how variation in self-reported hypomania risk was associated with performance on an objective empathic accuracy task with real-world targets. Risk for hypomania was associated with heightened moment-by-moment detection of emot...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotional Reactivity and Internalizing Symptoms: Moderating Role of Emotion Regulation
Abstract Emotion dysregulation has been associated with increases in many forms of psychopathology in adolescents and adults. The development of effective emotion regulation skills is important during adolescence, especially as stressful life events increase during this time. The current study examined two emotion regulation strategies, cognitive reappraisal and affective suppression, in interaction with self-report and biological measures of emotional reactivity as predictors of internalizing symptoms. A community sample of adolescents (n = 127), at an age of risk for depression and anxiety, completed s...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Interactive Effects of the Capability for Suicide and Major Depressive Episodes on Suicidal Behavior in a Military Sample
This study examined whether major depressive episodes (MDEs) may be particularly relevant to suicidal behavior when considered in the context of AC. History of MDEs, AC, and suicide attempt history were examined in a large (n = 3377) sample of military members. Data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression. Results indicated that among individuals with high AC, the number of MDEs was significantly, positively associated with number of previous suicide attempts; MDEs were not significantly related to suicide attempt history among individuals with low AC. Findings held in the presence of robust covariat...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Borderline Personality Traits Predict Poorer Functioning During Partial Hospitalization: The Mediating Role of Depressive Symptomatology
This study has important implications for treatment of BPD and suggests that targeting depressive symptoms in short-term settings may be crucial in acute stabilization. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Always Approach the Bright Side of Life: A General Positivity Training Reduces Stress Reactions in Vulnerable Individuals
Abstract Emotional disorders are characterized by cognitive biases towards negative stimuli, and a lack of biases towards positive ones. Therefore, we developed a cognitive bias modification training, modifying approach-avoidance tendencies to diverse emotional pictures. In Study 1, a negative training (pull negative, push positive pictures) was compared to a positive training (vice versa) in 141 students. The pre-existing positivity bias remained after positive training, but reversed into a negativity bias after negative training. This effect transferred to an attentional bias. The training affected neither mood ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Metacognitive Model of Anxiety in Children: Towards a Reliable and Valid Measure
Abstract Recent research has extended the metacognitive model of adult psychopathology to childhood anxiety, however the results have been confounded by poor comprehension of the Metacognitions Questionnaire for Children (MCQ-C) amongst 7–8 year olds. The aim of this study was to improve comprehension of the MCQ-C, to enable reliable and valid evaluation of the metacognitive model of anxiety in children. Poorly comprehended items of the MCQ-C were revised to the appropriate reading level and pilot tested with 7–8 year olds. One hundred and eighty seven children aged 7–12 years then...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Spontaneous Emotion Regulation in Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa
Abstract The aim of the current study was to examine the usage of spontaneous emotion regulation in eating disorders (ED). After watching a sad film clip, women with anorexia nervosa (n = 42), bulimia nervosa (n = 40), and a non-ED control group (n = 41) indicated on visual analogue scales to what extent they had used emotional acceptance, reappraisal, rumination and suppression to cope with their emotions during the film clip. Results revealed no differences between the groups with regard to levels of reappraisal. However, both ED groups used rumination and suppression to a greater e...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Anxious but Thoroughly Informed? No Jumping-to-Conclusions Bias in Social Anxiety Disorder
This study tested whether SAD is associated with jumping-to-conclusions in neutral and socially threatening situations. Sixty participants with SAD and 56 healthy controls completed a beads-task and a Social Beads-Task (SBT) with neutral, threat-relevant, and self-relevant situations. Dependent variables were draws to decision (DTD) and certainty about the decision. In the beads-task, participants with SAD showed more DTD than controls. In the SBT, all participants drew fewer beads in threat- and self-relevant situations than in neutral scenarios. Participants with SAD reported higher certainty regarding their decision in ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Self-Focused Attention and Symptoms Across Menstrual Cycle Phases in Women With and Without Premenstrual Disorders
Abstract Premenstrual disorders, which include premenstrual dysphoric disorder and premenstrual syndrome involve cyclically occurring affective, behavioral, and physical symptoms. Despite high comorbidity rates and symptom overlap with mood and anxiety disorders, there has been a lack of research investigating psychological constructs that contribute to etiology and/or maintenance of premenstrual disorders. The current study hypothesized that self-focused attention (SFA) on emotional and somatic symptoms may contribute to premenstrual distress. Participants were 61 women, including 29 women with a premenstrual dis...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Diagnostic and Symptom-Based Predictors of Emotional Processing in Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder: An Event-Related Potential Study
Abstract The delineation of specific versus overlapping mechanisms in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) could shed light on the integrity of these diagnostic categories. For example, negative emotion generation is one mechanism that may be especially relevant to both disorders. Emotional processing abnormalities were examined among 97 outpatients with GAD or MDD and 25 healthy adults, using the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential that is larger for emotional versus neutral stimuli. GAD and MDD were also assessed dimensionally across all participants. Both ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Support Systems: How Post-Deployment Support Impacts Suicide Risk Factors in the United States Army National Guard
Abstract Suicide rates within the military have continued to rise in recent years, resulting in re-doubled efforts to understand and remedy this trend. In an attempt to clarify unique pathways to suicide risk in this population, the current study examined the relationship between length of time since most recent deployment and several suicide risk factors (hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and resolved plans and preparations). Furthermore, this study examined the moderating influence of post-deployment social support in the prediction of suicide risk. Results indicated that the interaction of time since deployment ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Social Anxiety and Empathy for Social Pain
We examined whether dispositional social anxiety influenced empathy for individuals who experience aversive social events. Participants (N = 121) were randomly assigned to an experimental condition designed to increase state anxiety via social threat or to a control condition. They then observed videos of target individuals discussing high school events in which they were either socially included or excluded. Both participants and targets rated the emotions the targets felt when discussing those situations. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that social anxiety was associated with greater accuracy for targets&...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Thwarted Belongingness Mediates the Relationship Between Fear of Negative Evaluation and Suicidal Ideation
Abstract Fear of negative evaluation has been documented as a mechanism that explains variations in feelings of belongingness. According to the interpersonal theory of suicide (Joiner 2005), feelings of thwarted belongingness, that one does not belong, can significantly increase desire and risk for suicide. We proposed that differences in thwarted belongingness may explain variations in suicidal ideation and behavior as a function of levels of fear of negative evaluation. This hypothesis was tested by examining self-reported fears of negative evaluation, thwarted belongingness, and suicidal ideation in 107 young a...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Linking Sleep Disturbance and Maladaptive Repetitive Thought: The Role of Executive Function
Abstract Although sleep disturbance has been linked to maladaptive repetitive thought, a process commonly observed in anxiety and related disorders, the mechanism that may account for this association has not been fully elucidated. The current study used structural equation modeling to evaluate the relationship between sleep disturbance and maladaptive repetitive thought in a large sample (n = 341) to examine whether executive function partially accounts for this relationship. Consistent with predictions, results revealed that executive function accounted for the relationship between sleep disturbance an...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Shared and Distinct Cognitive/Affective Mechanisms in Intrusive Cognition: An Examination of Worry and Obsessions
Abstract Generalized anxiety disorder and obsessive–compulsive disorder are defined by chronic intrusive thoughts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive (attentional control) and motivational (negative urgency) mechanisms potentially underlying worry and obsessions. Participants (N = 526) completed an online questionnaire battery consisting of self-report measures of worry, OCD symptoms, attentional control (AC), negative urgency (NU), and trait negative affect. After controlling for trait negative affect, self-reported AC was negatively related to worry, r...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 14, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

True and False Memories in Social Anxiety Disorder: Effects of Speech Anticipation and Social Content
Abstract Cognitive paradigms allow clinical psychologists to examine memory processes, such as false memory production, to better understand psychopathology. The current study uses the Deese–Roediger–McDermott task to investigate true and false memories in a sample with social anxiety disorder (n = 37) compared to a non-anxious control group (n = 40) before and after a three-day delay following list presentation. Additionally, the study examines anticipation of a social stressor and stimuli content (social versus nonsocial) as moderators of memory effects. Contrary to hypotheses, re...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Perfectionism as a Predictor of Suicidal Risk in Turkish College Students: Does Loneliness Contribute to Further Risk?
Abstract In the present study, we examined perfectionism and loneliness as predictors of suicidal risk (viz., depressive symptoms & suicide ideation) in a sample of 288 (170 females and 118 males) Turkish college students. Results of conducting hierarchical regression analyses indicated that certain dimensions of perfectionism, namely, doubts about actions and parental criticism, accounted for significant variance in both depressive symptoms and suicide ideation. The inclusion of loneliness as a predictor was found to predict additional unique variance in both suicidal risk measures, beyond what was accounted ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Memory and Interpretation Biases, Difficulties with Emotion Regulation, and Disordered Eating in Young Women
Abstract Disordered eating and difficulties with emotion regulation have shown strong associations but there has been little attention paid to possible mediators that would explain this relationship. In depression and anxiety, negative memory and interpretation biases are implicated in the onset and maintenance of these disorders, however, little is known about whether these biases also exist in eating disorders, and if they are related to difficulties with emotion regulation. Females (n = 181) aged 17–26 years, completed self-report measures of disordered eating and behaviours, difficulties i...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Combining tDCS and Working Memory Training to Down Regulate State Rumination: A Single-Session Double Blind Sham-Controlled Trial
This study explored whether single session anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and/or working memory training can transiently ameliorate working memory and down regulate state rumination. Sixty-six participants were randomly allocated to three conditions: (1) control training + tDCS, (2) working memory training + sham tDCS and (3) working memory training + tDCS. Before and after manipulation participants performed working memory tasks and state rumination was measured with self-report and heart rate variability. Participants who r...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Socratic Method in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: A Narrative Review
The objective of this paper is to review the role of the Socratic Method in CBT in four stages. First, a review of the literature describes how the Socratic Method is applied and defined within CBT, with assumptions regarding its proposed benefits identified. Second, a review of empirical literature demonstrates that multiple challenges to the evaluation of the Socratic Method exist and that no direct evidence supports the premise that it is beneficial in CBT. Evidence is examined which may suggest why the Socratic Method could be beneficial in therapy. Finally, the hypothesised function of the Socratic Method within thera...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 24, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Difficulties with Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology Interact to Predict Early Smoking Cessation Lapse
Abstract There is little knowledge about how emotion regulation difficulties interplay with psychopathology in terms of smoking cessation. Participants (n = 250; 53.2 % female, M age  = 39.5, SD = 13.85) were community-recruited daily smokers (≥8 cigarettes per day) who self-reported motivation to quit smoking; 38.8 % of the sample met criteria for a current (past 12-month) psychological disorder. Emotion regulation deficits were assessed pre-quit using the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer in J Psychopa...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Attention Control and Attention to Emotional Stimuli in Anxious Children Before and After Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
This study investigated attention control and attentional bias for emotional stimuli in children with anxiety disorders, compared with disorder-free children. Furthermore, it examined the effect of individual cognitive behavioral therapy on these attentional variables in anxious children. Participants included 22 anxious and 20 control children (aged 7–12 years; 50 % female). Attention control was measured using a partial report-by-color task based on the theory of visual attention, which assesses ability to focus on task-relevant information and resist distraction by non-emotional task-irrelevant informati...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research